Depending on the method of aggregation, a distinction is made between attachments и trailing of the mower, they can also be self-propelled. According to the type of cutting apparatus there may be with retaining shear (segmented finger) or for unsupported cutting (rotary). For preparing green mass for feeding rotary mowers-shredders are used.
Segmented finger cutters. The most widespread devices of undercutting mowers are segmented finger ones, working at cutting speeds of 1.5. 3.0 m/sec. Depending on the ratio between the pitch of the cutting part, the counter cutting part and the stroke of the blade, a distinction is made between normal, low and medium cutting units.
Segmented finger cutting devices are used on different types of mowers, self-propelled forage and grain harvesters. The basis of the cutter bar is a finger bar, which is a steel strip of variable cross section (Fig. 5.1). Tines are attached to it with countersunk bolts. Steel contracing plates (inserts) are riveted to the tines. The edges of the liners may have a notch that prevents the stalks from slipping out when cutting.
/- blade head guide; 2- inner shoe;
- 3 – finger; 4. outer shoe; 5. field board; 6. finger bar; 7- knife head; 8. friction plate; 9. knife back;
- 10 – knife clamp; 11. segment of the blade; 12. finger insert
The knife, consisting of back, head and segments, is placed in the finger grooves and moves in a reciprocating motion. The rear part of the head and segments of the knife lies on the friction plates and the front part on the liners. To ensure a tight fit of the knife segments to the liners, clamps are attached to the finger bar to prevent the knife from rising.
During operation the cutting unit slides along the soil on the inner and outer shoes, adjusting the location of which sets the desired height of cutting the plants. The inner shoe has the blade head guides and the diverter bar reinforced. A field board is hinged to the outer shoe, diverting the cut mass.
The cut surface of the stalks must be smooth and burrfree. the gaps between the segments of the blade and the counterblade plates of the tines should be adjusted for this purpose. They should be as small as possible: not more than 1,5 mm at the back part of the segment, and 0,5 mm at the front part, otherwise the stalks will not shift-cut, but will be pulled into the gaps in the place of cutting, which may lead to blockages.
The CS: GO-2,1 (CS: GO-F-2,1B-4) mounted single-tine mower is designed for mowing natural and grass seeded crops as well as for harvesting leguminous plants. Cutter bar of normal cutting. Steel tines are equipped with knurled inserts to prevent slipping of the crop during cutting.
Cutting unit glides on the ground on the outer and inner shoe. Under the shoes are steel skids for setting the cutterbar to the desired cutting height and for lifting it up when working on cloddy or stony soils. A deflector board is pivotally attached to the outer shoe to swivel the cuttings to the left.
Cutterbar is attached to the mower’s frame with a draw bar that enables tilting the pin bar forward or backward. Top linkage secures the cutterbar in the working position. Adjustment of the harrow length enables the outer end of the cutting unit to be offset.
The cutting unit is driven by the tractor PTO shaft via an eccentric pulley and a V-belt transmission.
Adjustments. The mower is mounted on tractors of traction class 0,6-0,9 according to the three-point pattern. The cutting unit is lifted with the tractor hydraulics. The inner shoe must be lifted out of the ground sooner than the outer one. Adjust the pressure of the cutterbar on the ground by adjusting the spring tension so that the cutterbar does not jump or come off the ground. In order to separate the cut grass from the uncut and to clear the strip for the inner shoe to slide on the next drive, it is necessary to adjust the bend of the two upper bars of the diverter bar according to the condition of the grass.
Cutting unit is set so that the knife and connecting rod form one straight line and the outer end of the bar is advanced 35-55 mm relative to the line drawn parallel to the tractor’s rear wheels axis through the toe of the outermost inner toe. In extreme positions of the blade, the axes of symmetry of the segments must coincide with the axes of symmetry of the tines. This is achieved by changing the connecting rod length. Bending the clamps ensures that the front ends of the segments touch the counter cutting plates and there is a 0,3-0,5 mm gap between the rear end of the segments and the counter cutting plates.
The height of cut is regulated by repositioning the shoes in the holes.
Machines of unsupported cutting (figs. 5.2) by design can be rotary-disc or rotary barrels. They operate at cutting speeds of 50-80 m/s.
flail blades of rotary mowers should be sharpened, because blunt blades produce ragged cuts and damage the root system of plants. The mower consumes 20% more power for mowing. Knives must also be sharpened on the shaft of rotary drum mowers. Machine design allows to change cutting height by shifting jaws and wheel arms.
Rotary mounted mowers KRN-2,1, KDN-210 (Fig. 5.3) are designed for mowing high-yielding grasses and natural grasses at the speed of up to 15 km/h, with depositing the cut material in the swath. They can be used on overgrown fields, when mowing coarse-stemmed grass and small bushes. Working width 2,1 m. Mowers may be coupled with wheel tractors of drawbar category 0,9 and 1,4.
- 1 – field divider; 2. fence; 3. underframe with balancing mechanism; 4. pulling guard; 5. support shoe;
- 6-blade blade; 7-rotor 8. cutter bar
The mower consists of a linkage frame connected to the tractor hitch. On the right side of the frame there is a pivot for attaching a traction safety device, which holds the mower in operating position with a spring lock.
