What you can make out of an old hand drill
We are part of nature. How harmonious each of us feels in the garden, at the cottage or in the garden. Smoothly mowed lawns, weeded flowerbeds please our eyes. But it’s not easy to achieve this result manually. aching back, grass cut fingers can be excluded from their lives if you apply ingenuity and use the most primitive tools to construct a garden trimmer for grass, or a lawn mower as we call it more commonly.
It is very easy to make such a grass trimmer. To do this you need:
It literally takes a couple of minutes to create the tool. Two office blades are screwed to the body polishing disc with screws. Only screwed not rigidly, but so that they easily “dangle”. This version of the connection allows the blades not to break, and to lay down when in contact with an obstacle. The disk itself with the blades already attached is installed in the electric screwdriver, naturally with the cutting tool downward. The tool is ready to work!
Such an amateur grass trimmer will allow you to mow grass in hard-to-reach, narrow places, in between the rows or where there are dividers. Of course, the undoubted “plus” is the saving of time and effort you spend on weeding by hand. There are only two disadvantages. you still have to bend over and cut the grass in this position, and then collect it by hand.
There is a specificity of its own. Have to “fight” tall grass with this tool in a special way. First cut the top, and then the base, as long grass can get tangled at the base of the disc. Then it has to be removed manually.
Screwdriver attachment on an electric screwdriver
With a little forethought you can make a nozzle for an electric screwdriver.
This is the simplest screwdriver bit you can make without too much trouble.
The idea is good in that there is no need to spend on additional parts. Everything we need is present in the drill. Need only a lathe, angle grinder, welder, and of course. an electric screwdriver, the nozzle on which we are now going to make:
- Remove the two covers from the body of the drill. Unscrew the stop part.
- Knock out the cotter pin from the small gear and remove it from the shaft that holds the drill chuck.
- Using a sharpening machine to grind the tapered shaft end up to 10 mm.
- We put the shaft back in the drill housing, put on the gear and cotter pin.
- On the right side, use an angle grinder to cut off the threaded shaft.
- Screw the rubber grip (improved version) into the housing on the right.
- Cut the threaded part of the big gear shaft.
- It is necessary to weld the head to the big gear shaft.
- Screw the two covers back onto the housing and lubricate the gears with special graphite grease.
- The tool is ready to use!
The “do-it-yourself” mechanism enables screwing and unscrewing bolts and nuts in hard-to-reach places. Increases torque by 6-7 times. Since the nozzle has a longer length than a simple electric screwdriver, the tool can be used in the household, for furniture assembly, car repair, if the wrench connection cannot be reached in another way.
At first glance. sounds absurd. But we will talk about the electric brush, which is quite reliable motor inside. It’s enough to reach the steel shaft, on which the gear box with rotating bristles is attached, and you have the workpiece in your hands.
The same collet chuck is dressed on the shaft, and instead of batteries, batteries are installed. Or you can adapt a suitable mains power supply.
It is not possible to drill with such a device into walls, but the holes in the circuit board are. In principle, you can use any compact electric device, which has a conveniently located motor shaft. For example, an old electric shaver.
The choice of materials for creating the device
Very often among home craftsmen there are those who try to make a lathe from an electric drill on their own. The manufacturing process is not complicated at all, and to achieve the desired result you need to take all the necessary materials to prepare them in advance.
Drill Bits 101 (how a drill bit is made)
- Electric drill. it will serve as a drive and should be immediately attached to the wall of the front support. To fix the processing material in the drill chuck, you will need to make a special attachment in the form of a trident.
- To create the bed, use chipboard, a workbench or a board on which you plan to make the equipment. The bed can be made of steel, which will have a positive impact on the reliability of the device made with their own hands, but it complicates the process of creating the device.
- The back and front support should be made of planks, iron angles or bars. On what kind of materials you will use, will depend on both the strength and reliability of the device.
- The support can also be made from boards and planks, and you should use them to create a “T” shaped element. If the base is made of metal, it is best to make the slide from the same material, and you should always consider the main requirement. the mechanism must be movable in all directions.
Note that it is not recommended to take plastic as a base for the manufacture of a turning mill, because such a home-made device will be very unreliable, and at any time of treatment the workpiece can jump out of the clamps.
In the manufacture of the machine can use woodworking materials, but you should be aware that on such devices you can perform processing only small parts and blanks, for example, to make handles for knives, handles for furniture and so on. If you need a reliable sled that you plan to use very often, then it is worth it to splurge once and make from metal.
Depending on the features of their design, the described tools come in one- and two-speed. The former are used relatively rarely, which is due to their low efficiency, while the latter are used much more often, as they have a more advanced design and are able to solve a variety of tasks.
The classic hand drill of this type involves a pair of gears, the rotation of which sets the chuck in motion. Most of these tools are open tools. do not include a protective housing.
