Why is a braid for grass used. Historical facts of using braids for grass as weapons

Gloomy reaper. a braid for the grass in the combat service

In the history of humanity rich in the war, the most unprotected group is always numerous, but not having combat training and high.quality weapons, peasantry. In order to protect himself, ordinary people used what was at hand. Modifying initially peaceful working tools, a highly effective combat is created. braids for grass, chains and combat sickles. One of the most odious and common samples of such weapons is a braid for grass. weapons of peasants.

For yesterday’s workers who came to the battle from the fields, a braid for grass was a familiar weapon. The severity of the shaft did not create special problems for the trimmed hands, and the wide blade caused injuries, often shocking even the usual blood warriors to the type of blood.

Preparation of braids for grass for work

For the effectiveness of the scoop, first of all, it is necessary to correctly “fit” the braid under the growth of the mower. First determine the distance AB (rice. 30, b), t. e. the height at which the cranial handle should be fixed. To do this, put a braid in front of them, the place of fastening of the handle should be at the level of the belt. Next, set the capture of braids for grass, t. e. Deviation of the nose of the knife from the circumference drawn by the cord segment from point B (the attachment of the handle to the Kosovisch) by the radius through point A. The capture is installed when the knife of the braid for grass is only slightly fixed to the cobbler. Pressing with a finger at point B, the cord is brought to point A and pull to the heel of the knife, then the stretched end of the cord is moved from point A to the nose of the braid for the grass. Depending on the physical strength of the mowing and the density of the grass, the capture should be from 0 to 20 mm (most often the capture is set zero). After installing the capture of the knife, the braids for the grass are tightly fixed with a wedge (see. rice. 30, a). The fastening should be reliable, because the involuntary violation of the established capture affects both the quality of the mowing and efforts during operation.

It is more convenient to keep the braid when the handle is slightly tilted to the right from the plane of the knife. With this in mind, they fix the handle on the Kosovity. Use two types of handles. The first, when a straight handle is driven into a hole hollowed out into a cobbler in a braid and jammed from the outside (like a blast of a hammer handle). Second type of handle (see. rice. 30, a) are made from a freshly cut branch of bird cherry or willow with a diameter of 25-30 mm and a length of 350-400 mm. In the middle of it to a depth of less than half the diameter of the branch, a groove of about 80 mm long is cut out (depending on the diameter of the braid), which prevents the crush of the workpiece when bending it around the braid. At the ends of the workpiece make cutouts for attaching twine. After bending the workpiece on the bracket, the ends of the handle are pulled off with twine. A handle of this type is convenient in that, after weakening the twine, it can be moved higher or lower along the braid, depending on the growth of the mower.

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Kosovyche should be strong and elastic, 1.7-2 m long. It is best to make it from a flat young Christmas tree, the diameter of the trunk of which is 35-40 mm at a height of 1-1.5 m from the root of the root. Bitches are chopped off at the workpiece and the bark is removed. Then, so that the handle is even and without cracks, dry the workpiece in the shade in an upright position.

To fix the knife on a bracket, it is necessary to shut its end obliquely and on the plane of the cut carefully shake the recess for the spike of the heel of the knife. For the proper nozzle of braids for grass, you should still put a knife mounted on a cobbler on an even smooth surface (rice. 30, g) and achieve due to an inclined cut of the bracket so that the blade in the section a-a is rises by 10-20 mm when spent in a flat meadow (low cut) and 30-35 mm-for mowing on the ground, with bumps (bumps ( High slice). If the knife is installed incorrectly, the blade will lift up and cut the grass poorly or, conversely, lean down and crash into the ground.

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The wedge, which is fixed by the knife braid for grass after its correct nozzle on a bracket, is made of strong, dry wood. Rings (Fig. 30, a) you can use different: two narrow or one wide. Rings with a key are available (rice. 30, e) and without a key (rice. 30, e), with which the knife is attached to the bracket with screws.

Folk meteorology

A braid for grass along with other sharp objects (ax, sickle) was used in the rituals of driving hail clouds and protection against hail. In Serbia, in order to “dissect” a cloud carrying hail, they waved a scythe in the air, and the braid was planted on the hand, and after that the braid was clogged into the ground, wrapping the tip to the cloud; They carried the braid from the house and placed under the roof the tip up, so that drops of rain, as well as a cloud and hail, were dissected by a scythe; They turned the braid with the point up so that the Witcher who saturates the hail, falling from heaven to braid, died; In front of the hail, a table was carried into the yard with a treat, and a braid was put up nearby. In other places, sharp objects were thrown into the courtyard during the city: braid, sickle, ax (Yu.Glory., floor., Rus.).

As an attribute of personified death and diseases of a braid for grass is mentioned in the folklore of many European peoples. By beliefs of Belarusians (Pinsk.), Death usually comes with a scythe, at the end of which a drop of death hangs. Having risen in the head of the bed, death is waiting, and as soon as the patient opens his mouth, a drop from a braid for grass falls, and a person dies. Bulgarians imagine a plague with a scythe with which she cuts off her head to people. According to Russian. Beliefs, the oldest and worst of the sisters, holds a braid in his right hand, like death itself; If she seizes a person, he dies.