Subframe with balancing mechanism, which is a welded structure with a box section, is hinged to the frame. The second end of the subframe is pivotally connected to the pins of the cutting unit.
The pressure of the cutter bar on the ground is limited by the balancing mechanism, which also serves to move the mower into the transport position. The latter consists of a hydraulic cylinder pivoting on the linkage frame and a rod connected to a lever. Linked to it are link rods with springs of the mechanism, the other end of which is attached to the cutting unit bracket.
Hinged connection of the balancing mechanism links ensures free rotation of the cutting unit in the subframe trunnions. In transport position for crossings the cutter bar is secured by a linkage.
The technological process of mower operation is as follows. The blades of grass are cut by means of slat knives pivotally fixed on the rotors, which pivot towards each other with a speed of 65 m/s. The knives cut the grass according to the principle of unsupported cutting, they pick it up and carry it out of the cutting zone moving it over the bar. The blade paths of neighboring rotors overlap resulting in clean cuts.
Mowed material is placed by the field divider in the swath and makes room for the tractor’s wheels to pass during the next pass.
Adjustments. The pressure of the tines on the ground is set by adjusting the balancing mechanism. Tension of the balancing mechanism springs should be such, that the external shoe pressure on the ground equals 100-200 N, the internal one. 300-700 N. Tension of springs is adjusted by means of screws.
Cutting unit in operating position should be positioned parallel to the field surface and rest on the shoes. Cutting height is adjusted by tilting forward the cutting unit along the travel range up to 7°. Cutter bar slope is regulated by changing the length of upper tractor linkage.
Breakage of the cutting unit at collision with an obstacle is prevented by a traction breaker, which must operate at a force of 3 kN, applied in the middle of the cutting unit. Traction safety can be adjusted by changing spring force.
Rotary mounted mower L-501 is designed for cutting and swathing in the fields and meadows, cleared of stones and solid objects. The mower can be coupled with tractors of class 0,9-1,4. It consists of a frame, linkage, drive mechanism, two rotors with knives, hydraulic cylinder, safety apron with frame and damping device. Rotors are linked to each other and to the driving mechanism by means of V-belt gears. Mower operating procedures are similar to those described for KRN-2,1.
Rotary-tumbler mower-shredder KIR-1,5 is designed for grass harvesting for silage or at direct feeding of the harvested mass to cattle, picking up the mowed plants from windrows with simultaneous crushing as well as for potato and sugar beet haulm harvesting. Consisting of frame, chopping cylinder, front shield, wheel drive, guide with extension piece and canopy, and drive mechanism (Fig. 5.4).
1. chopping drum; 2. front shield; 3. drive mechanism; 4. guide; 5. top guard; 6. canopy
The technological process is as follows. When the mower is in motion, the front shield with the counter blades tilts the plants forward. The knives on the rotating drum hit the stalks and cut them, chop them and eject the mass into the deflector. The chopped material is conveyed to the feeder via the canopy. By means of support wheels set the frame of the machine in such a way, that the drum shaft is parallel to the field surface and the hammer blades do not touch the ground.
Semi-mounted rotary mower-shredder “Polesye-1500” (KIN-F-1500 “PALESSE SN15”) is designed for grass mowing for green fodder and corn with a height up to 2 meters with chopping and loading into the vehicles. Can be used to mow potato haulm. Coupled with 1.4 class tractors. Throughput of the machine is 4,5 kg/sec at the cutting length of 10-200 mm.
The mower consists of a frame with two pneumatic wheels, rotor, ejection gas pedal, silage line and drive mechanism (Fig. 5.5). Rotor of mower’s knife section has L-shaped blades. The ejection gas pedal provides for the regrinding of the crop and reduces the need for vehicles.
а. general view; б. Process scheme for grass harvesting;
в. Process scheme for potato haulm harvesting; 1. ejection gas pedal;
- 2 – silage pipe; 3. drive belt; 4. earring;
- 5 – counter drive; 6. frame; 7. support; 8- gearbox; 9. rotor;
- 10 – device for tilting the stalks; 11. body; 12. flap
Self-propelled mowers. The most productive mowers are self-propelled machines, which are able to cut stem, condition and windrow simultaneously. Mowers have a cutterbar with reel, cutterbar and auger. If necessary cuttings are passed between conditioner rollers. This provides uniform drying of leaves and stems.
Rotary mower-conditioner KR-6 is coupled with “Polesye-250” multi-purpose power equipment (PME). Designed for mowing grass with simultaneous breaking of stems of mowed plants and laying them in a single or double swath. Mower consists of frame with linkage and hinged right and left sections with technological equipment (fig. 5.6).
During the movement of the mower the fence tilts the stalks, the rotary cutter cuts the plants, makes a preliminary narrowing of the flow of cuttings and delivers them to the working area of the beater. The beater breaks and splits the stalks of the plants and feeds the rake, which puts it into a single (position I) or double (position II) swath, depending on the position of the guide flap.