The main advantage of this design is the maximum ease of application of lubricants.
The larger one is connected to the knob and the smaller one to the chuck. Another feature of such drills is the presence of a handle, which can safely fix the tool during work.
Considered a variety of manual drill assumes the presence of the multiplier. a mechanical device, which is also called a gas pedal.
It is composed of gears, located on different axes in the same body, thanks to which the speed is changed.
In order to change the speed of such a drill, it is enough to install the handle on the other side. This action increases or decreases the transmission ratio, which has a legitimate effect on the performance of the tool being used. There are also such models of drills, in which to change the speed provided a longitudinal shift of the axis of rotation of the handle rather than the aforementioned shifting.
Also mechanical drills differ depending on the type of chuck used. It can be designed with three or four cams, a clamping element that securely clamps the rotating tool.
Safety and nuances in choosing
Before choosing a mechanical drill, special attention should be paid to the quality of manufacture of all visible parts, the smooth rotation of the chuck, the convenience of the handles. The housing must be free of burrs, sharp edges and edges, and the gears inside the gearbox must rotate without excessive noise.
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A mechanically simple hand drill requires little skill in use. But there are safety requirements that are designed to minimize the possibility of injury to the worker and tool breakage.
- Any workpiece to be drilled must be firmly clamped. If you hold it with your hands, it can break loose and cause injury.
- Do not touch the drill with your hands. friction causes the drill to become very hot, especially when drilling metal.
- When drilling at high speeds, you need to take breaks to let the drill cool down or apply a cooling slurry to it.
- Protect your hands with gloves and your eyes with goggles, because small drilling debris can cause injury, although the speed is not as high.
The safety measures have been developed over many years on the basis of accident analysis at work and take into account the most negative experiences.
The electric collector drill motor has three main elements. stator, armature and carbon brushes. The stator is made of high magnetic permeability electrical steel. Has a cylindrical shape and grooves for stator windings. There are two stator windings and they are located opposite each other. The stator is rigidly mounted in the drill housing.
The rotor is a shaft onto which a core of electrical steel is pressed. Along the length of the core grooves are machined, at regular intervals, for the stacking of the anchor windings. The windings are wound with solid wire with taps to be connected to the collector plates. The result is an anchor divided into segments. The collector is on the shaft shank and is rigidly mounted on it. The rotor, during operation, rotates inside the stator on bearings that are located at the beginning and end of the shaft.
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On the plates, spring-loaded brushes move during the operation. By the way, when the repair of drills is carried out, special attention should be paid to them. The brushes are pressed from graphite, parallelepiped with mounted flexible electrodes.
The speed of the drill is controlled by a triac regulator in the trigger. It should be noted the simple regulation circuit and the small number of parts. This regulator is assembled in the case of a button on a substrate of textolite with microfilm technology. The board itself has tiny dimensions, so that it could be placed in the housing of the trigger. The key point is that in the regulator of the drill (in the triac) the circuit is broken and closed within milliseconds. And the regulator does not change the voltage coming from the socket (however it changes the rms value of the voltage shown by all voltmeters which measure the alternating voltage). precisely, there is a pulse-phase control. If the button is pressed lightly, then the time when the circuit is closed is the smallest. As it is pressed, the time when the circuit is closed increases. When the pushbutton is pushed to the limit, the time when the circuit is closed is maximized, or the circuit does not open at all.
This can be seen more precisely as follows. The principle of the regulator’s work is based on the change of moment (phase) of triac closing in relation to the mains voltage going through zero (beginning of the positive or negative half-wave of the supply voltage).
To make it easier to understand how the regulator works, we make three voltage waveforms: the mains voltage, the voltage at the driving electrode of the triac, and the load voltage. After plugging in the drill, an alternating voltage is applied at the input of the regulator (upper diagram). At the same time, a sinusoidal voltage is applied to the control electrode of the triac (middle diagram). At the moment when its value exceeds the switching voltage of the triac, the triac will open (the circuit will close) and the mains current will flow through the load. Once the magnitude of the control voltage falls below the threshold voltage, the triac remains open due to the fact that the load current exceeds the holding current. At the moment when the voltage at the regulator’s input reverses its polarity the triac will close. Then the process repeats. Thus, the voltage on the load will have the form as in the lower diagram.
The greater the amplitude of the control voltage, the earlier the triac will turn on, and consequently, the longer will be the duration of the current pulse in the load. Conversely, the smaller the amplitude of the control signal, the shorter the duration of the pulse. The amplitude of the control voltage is controlled by a variable resistor connected to the trigger of the drill. The diagram shows that if you do not phase shift the control voltage, the control range will be from 50 to 100%. Therefore, to extend the range, the control voltage is shifted in phase, and then in the processes of squeezing the trigger the voltage at the regulator’s output will change as shown in the figure below.
