Working with a hand router on wooduroki
Article printed from http://www.multicut.ru.
A router is a tool for machining lumber that performs many rotations at high speed. There are both professional equipment, such as milling and engraving machines, and for self-treatment, requiring certain skills and knowledge. Detailed instructions with a training video on the website will help to perform quality woodworking operations with the electric hand router.
What is a milling machine and what is it for?
It is united by a platform, or base, which can move along guides and be fixed in a given position.
The platform is used to set the depth of cut. On the sides there are two handles, which hold the machine in the desired position or feed the workpiece.
A milling machine is used for cutting parts made of different materials:
- Solid wood;
- Particleboard, including laminated particleboard Particleboard;
- Aluminum, duralumin;
- Soft plastic.
Different types of material processing can be performed with a hand router. These include the following operations:
- Milling of grooves, slots, grooves and other grooves in various forms;
- Edge profiling. creating shaped (shaped) surfaces, milling quarters;
- Milling of special structural elements. recesses for hinges, locks, handles, studs and slots for them;
- Trimming of curved and complex edges of furniture parts or special elements.
To ensure accuracy and cleanness of cut there are a lot of adjustments and controls in the design of the milling machine. They are used to make the following
- Changing shaft speed;
- Setting the depth of plunge of the cutting body;
- Depth presetting for rapid changeover.
Important! For batch production of large quantities of products, the hand router is not suitable. It is better to use it only for household purposes or in small workshops busy with small custom productions.
Main types of tools
End milling cutters with shank diameter of 6, 8 or 12 mm are used for milling work.
They are sold by the piece or in sets, which include the most popular types of cutters.
There are sets with 7 mm shanks, but it is difficult to find a collet for them. Depending on purpose and form of cut, edge milling cutters can be edge or groove milling cutters. Edge cutters include:
A common feature of edge milling cutters is the presence of a bearing that acts as a stop. The key cutters are grooving cutters:
Edge milling cutters do not have thrust bearings and allow cutting both on edges and on the plate. There are straight milling cutters with bearing in the upper part, just above the cutting edges. Usually its diameter corresponds to the size of the cutting part, which allows you to cut curved shapes according to the template. Such milling cutters are called overrunning milling cutters. They are not included in standard kits; if necessary, they must be purchased separately. Almost all cutters are available in several sizes. In order to make a hole of required size it is necessary to choose a cutter with appropriate diameter or profile.
Copying rings and templates
Copying bush for router bits is a device with a protruding edge that slides along the template and thus guides the router bits in the required direction. Such a ring can be fixed on the router foot in different ways: screwed down with screws, screwed into a threaded hole, inserted by special tendrils into holes in the foot of the tool.
Calculation of milling cutter displacement when using copying bush
The diameters of the copying ring and the tool used should have close values, but it is important that the ring does not touch the cutting part of the cutter. If the diameter of the ring exceeds the lateral size of the coping cutter, such template, to compensate for the difference between its size and the diameter of the tool, must not exceed the size of the workpiece to be machined.
The router template, made in the form of a ring, can be fastened to a workpiece made of wood by means of double-sided tape and clamps, with which both parts are pressed to the work table. After milling along the template, check that the ring is pressed firmly against the edge of the template during the milling operation.
Elongated hole drilling with template and copying ring
Routing templates can be used not only for the entire edge of the workpiece, but also for rounding off the corners. Using such a template for the router, it is possible to make roundings of various radii on the corners of the woodwork being milled.
The templates used to work with a hand router can be equipped with a bearing or a ring. In the latter case, the following conditions must be met: the ring must exactly match the diameter of the cutter or the design of the device must be provided with stops that allow to move the template from the edge of the workpiece and thus eliminate the difference between the radii of the tool and the ring.
With the help of templates, which can also be adjustable, you can not only mill the edges of the machined wood product, but also create shaped grooves on its surface. In addition, if you make a template of appropriate design, which is not too difficult, with it you can quickly and accurately cut grooves for door hinges.