а. side view; б. top view; 1. guard; 2. swath former;
3. flap; 4. beating device; 5. cutterbar
Each mower-conditioner’s cutting unit consists of a cylindrical gearbox made in the form of a flat box-shaped beam. On the top there are six pressed rotors rotated relative to each other by an angle of 90°. This scheme enables pre-cutting of mowed material flow. On either side of the two outermost rotors there are feed drums. Cutting unit is supported from below on removable skis and hinged to the frame.
The beating device consists of a roller with pivoting V-shaped beats whose deflection is restricted by rubber buffers. Beaters are located on the shaft in two helical lines with 180° rotation and axial displacement by half of a pitch, which provides uniform covering of the whole area of the crop passage by the beaters.
PTO drive via central bevel gearbox and belt drive. Cutting units are driven from the central shaft of the counter drive via PTO shafts and sectional bevel gears. The beater is driven by a central bevel gearbox through belt drives and cardan shafts.
Self-propelled CS: GO-200 “PALESSE GS200” mower. The PALESSE CS200 self-propelled mower can efficiently achieve individual harvesting of cereals, leguminous plants, grain crops as well as grass forage. Mower with swathing conveyor reaper (working width of 9.2 m) ensures mowing and depositing of the plants in central, left- or right-handed windrow, can form a double windrow with a width of up to 4 m in two passes. For grass mowing, in addition to the windrower, it is possible to work with a 4-meter rotary cutterbar.
Wide cabin of self-propelled chassis is equipped with an air conditioner, comfortable air suspension seat, additional seat, convenient control panel and on-board computer terminal. Operator sets cutting height from cabin, controls change of cutting unit blades speed, speed and direction of conveyor belts movement.
High power capacity (147 kW/200 hp engine). с.) and the high-speed cutterbar enable the self-propelled mower to make productive use of the mowing possibilities in various crops.
The mower consists of the self-propelled machine, the grass cutterbar and auxiliary equipment (Fig. 5.7). The self-propelled machine is equipped with an engine and a cab. The self-propelled part consists of a frame, drive and steering axles, engine, transmission, tool drive mechanism, hydraulic and electrical equipment.
1. self-propelled part; 2. reel; 3. cutting unit; 4. conveyor belt; 5. reaper
Mower technological process is as follows. As the machine moves, the reel brings the plants to the cutting unit, the cut material is dumped on the conveyor belt and placed on the ground in a swath.
Adjustments. Cutterbar shoe pressure on the ground 900-1500 N. It is adjusted by supporting springs. In the cutter bar the gap between the counter blades and the segments is regulated. Height of grass cut can be adjusted by mounting a height adjustment clamp on the cutterbar mounting brackets. When working on uneven or stony ground increase the height of the tine bar in relation to the ground.
In mowers where the knives are driven by the swinger mechanism special attention must be paid to the adjustment bearings of an inclined washer of the blade drive it is important to prevent the rotator shaft from spinning, which usually causes the support plate of the shaft to break. In the outermost positions of the knife, the centers of the segments should coincide with the centers of the tines.
Position of reel and auger in cutterbar adjusted for uniform crop flow into the conditioner rollers. Adjusting the pressure of the conditioner rollers by adjusting the spring tension depending on the type and yield of the crop. Check conditioning quality in the field by starting with minimum pressure. Adjustment tine angle swivel the raceway around the axis of the reel in the oblong openings in the cutterbar sidewall. One of the tine arms is positioned over the cutterbar and the turn of the racetrack, the tines of this tine arm are positioned vertically or slightly backwards. At high yields the clearance between auger and cutterbar base is increased with adjusting rods, at lower yields the clearance is reduced.
Adjusting swath width make adjustments according to the method of harvesting and the machine that will pick up these rollers. When harvesting in hay, swaths up to 1.5 m wide are formed to speed up drying. High, narrow swaths form in cloudy weather. Adjust the swath width by shifting the side shields of the windrower.
CS: GO-2 mower.1
Cutter bar consists of tine bar and reciprocating blade. Finger bar is a resilient steel strip to which cast tines are bolted. The tine has a spur at the top, tendrils on the sides, and a shoulder on the back.
The bar and collars prevent the tine from turning during operation.
Sharp edged steel plates, known as shear pads, are attached to the tines.
The blade consists of the back in the form of steel strip 20X5 mm, to which are attached steel plates with sharp edges on the sides. segments and the head with a hollow ball. Crank pads enclose the ball and form a ball joint.
When cutting the stalks, the back of the knife presses hard against the finger bar and wears out quickly. To minimise wear and tear, friction plates are fitted to the tine bar at 38 cm intervals. As the plates wear, they are moved forward by the fact that the diameter of the holes in the plates is larger than the diameter of the mounting bolts.
Clamps mounted above the knife press the segments against the counter plates of the tine bars.
The tine bar is supported on two shoes, the inner and outer shoes, which hold it at a certain height from the field surface. Under each shoe is a skid, the rear end of which can be raised and lowered to adjust the height of the mass cut.
the adjustments are aimed at cutting the crop as completely as possible without contaminating it with soil. First of all, the clearance between the knife segments and the counter cutting plates of the tine bars is adjusted. To do this, remove the blade, pull the cord over the toes, and by installing spacers between the finger bar and the fingers achieve that the toes of the latter are in line with the pulled cord. Then the blade is mounted, the gap is checked and if necessary the presser tines are slightly bent with a hammer. during this operation the tines should touch the counter blades with their toes and the friction plates with their bases. After adjustment the blade should move smoothly without faltering. In the outermost positions of the knife, the centers of the segments and tines should coincide. This adjustment is made by repositioning the blade by changing the length of the crank-rod.