A similar idea of ​​death is reflected in the rowing: the character depicting death walks with a scythe, less often with a sickle or a long knife. In Transcarpathia in Games with a dead man who plays the role of death, pretends to be sharpening a braid. Then he chases the guys and girls until someone falls. Then the mowing “mows” him with a scythe like grass.

Why is a braid for grass used

A braid for grass. Agricultural tool for cutting grain or grass, which consists of a curved blade installed on a spar.

A braid for grass. This is a tool consisting of a long (0.6–0.8 m) curved knife (braids for grass), also known as the blade. installed on a long (approximately 1.6–2.0 m) spar (spit) [1]. The knife blade is located on the inside of the bend. This form allows you to cut and collect plants, for example, grass. green food or cereals. A braid for grass wood. known as Spit has one or two short pens. attached perpendicular to it. In addition, bracewood braids were equipped with elements for collecting mowed grain, such as: a dressing on the head (sometimes partially covered with a canvas), the so.called rake.

The current form of braids for grass is the result of the evolution of the sickle. an earlier agricultural gun with a similar function [2] (the differences are in different lengths of the spar and a much smaller curvature of the knife, as well as in its setting almost perpendicular to the Longer; otherwise sickle. This is a tool guided by one hand, and a braid for grass. with two hands). The invention of braids for grass is attributed to the Romans [2]. Roman Masters. making braids for grass were called Falcarias [2].

Sick for grass and sickle. tools known and used since ancient times (xenophon. Anabasis ; Hesiod. Theogony ), especially in an earlier form, that is, a sickle. The use of COP has spread in the Middle East from about 12-13 centuries. In the same way in Poland, a braid for grass spread in the XIII century [2]. And in Western Europe. In the XVII century. Its widespread is probably associated with a decrease in the cost of production of steel. raw materials used for mass production of tools. In 1776. In the United States, they began to use a braid with a frame that facilitated the location of the rolls [2].

Blacksmiths were involved in the production of braids in Poland, and from 19. th centuries, production tools at metallurgical plants in kośne hamras. Suchedniów. Serotsk. Pozni and Krakow [2].

In Poland, the first factory for the production of Kos was founded by Yatsek Ezersky in Sobienie Szlacheckie [Neduski is needed].

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For sharpening, cosning rods are used, previously made of sandstone. The stones of sandstone required wetting, so the mower had the so.called scabbard with water in which he wore a sharpener during a haircut. Initially, oil was used to moisturize the stone, which was refused in favor of water, which gave sandstone the features of the file [2].

braid, grass, used, historical, using

It takes patting after a certain amount of sharpening. When patting, the material sweats on the edge, which facilitates the sharpening of braids for grass and extends its service life. The tapping of a scythe leads to strengthening the edge of the blade (the so.called hardening with crushing). A hammer and trowel are used for patting. Depending on the region, flat (the so.called “bulls”) or hammered dents are used. On the acute grandmother of a scythe is tapped with the flat side of the head of the hammer, and along the flat grandmother with the sharp side of the hammer. Capning of a scythe requires practice, because incorrect execution leads to a wave of the blade.

How can we explain that the conclusions described above are a sharp contradiction with some of the available historical evidence?

For example, in the collection Essays on Russian Culture XVII in. Part one. Material culture. The state system is. BUT. AT. Artsikhovsky. Moscow: MSU Publishing House, 1979. with.352 The braids for the grass in 16-17 centuries are repeatedly mentioned!

“Hays were mowed with braids of two types: braids for grass grass (large braids for grass on a straight long cuttings) and braids for herbal grass (braids for grass on a short curved cuttings). The latter probably had in mind Yuri Krizhanich, when he wrote that “braids for hay grass in some places are so small that they are not much different from the sickles for cleaning Bukhankaa” (Krizhanich Yu. Politics. M., 1965, p. 414.). The braids of the Gorbushi grass were used mainly in the north, Urals, in Siberia for kosba in small areas with high grass. A lithium braid in this period is widely used for most (in central, western, southern counties) of European Russia.”

Apparently understanding that the Lithuanian Vileysky plant of the Posel, which appeared in the last quarter of the 19th century, would be burned by “Historical Documents” in full, by someone, the version was thrown, that “Lithuanian” means “cast”. From archaeological finds it follows that only bronze sickles were made in the method of casting from agricultural orienties. Any blacksmith will explain to you with a hammer on the head with a hammer that critical iron/steel for the manufacture of KOVLI/stamped and braids for grass were never made by casting.

You can not bother the pictures, they themselves have seen enough of them, for example, a fragment “Summer” by Peter Bruegel the Younger, the 16th century, with a powerful scythe-standing (200-300 years hid technology?)