A few more tips for choosing handheld milling devices
If you plan to engage in woodcarving router in your home workshop, then, as mentioned above, you can opt for less powerful devices, which are cheaper, but can provide the entire list of functions you need. In this case, it is better to choose those models that have a variable speed option for the tool being used. When doing so, pay attention to the fact that the wheel, which provides such adjustment, must be of the discrete type and move with some force, not too freely.
power tools whose bottom end of the collet does not protrude from the bed are better suited for determining the milling depth. When you are shown the cutter in a store, make sure that the collet ensures quick and reliable fixation of the tool being used.
Inexpensive routers have insufficiently elastic bellows, which do not protect the telescopic columns from dust
Ergonomics of the chosen power tool should also attract your special attention, because it is much more convenient and safer to work with a hand router, in the design of which everything has been thought out in detail. In the concept of “ergonomics hand router” includes not only the convenience of his handles and the presence of lighting, but also the convenience of the location of the vacuum cleaner and even such a detail as the length of the cord.
If the hand router that you choose includes additional attachments, then you should check how securely they are fixed to the working head of the power tool. In case you plan to work with the cutter without additional devices, for such purposes it is better to choose models that are able to provide maximum visibility of the zone of processing. The milling machine that suits you in terms of its technical characteristics and functionality, you should always turn it on to assess how strong are the vibrations and noise generated during its work.
The rubber grips add comfort to your work
Reading reviews of handheld milling devices, you may encounter the opinion that professional power tools are inherently of higher quality than household models. Meanwhile, as practice shows, and domestic models of milling machines can be very qualitative, and the fact that the power tool belongs to the professional series, is not an indicator of the high level of its characteristics. In this case, everything depends on the specific manufacturer (before buying, it is advisable to study the rating of the respective brands).
If we talk about the main signs by which you can easily distinguish the manual milling machine of the professional level, they should include:
- Availability of a large number of auxiliary devices in the standard delivery set of the milling machine;
- The use in the construction of the cutter is not polymer, but metal bushings;
- installation of bearing units in metal sleeves, in which even after numerous cycles of heating and cooling does not appear backlash.
Professional tools ensure precise milling and comfortable operation
Professional routers, thanks to the features of their design, can work for several hours in a row, while household models should be allowed to cool down for the same length of time after a short period of their use (15 minutes on average).
The question of how to choose a router is very important. However, it is no less important to know how to work with a router to get the desired results. If you have never dealt with a similar power tool before, it is not enough just to get acquainted with the theoretical part of such a question, it is also advisable to watch video lessons on the subject.
Below we bring to your attention a selection of excellent video lessons on working with the hand router in the conditions of the home workshop.
How to make a router table for a hand router with his own hands
Any master can independently make a table for a hand router, video materials and ready-made drawings in the network are enough for even a novice to cope with this task.
- Wooden bars with a square cross-section (4 pcs.);
- plywood and chipboard;
- fasteners (hinges, bolts, nuts, etc.).п.);
- metal profile;
- 6 mm thick steel plate;
- rails made of aluminum;
- movable carriage-support, which will serve as a guide;
The router table for the hand router can be purchased as part of the tool or made by your own hands
Instructions for making a table for a hand router with their own hands
For the table you will definitely need a drawing showing the position of parts and their sizes. From bars and scraps of chipboard of the appropriate size are twisted supports, which will serve as legs for the table. To increase the rigidity of the construction, you need to horizontally install connecting panels of plywood. On the right in the side of the table should be cut a hole, where the start button on the router will be derived.
To make the table top, we need to take chipboard. This part should be liftable, so you need to install the hinges. You will also need to make an additional support base. The base of the table for the hand router is better to be made of plywood sheet, 15 mm thick. Next, you need to cut a groove in the tabletop, intended for the guides of the movable stop. Here you should install a metal profile. To move the workpiece conveniently along the table during work, it is desirable to use a mobile support carriage. The saw guide can be used instead.
To make the longitudinal stop you need to take particle board. To ensure the mobility of this element should be cut perpendicular grooves in the upper part of the stop, and then it should be attached to the table top with the clamps. A small groove must be cut out in the middle. It will be used to dispose of chips and other particles that are formed during the milling process.