The inclination of the cutter bar is adjusted by turning the draw-bar, depending on the relief of the field and the condition of the crop. If the relief of the field is uneven, the tines will be raised. In the case of a soft crop they are angled downwards.
In order to prevent damage to the drive crank, it must be in line with the cutter bar. To do this, the outer shoe is shifted 35-50 mm forward with respect to the inner shoe by changing the length of the connecting rod in advance. When working under load, the cutting unit pivots back and is in line with the connecting rod.
Shoe pressure on the ground should be: inner. 35 kgf, outer. 8-15 kgf. Adjust it by changing the tension of the compensation spring. If the pressure on the shoes is higher than the specified values, they will dump the soil, which will clog the cutting unit and reduce the quality of cut. Lower shoe pressure on the ground does not provide the required cutting height.
It is a mowing and mulching machine, popular with gardeners and utility companies. Manufactured by Smorogon factory and may be combined with all “Belarus” mini-tractors, known as MTZ. Working at high rpm without damage to the engine, provides one meter of sweeping area at a time. Easy to maintain: all you need to do is lubricate the gearbox and tension the chain.
Segmental tine-type actuator
inner shoe; 3. outer shoe; 2. finger; 4. support rail; 5. blade board; 6. end stick; 7. finger bar; 8. plate; 9. cutting segment; 10. presser foot; 11. head; 12. insert; 13. blade strip.
the stalks are pushed between two adjacent tines, deflected by segments and cut with a segment-blade pair. The crop is deposited on the stubble behind the mower, pushed aside by the blade board.
The cutting action of a front mower with two knives without fingers
bottom knife; 2. top knife; 3. bar board; 4. supporting skid; 5. knife clamp; 6. driving mechanism; 8. mowed grass divider.
The stalks are cut as they are caught between the fixed lower blades and the upper blades moving laterally.
Disc-type rotary mower execution unit
frame base; 2. canopy assembly; 3. rotor; 4. rotor knives; 5. divider board.
Mowing is performed by knives of rotating rotor discs.
Rotary mower for entrepreneurial tractors: Make it your own hands
To make the dream of a rotary haymower come true also at home, having spent a minimum of means and time.
- From scrap metal make supporting frame. it is best to do it from 4 mm angle, which is given a square shape with a side of 0.4 m;
- Prepare the knives, which should be of hardened steel at least 4 per rotor disc;
- We make two rotors, for which we cut circles with a radius of 19.5 cm from 4 mm sheet steel. In the absence of stainless steel, you can use the bottom of the unnecessary iron barrel;
- Weld the legs in the middle of the rotors so that they rotate;
This concludes the process of constructing a home-made mower for the mini-tractor. For life safety, this homemade device can be supplemented with a protective cover. At a shaft speed of 1,400 rpm./2 If you don’t have stainless steel, you can use the bottom of an unnecessary iron barrel.
Methodical development of the lesson “Design of the mower CS: GO. 2.1
We pay your attention, that according to the Federal law N 273-FZ “About education in the Russian Federation” in the organizations which are carrying out educational activity, training and education of students with physical disability both together with other students, and in separate classes or groups is organized.
STATE AUTONOMOUS PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
“REPUBLICAN INTERBRANCH TECHNICAL COLLEGE”
Subject: Mower design CS: GO-2.1
Subject: Construction of mower CS: GO-2.1
Practical introduction of the CS: GO-2 mower frame.1
Correction of perception on the basis of acquaintance with the parts of agricultural machinery
To cultivate independence in preparing the equipment for work
Today we are to find out how a CS: GO-2 mower works in practice.1
A mower consists of a frame, cutter bar, traction rod, connecting rod, and a drive mechanism with a cutter bar lift mechanism. Technological process of work. the mower cuts the grass with the cutting unit and deposits it on the ground in swaths.
How Does A Lawn Mower Work? — Lawn Equipment Repair Tips
Blade drive mechanism
It consists of a drive unit and a connecting rod. The drive mower includes the basic assembly units: the bracket of the drive pulley 1, drive pulley shaft 2, drive pulley 4, fork drives 7, spline shaft 9, V-belts 11, the head housing connecting rod 12 with eccentric pin 13, eccentric pulley 19 and its axis 20.
The mower is mounted on the tractor’s hitch so that the rear ends of the longitudinal linkage are at a height of 400 mm from the ground and the maximum lift is 650 mm. Connect the central link of the tractor hitch to the vertical bar 4 of the frame by means of the pin. The longitudinal linkage arms are locked with a chain or rods so that the mower frame has no lateral movement relative to the tractor’s longitudinal axis. Set the mower frame by adjusting the length of the tractor’s central linkage so that the pin of the central link and the axle of the frame 10 are positioned in one straight line perpendicular to the ground.