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A combat braid for grass is a very simple weapon consisting of a pole and a blade, which, unlike agricultural, was directed vertically (that is, forward). To do this, it was either crossed or simply inserted into a split.dodrevko, additionally fixed with rivets or hoops. Often the upper part of the shaft under the blade was protected by wire or metal stripes from cutting. As a rule, a combat braid for the grass had double.sided sharpening. Often, during a skew, the Board Boat for the grass received additional elements (spikes, hooks), thus turning into a full.fledged halberd.

In Europe, the so.called assault braid for grass was known, which, in addition to a sickle.shaped blade, also had an awkward process directed forward.

It should be noted that the classification of this weapon is somewhat confused. Many authors consider the combat braid not a separate type of weapon, but a variety of gizarma. The Japanese Naginata, the Russian Council and the Chinese Alabard Guan Dao are close to the combat spit.

If we talk about combat use, then a braid for grass was more effective than a peak. Because the latter could be applied only to stroke blows, and the combat scythe was also chopped and cut.

Braids performance for grass

The productivity of the kosba depends not only on the abilities of the Costs, but also on the length of the knife of the braid for grass and the width of its canvas, as well as from the capture of the braid for grass.

If the knife of braids for the grass is attached to the Kosovisch so that the capture of the braids for the grass is zero. then the mowing area of ​​grass for one wave of braids for grass (wipes) will be:

Small Square for N OKOSOV can be accurate with sufficient accuracy as a rectangle. Then

Rice. fourteen. The area of ​​the grass mowed over one wave of grass

At the same time, the length of the butterfly depends on the length of the braid knife for the grass, the position of the handle on the Kosovity (Distance of the OS), and the width of the protrusion during zero capture of the braid for grass (OS = OA) is determined maximum width of the knife canvas.

In table. 2 shows the performance of braids for grass w 1 in the clean time of the mowing, that is, without taking into account the time for stopping for shaking braids for grass. These data were obtained when testing the braids, in which the handle on the bracket was at a distance of 950 mm from the heel, that is, OS = OA = 950 mm.

braid, grass, used, historical, using

table 2. “Performance” braid for grass depending on its size

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Time for the point of braids for grass and stopping for relaxation is about 15-20 % of the total time spent on the mowing. Given this, the average productivity of the incens (braids for grass) W is determined by the formula

Track in history and art

In almost any literature, whether it is an artistic or documentary work that describes popular uprisings, the sample given here is given. Most often, a braid for grass is found on the pages of Senkevich’s novel “Fire and Sword”.

Telling about the folk movement under the leadership of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, the work gives an idea of ​​the armament and tactics of the Zaporizhzhya infantry and peasants, as well as the role of combat braids.

Despite the obvious heart tendency of the author to the Polish side, a general assessment of the role of the infantry training of the Cossacks is given at a high level.

In Russia, the converted fighting braid for the grass was most common during the uprisings of Stepan Razin and Emelyan Pugachev.

Just as in Europe, the reason for the spread of its wide distribution among the peasantry and effectiveness.

During the war of 1812, many militias, as well as partisans, were armed themselves with this model. Of the numerous sources left in memoirs and biographies, both commanders and ordinary officers, you can learn about the use of these weapons by the Russian and Polish forces.

Much attention is paid to the use of combat braids during uprisings in Poland. At the sunset of such cold weapons, in the 60s of the XIX century, Polish General Mezoslavsky is developing a new tactic of using mowers against Russian troops. However, all attempts ended in defeat.

Of course, a braid for the grass had many minuses. The wide blade was fragile, in comparison with professional peaks, halberds or protazans. I could withstand the armor for the grass in exceptional cases, used it only against unprotected places on the enemy’s body.

In addition, the wide curved blade of a combat braid for grass did not so effectively protect the fighter from the encouraging cavalry.

Braiding Sweetgrass

The direct tip of the peak restrained the chest of horses much better. An important psychological factor.

So, part of the yesterday’s peasants, poured into the Zaporizhzhya army, did not want to identify themselves with farmers and “black people”. Therefore, at the first opportunity, they changed their peasant braids for grass for trophy weapons of professional soldiers or Cossacks, turning into “good fellows” and “knights”.

Despite the peaceful purpose of braids for grass, throughout history it inspired horror to anyone. No wonder death chose a braid as a main weapon in a folk imagination. There is still a phraseological turn about weapons, “mowing” a person or a group of people. On the battlefields and in personal fights, this is a gun, in skillful hands, has established itself from the best side.

Modern braids for lining herbs

Despite the fact that now there are a large number of tools to mow grass more easily and promptly, some people still use braids for grass. Modern braid braid consists of several elements.

The canvas looks like a bent long blade, sharpened on one side. The reverse side is called butt. Fabric of different cos can differ in length and shape. A bracket is attached to the blade, which can have both a direct and curved shape. Regarding the bracket, the canvas has a slope, this allows you to maintain a horizontal label orientation horizontal in the process. The handle is attached to the Kosovich, for which a person holds during work. For attaching a bracket and blades, a wedge and an inlet ring are used. To create an adjustable handle, a twine is used, which looks like a thick clamp.

The blade of braids for grass is made of steel, a bracket. from pine, spruce or birch, sometimes made of metal like aluminum, the handle can also be wooden or plastic.

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