Construction diagram of a typical router table for a hand router
Then you need to assemble a box made of thin plywood with a hole designed for connecting a vacuum cleaner with a hose. This machine will pick up chips and dust. The box is fixed behind the perpendicular stop. After that the metal plate thickness of 6 mm is screwed to the table top so that their levels coincide. This is where the router will be set up.
Note! Fixing the plate, you need to be careful that its edges do not protrude above the tabletop. Otherwise the wooden workpieces will cling to them.
The tool is attached to the bottom of the plate by the aluminum base plate. For fixation you can use screws, for which you must make holes in advance. This method of fixation is convenient for changing nozzles and allows you to save the milling depth. Using a car jack, construct an elevator for the router. Use it to control the height. Remove the handles from the cutter and in their place screw the aluminum guides, which must then be connected to the jack.
Getting ready to work
Wood products can be created by milling. Carved railings, furniture fronts, decorative elements, all kinds of handicrafts and souvenirs. Possibilities of this tool are limited only by skill and imagination of the master. There are a number of basic elements that any beginner should master. Mastering the following cutting techniques makes it possible to achieve complex tasks by using and combining them.
If it is necessary to create a workpiece with a groove that begins from the edge, it is necessary to position the cutter so that the knife protrudes over the edge of the wood. After that you should install the cutting element and only then start the engine. After edging the workpiece, lift the blade, loosen its safety catch and turn off the power to the unit.
Blank grooves are created in the same way, the only difference is that the cutting element is installed not at the edge of the piece, but at the point of the beginning of the groove.
If the depth of the required groove exceeds 5 mm, it is recommended to work in several stages, increasing the digging depth each time, especially when working with hard types of wood. The depth of the last notch should be limited to 1.5 mm. for smoothness of the part and groove geometry.
To ensure the convenience and result during the creation of the part with a narrow groove, it is recommended to attach a flat base to the base of the cutter. This part, in tandem with the guide rods mounted on both sides, serves as an auxiliary plane that ensures the correct knife trajectory. It is important to set the axes in line with the center of the cutting element. The hand cutter is guided smoothly and slowly, ensuring that the guides fit snugly against the sides of the workpiece.
The main indicator of the correct work of the cutter with the end part of the wooden workpiece is the geometric accuracy and smoothness of the resulting edge. When machining the face it is necessary to start by creating a hollow cut by moving the blade in the direction of its rotation. This ensures high quality of the base material, after which you only have to correct the result by running the cutter against the direction of rotation.
To create curved edges with a hand router, it is necessary to ensure the accuracy of the path of its blade, using templates equipped with a thrust ring. In this cutting method, a circular plate with a rim, called a “ring,” moves along the template, providing the path of the tool’s cutting part. Before starting work, the thrust ring is clamped to the router foot. The template is clamped to the workpiece, which is clamped to a work surface using clamps.
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Set milling depth
All hand router models have a certain outreach that represents the maximum depth in the material that can be machined by the unit. It is quite rare that machining at maximum depth is required, so most often the height needs to be adjusted. Even when milling great depths, it is better to reduce the load on the cutters and the equipment itself, by leveling. To do this, you can use the turret stop, a small disc on the bar, which is equipped with stops (legs) of different heights. There can be 3-7 of them on the machine. It is especially convenient if the height of each of them can be adjusted. This is one of the signs of a high class milling machine. To fix the turret in the desired position, you can use the stopper, which is a small flag.
Setting the milling depth on hand-held milling cutters is done in several steps:
- tools are placed on flat surfaces, the clamps are released by pressing the cutter firmly against the surface;
- The turret stop is loosened by unscrewing its retainer;
- Based on the size of the desired depth, you select the leg on the turret. To do this, turn the turret stop disc to the desired position;
- the screws are not fixed, and the bar is held by your fingers, while moving the movable pointer so that its value coincides with zero;
- the boom is raised to the desired value of milling depth, then the lock on the turret is lowered.
Having performed all the steps correctly, when processing the material, the wood milling disc will enter it to the set depth.
It is worth noting that good routers are equipped with a wheel, which provides precise adjustment of the processing depth. it allows you, while maintaining the set values, to adjust the depth dimension even by very small values.