Presentation: CS: GO-2 mower.1
Please note that in accordance with Federal Law N 273-FZ “On Education in the Russian Federation” in organizations carrying out educational activities, training and education of students with disabilities is organized both together with other students, and in separate classes or groups.
Description of the presentation on individual slides:
Lesson topic: General purpose mowers CS: GO-2.1 and KRN-2.1
Purpose of the lesson: to study mowers, their designation, construction and adjustments.
1.Purpose. 2.Brief technical feature. 3.General device. 4.Hitching the mower to the tractor. 5.Possible malfunctions and remedies. 6.Safety information.
Destination. The mower is used for mowing natural and grass seeded crops. Technological process of working. When mowers move, the grass is cut with the cutting unit and placed on the ground in swaths.
Brief technical feature. Capacity per 1 hour of basic work. 1,25. 2.3 ha. Working width. 2,1 м. Working speeds. 6. 12 km/h. Average cutting height. 60 mm (natural grass) and 80 mm (sown grass). Tine spacing. 76,2 mm. Eccentricity of the crank mechanism. 32 mm. Mated with tractors, traction class. 0,6; 0,9; 1,4. Weight. 225 kg.
General arrangement: 1-Frame, 2-Rear stand, 3-belt drive, 4-cardan gear, 5-sprocket, 6-Crank, 7-Inner shoe, 8- blade, 9- outer shoe, 10-th finger bar, 11- traction rod.
Mower frame serves for connection of mower to tractor hitch. It consists of: frame 1 of transport hook 2 of transport rod 3 of support 4 of linkage axle 5,10 of support legs front 8 and rear 11. boom axle 12, spindle axle 9
Drawbar with shoe joint and tilt device. serves to connect the cutterbar to the mower frame. It consists of the following main assemblies: arm 1, traction bar 2, corrugated sector 5 and washer 4, arm 6, shoe hinge 7 and eccentric bushing 8.
Cutting unit (pic 1) is intended for cutting grass. Consisting of 1-finger, 2-segment, 3-foot, 4-finger plate, 5-finger bar, 6-bolt, 7-bottom of the knife, 8-cutting plate.
where t. step of cutting part, distance between centers of neighboring segments; t0. step of contracing part, distance between centers of neighboring tines; S. knife stroke Usually knife stroke S is equal to the step of cutting and contracing parts S=t=t0
Technological process. as the cutter bar moves the grass gets between its fingers, the blades of the segments press the grass against the cutting edges of the contra-grinding plates of the fingers and cut it. the cut grass tilts over the tine bar and hits the ground in the swath. The deflector bar pulls the cut grass away from the blade head. A field board with a stem release the space from the cuttings for the subsequent passage of the inner shoe and the right wheels of the tractor.
This is achieved by bending a tine or inserting spacers between the tine and the tine bar. Allowable deviation max. 0.3 mm.
Adjusting the gap between the insert, segment and presser foot
Large clearances cause the cutting quality to deteriorate, resulting in an increased cutting height and undershooting of the crop.
Small clearance causes premature wear of segments and counter plates of fingers, increases resistance to blade travel in the finger bar which in its turn leads to breakage of cutterbar and its drive mechanism parts.
Segments must not overrun towards the outer shoe because.к. when the cutterbar is set in transport position the crank arm will become uncomfortable and it will be impossible to raise the finger bar vertically.
Outer shoe outreach. In operation the cutter bar should move in a frontal line. This is accomplished by moving the outer shoe forward by up to 35. 55 mm (outermost pins) with mower not in operation. In this case, all dead spaces in the linkage are eliminated and the cutting unit is free to move at right angles to the front. This is achieved by changing the length of the stretch (sprengel),
A cutting height of 5-7cm is set by means of skids under the shoes.
I tilt the finger bar by means of a knurled square The finger bar must be in a horizontal position, i.e. it can be set in end position by means of a knurled square.к. Unevenness of the stubble height is reduced by tilting the tine. Sometimes the finger bar is angled for a lower cutting height or when mowing lodged stems. If the tines run into the ground, which is often the case on an uneven field, the downward slope is reduced. When mowing low grass, especially in natural hayfields and on wet grass. the cuttings often collect on the tine bar, especially when moving downwards, which can cause re-cutting of the stalks and even blockage of the cutterbar. In such cases, reduce the inclination of the topline to a level that prevents the crop from collecting on it.
This is to prevent the grass cuttings from getting crushed by the tractor wheels rolling over this area, or from getting crushed by the blade head and blocking the cutting assembly during the following mower pass. Adjustment is carried out by bending the stalks. Adjustment by bending the knives back and forth to oscillate. Their position should be such that the high stalks do not fall over to the left, and the low stalks always fall to the left.
Knife drive mechanism. provides the reciprocating (oscillating) movement of the blade. Consists of a drive and a connecting rod. Mower drive includes basic assembly units: drive pulley box bracket 1, drive pulley shaft 2, drive pulley 4, drive fork 7, spline shaft 9, V-belts 11, connecting rod head housing 12 with eccentric pin 13, eccentric pulley 19 and its axle 20
connecting rod holder-1 nut-2 spring washer-3 connecting rod rod rod.Nut-5 pin-6 sleeve-7 collar-8 ring-9 spherical plain bearing-10 lubricator-11 Connecting rod (Fig.3) consists of:
Knife centering. in extreme positions of the knife, the centres of the segments must not reach the middle of the tines by the same amount on either side, i.e.к. the stroke of the knife is less than the distance between the fingers. Max. deviation of.3 mm. Failure of this condition leads to poor cutting quality of plants on the side of the pin, where the segment does not reach much more than it should. this can be achieved by changing the length of the crank-rod.
Knife drive principle. the upper drive pulley is driven by the tractor’s non-synchronous PTO.
PTO shaft of MTZ-82 tractor
driven pulley has a crank shaft with an eccentric which transmits oscillating motion to the knife through the crank-rod.
V-belt transmission is also a safety device for the cutting unit.
Setup and adjustment: Crank rod position in relation to blade. the crank-arm line must be parallel to the knife bar on a horizontal plane. Mower may be adjusted and lubricated only with tractor engine switched off In case of out of parallelism knocking back and forth causing premature breakdown of cutting unit components and blade drive. Adjustment is carried out by changing the length of the stretching rod (spindle)
Degree of tension of V-belts. Excessive tension on the belts causes premature belt wear.
Poor tension causes excessive slippage in the belts, leading to premature belt failure and a decrease in cutterbar quality due to reduced cutting speeds. That is why belts should be tensioned as little as possible, but their slippage on the pulley should be within a norm in order to provide normal speed of the crank shaft rotation.
Increased temperature of pulleys signals low belt tension. Adjustment is performed by tensioning belts by means of screw 2 (fig.6).
Cutterbar lifting mechanism. enables lifting the cutting unit to overcome obstacles on the field and to move the mower into transport position. Cutter bar lift mechanism (fig.6) consists of basic assembly units: lifting spring 1, tension screw, lifting lever 15, roller 16, hook 17, rod 18, lever 19.
Process of operation. When the tractor hydraulics are operated by actuating the pivoting levers the cutterbar is raised.
Adjusting the cutter bar lift mechanism. Degree of tension of the lift spring. Tighten the adjustment screw so that the pressure on the inner shoe is as low as possible without, however, pulling it away from the ground during operation. If spring tension is too weak, mower shoe and cutter bar will bury in the ground in loose condition of the field and cause mower component breakage. If there is too much tension, the cutterbar will rise at times, resulting in a loss of grown crop due to the increased height of the cut.
Ground pressure of the outer shoe. turn lever 15 with threaded lug to one side or the other. It is generally considered that the selection of the lever arm length 15 is made correctly if the inner shoe is lifted off the ground by about 100 when the cutter bar is lifted. 150 mm earlier than the outer shoe.
Hitching the mower to the tractor (Fig.7) Hitch the mower to the tractor hitch in such a way that the tractor hitch’s longitudinal linkage ends are 400 mm above the ground and the maximum height is 650 mm. Tractor central linkage hitch pin connects to vertical frame pillar.
The longitudinal linkage arms are blocked with a chain or rods so that the mower frame cannot move sideways in relation to the tractor’s longitudinal axis.
Possible malfunctions and remedies. Malfunction, external appearance Corrective action. Adjustments and tests required Tools and accessories used 1 Grass clippings in front of the inner shoe. The grass clippings roll over the field board and clog the track for the inner shoe. To prevent grass clippings from falling over the field board, it is necessary to bend the upper bar of the board up and to the left as necessary, and the second bar. upwards and to the right. 2 Grass clogging in the cutterbar. Large gaps between segments and inserts and between segments and presses. Dull or broken segments. Adjust the clearance between the segments, bushings and dowels. Sharpen dull blades and replace broken blades. Replace with locksmith’s hammer
3 Knife knocks in cutter bar, causing increased wear on friction plates, knife head and guides. Large gap between blade head and its upper guides. The outer end of the cutterbar has moved backwards. Reduce the clearance by shimming under the guides. By turning the eccentric bushing 8 (see Fig. Fig.4) to the left, bring the outer end of the cutterbar forward enough so that the axis of the blade and the connecting rod are parallel. Wrench. 4 On grass seeded crops cutter bar shoes sink into the ground and pile up in front of the cutter bar. The lift spring is loose. Increase spring tension. 5 Nut spanner 5 Backlash in rod to head end connection. Connecting rod lock nut loose. Tighten locknut immediately until snug, otherwise the threads will break. 6 Wrench 6 Centrifugal pulley shaft knocking in holes in frame. Nut and lock nut securing the quick-release device axle are loose. Tighten the nut and locknut securing the eccentric shaft with a spanner wrench
Safety advice. To avoid accidents when working with the mower, observe the following rules 1.The mower may be operated only by tractor drivers who are familiar with its design and operating principles. 2.Do not operate the mower without protective guards. When moving about, fingers of cutting unit must be covered with guard. 3.Before start-up make sure there is nobody in front of the mower or near the machine. 4.When the machine is at a standstill, engage tractor universal joint shaft. 5.Hitching and unhitching mower from tractor as well as making corrections in mower, adjustment and lubrication may only be done with tractor engine turned off. 6.7 When cleaning grass from the cutter bar during stops and when sharpening or changing blades, do not touch the cutter bar with your hands. 7.When lifting the cutter bar to put it in transport position do not put your hands on the fingers of the cutter bar. 8.When mower is not working and disconnected from the tractor, it must be supported on its stands and cutter bar lowered to working position in order to prevent tipping.
Rotary mower KRN-2,1 description, characteristics
Rotary mower KRN The mower is used for mowing wild and specially sown grass, as well as for the treatment of roadside slopes. For such operations, angle adjustment up to 30˚ is available. Rotary mowers of KRN series are usually coupled with MTZ 0,8-1,4 tractors of drawbar category.
TOPP in crop production (for specialty Economics and Production Management in Agribusiness) / Manuals / Hay Harvesters
The nutritive value of grass forages largely depends on. Selecting the right time of grass harvesting. Grasses are cut for hay at the time when the greatest quantity of high-quality forage is obtained. Multiyear grasses are harvested in the phase of legume budding and cereal earing. When choosing the cutting timing for mixed natural grasses, the main part of the grass should be taken into account. it’s better to harvest earlier rather than later. Duration of grass harvesting should not exceed 15 days.
For natural hayfields and perennial grasses the cutting height should be set at 5 cm for the first cut. 6 cm, and for the second one. 6.7 cm. Mow seeded perennial grasses used for seed production at a height of 8 cm. 9 cm, and meadow grasses. not lower than 10 cm. 12 cm. Annual grasses and their mixtures are cut at the height of 4 to 6 cm.
Grasses should be even and full cut. The deviation of the cutting height along the whole length of the cutter must not exceed ± 5 mm.
Mowing losses caused by over-cutting and uncut plants may not exceed 2%. The shoes must not crush the cut and uncut grass.
The grass mass in the swath must be laid in an even layer. When grass is mown into swaths, the crop must be uniformly distributed along its full length, without gaps or bunching.
When tedding the swaths, the humidity of the crop may be 40 to 80 %, and when raking in windrows 40 to 50 %. When tedding, rakes must lay the shredded material in a loose layer without disturbing the uniformity of stalks over the swath area; piles and other irregularities are not allowed.
Total crop loss during raking should not exceed 2.5%.
The aim of the work is to study the design and operation of mowers and rakes, as well as learn how to adjust them to perform the technological process qualitatively. When performing laboratory work, it is necessary to:
1) Using the methodical instructions and technical equipment,
study design and operating principle of mowers.2,1; CS: GO KRN-2,1 and rake GVK-6A and GVC-3
2) study the basic settings of the specified machines and master the technique of their adjustment for quality work.
High-speed mower CS: GO-2,1 and its modern analogues CS: GO-2,1B, KDS-4,0 are designed for cutting of natural and grass. Mower mounted on tractors of class 0,61,4. It features an increased rotational speed of the eccentric shaft (up to 1100 rpm), which makes it possible to work at tractor speeds of up to 12 km/h. mowing capacity up to 2,5 ha/h.
Main assemblies and mechanisms of mower CS: GO-2,1 are: cutting unit 8, inner 7 and outer 9 shoes, draught-
frame; 2. strut; 3. V-belt transmission; 4.
driveline; 5. sprocket; 6. connecting rod; 7. internal.
the mower is mounted on tractors of 0,61,4 class; 8. cutting unit; 9. outer shoe;
the head is riveted to the backbone made of calibrated steel strip. There is also a head riveted to it, which is used to connect the crank to the blade.
Finger bar is a steel strip 5 with variable cross section, to which bolts 6 with countersunk heads are attached fingers 1. Counter cutting plates (inserts) 8 with sharp side edges with notches for holding the cutted stalks are riveted to the fingers (Fig.9).
pin; 2. segment; 3. clamping plate; 4. blade plate-
finger bar; 6. bolt; 7. knife back;
The finger bar consists of a steel strip 5 with a variable cross-section. Fig. 1), underneath of which are steel strips for adjusting the cutting height, and. blade head guides and a bar diverting grass from the blade head to the right are fixed on the inner shoe. To the outer shoe is hinged a field board with bars that shift the cut mass to the left. This is necessary for free passage of the corresponding shoe during the next runs of the mower.
Pulling rod 11 serves for connection of cutting unit with mower frame. Its upper end is hinged (with two pivots) to the frame allowing the mower’s cutting unit to follow the ground during operation. Hinge body is attached to the lower end of the rod and bolted to a bracket welded to the rod using a knurled washer and a sector. Bracket and sector have oblong holes to allow rotation
hinge body and change cutting unit angle to the top surface.
The inner shoe, rigidly attached to the toe bar, is connected to the hinge body by means of two pins passed through the holes in the body lugs. An eccentric sleeve is inserted into the rear lug hole in the front, connected to the body by a bolt.
The sleeve is used to set the cutter bar run and select.of the pivot body lug holes and wear of the pins.
The trip rod holds the cutting unit in its working position, preventing it from tilting backwards around the vertical axis of the articulated joint at the upper end of the pulling bar.
Lower head of connecting rod bolted to head of blade, upper head bolted to pin of eccentric pulley.
The eccentric pulley is driven by V-belts from the drive pulley, which is connected to the tractor PTO via a cardan shaft. Drive pulley housing is hinged to the frame bracket. This allows the drive belts to be tensioned via the tensioning screw. V-belt drive and PTO drive are covered with guards to prevent winding of the grass on the rotating parts and to ensure operational safety.
Left and right axles are mounted on the frame, along with an upper mower headstock to connect the mower to the tractor’s hitch system.
Cutterbar lifting mechanism consists of a pivoting arm and linkage system. The length of the turnbuckle is adjustable. This ensures that the inner cutting unit shoe is lifted before the outer one. The cutting unit is lifted by the tractor’s hydraulic system during work when encountering obstacles and on corners.
To reduce pressure on the ground the mower is equipped with a spring, the tension of which is regulated by a bolt.
For long travel the cutter bar is first raised hydraulically and then set up vertically by hand and. is secured by a transport hook and bar with a special nut. The cutter bar is covered with a protective hood.
Knife position in the cutterbar. Counter-cutting plates-
The tine roots must be in one plane. Check position with lanyard on tops or bottoms of cutter bars. All blades must be in contact with each other
tensioned cords. bent fingers straightened with a special wrench or light hammer blows.
In order to cut the stalks reliably the blade segments must touch the shear plates at the front and have a clearance of 0.3 % at the rear base.0.5 mm. This is achieved by bending the blade holders and sliding of friction plates. At the same time, the stroke of the blade must be light and the blade head must not have “play” in the guides.
In extreme positions of the blade, the center lines of the segment and pin must align (centering the blade). This is achieved by changing the length of the connecting rod. If the machine is not centred, the segments do not cut a part of the stalks due to the reduced speed of the knife in the cutting zone and pull them into the gaps between the segments and tines. Allowable deviation of segment axis lines from pin axis lines within 3 mm. 5 mm, depending on the design of the mower. On CS: GO-2,1 high-speed mowers the distance between the axes of segments and fingers is 76,2 mm and the stroke of the blade is shortened to 68 mm to reduce the inertia forces during operation. Therefore, in the outermost positions of the blade, the centres of the segments must not reach the middle of the tines by 4 mm.
Tilting of cutting unit is performed by turning of swivel body relative to pulling rod. When mowing crops on uneven ground, in order to prevent burying of the fingers in the ground, the cutting unit is tilted backwards. When grass is fallen, cutter bar is tilted forward to lift the grass up instead of tilting it.
the cutting height within a range of 5. 7 cm is achieved by repositioning the inner and outer shoe slats. When adjusting, take into account agronomic requirements for mowing height and the condition of the soil surface.
Position of the cutting unit in relation to the tractor(s)-
the cutting unit runs). For proper mower operation the cutter bar should be parallel to the tractor’s rear axle. In this case the blade and connecting rod work in one vertical plane. But under the pressure of the cut grass and in the presence of gaps in the articulated joints of the mower the cutter bar is deflected to the rear. That’s why the outer end of the finger bar is swung forward by 35. 55 mm relative to the inside. The necessary distance is set by turning the eccentric sleeve with simultaneous changing the length of the springtree. When the mower is mounted on the tractor, the run is checked against a straight line
a line drawn in parallel with the tractor rear wheels axle through the nose of the pin next to the inner shoe.
Pressure of the shoes on the ground. A stable cutterbar ride is ensured by optimum pressure on the inner and outer shoe. Low pressure causes the cutterbar to bounce on uneven ground while high pressure causes the inner shoe to burrow. The optimum pressure is considered: inner shoe. 350 450 N, outer. 90 150 N. Pressure is checked with a dynamometer and adjusted by adjusting the tensioning spring.
Adjustment of the lifting mechanism. When lifting the implement with the tractor linkage, the inner shoe must lift off the ground by approx. 100-150 mm before the outer shoe. This can be achieved by changing the length of the sling link of the lifting mechanism. Before adjusting, the tension of the expansion spring must be loosened.
What is the position of the bar. For a reliable section-
In order to keep the cut and uncut grass and to clear the way for the cutting unit shoes to pass during subsequent drives, it is necessary to bend the respective bars depending on the height of the cut or uncut grass.
What are the main parts of the mower CS: GO-2,1 for and what are they made of??
What is the draw bar for and what are its mounting details?
Where is the eccentric sleeve fitted and what does it do??
What is the mechanism of the cutting unit drive??
for what purpose and what are the main parts of the mower CS: GO-2,1?
How and within what limits do you adjust the clearance in the cutterbar-
What is the purpose and how do you center the blade??
When and how to change the inclination of the cutter bar?
How to choose and what to change the cutting height of the grass?
What is the purpose and what is the setting of the cutterbar run?
How, how and within what limits does one adjust the pressure of the tine on the ground??
What is the purpose and how do you adjust the mower’s lifting mechanism??
Rotary mower KRN-2,1 and its modern analogues KDN-210, KDN-320 are designed for mowing of natural hayfields, mowing of pastures, mowing of high-yield (over 150 c/ha), mixed and fallen grasses. The mowers can be coupled to 0,9 1,4 class tractors. Capacity of the KRN-2.1 mower is about 3 ha/h. The structure of all models is similar.