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The wiring diagram, and in particular the wiring diagram of the drill button, can vary from model to model. The simplest diagram, and the best way to show how it works, is as follows. One lead from the power cord would be connected to the speed regulator.
To avoid confusion, it is important to understand that the speed controller and the reversing control are two different parts, which often have different housings.
The only wire coming out of the speed regulator is connected to the beginning of the first stator winding. If there was no reversing device, the end of the first winding would be connected to one of the rotor brushes, and the second rotor brush would be connected to the beginning of the second stator winding. The end of the second stator winding leads to the second lead of the power cord. That’s the whole diagram.
Changing the direction of rotation of the rotor occurs when the end of the first stator winding is connected not to the first, but to the second brush, with the first brush being connected to the beginning of the second stator winding.
In the reversing device, such a switch occurs, so the rotor brushes are connected to the stator windings through it. There may be a diagram on this device, showing which wires are connected inside.
Lathe from a drill with their own hands
The home workshop, regardless of whether it is located in the garage, or on the loggia, is gradually filled with a variety of tools.
Of course, a home handyman wants to have a complete set of equipment that allows to make any part. However, you have to constantly find a compromise between your “wants” and the real family budget.
Therefore, if you have time and skill, you can make quite complex tools yourself, having basic units. Such a universal donor usually becomes an ordinary electric drill (electric screwdriver).
Here are a few examples of what can be done on its basis:
- A full-fledged drilling machine;
- sharpener (including with abrasive disks);
- stationary grinder;
- table router;
Let’s consider the last point in more detail.
Practical examples of self-made lathe, taking into account the recommendations above
Let’s begin with the simplest version, which is made for one weekend day almost without financial expenses (you already have a drill, its cost is not taken into account).
The set of blanks in the illustration: the tool itself, some wooden blanks, fasteners.
The most crucial moment is the alignment of the drill shaft with the tip of the improvised tailstock. Therefore we measure with millimeter accuracy.
Since the machine will not be very bulky, we place it on a bed of thick plywood. The holder for the neck of the drill shall also be cut out of plywood, and the clamping collar is not required. It will be enough to fix the screw. We place the nodes on the bed:
The spindle is not required: thin workpieces can be clamped in the regular chuck of the drill, and for more bulky parts an improvised plan washer is made.
Wooden blanks can be machined on this machine tool with ease, as well as workpieces made of composite materials: textolite, etc.
Using similar materials (only thick textolite is better than strong laminated plywood), you can make a machine that is more complex in terms of settings.
The drill itself is not only fixed in the neck area, but also supported by an additional bracket. This will avoid vibrations, especially with a high load or an asymmetrical workpiece.
Tip: Given the low rigidity of the homemade structure, you need to prepare the blank in terms of axial symmetry as much as possible.
Given the possibility of precise adjustment of nodes for a particular drill, it is possible to perform the fastening as sparingly as possible for the tool itself. For example, the ventilation openings must not be closed.
The limit stop for the cutters (even if they are held in the hands), is made movable. Both horizontally and vertically. In the process of machining the blank becomes thinner, you can move the supporting surface to the workpiece.
The tailstock is not vertically adjustable, this makes sense. And horizontally, one makes rough adjustment (support is moved in) and fine-tuning with a screw.
The main principle of any such design is that you do not irrevocably lose the power tool itself. That is, the drill can be disassembled at any time and used for its intended purpose.
The complexity of the construction is governed by the tasks to be performed. It can be so solid and precise that even soft metals can be machined. In any case, we are guided by the principle of expediency.
If the limit of complexity of the workpieces are cylindrical door handles. you can simplify the machine to the usual clamp, which presses the body of the drill to the table.
A block as a support platform, and a chisel instead of a chisel.
Drill types are differentiated by the type of work they allow you to do:
- Regular. For carpentry work.
- Impact. For hard stone materials. The motor of such a drill gives the chuck a reciprocating motion at the same time as rotating.
- Peorator. Similar in principle to an impact drill, but the crushing mechanism is different and the efficiency is higher.
It should be noted that peorators, despite the more powerful mechanism of work, are not without disadvantages:
- High cost;
- High power requirement;
- The complexity of the work and mechanism;
- Heavy weight;
- It is impossible to perform precise work;
- Regular tool lubrication and cleaning.
In order to determine what type of drill you need, you need to understand what kinds of work are planned.
It should be noted that when using special attachments instead of a drill, the electric drill will also perform other operations. The main of them: grinding, polishing and milling, sharpening, screwing screws, kneading.
What to make?
The options for execution of a mini drill, made with their own hands, there may be several. The impulse of your imagination is constrained solely by the availability of the necessary components. Optimal is considered a portable drill, made with their own hands from the motor from electrical household appliances. You can use motors from a variety of devices.
Since we do not have to “reinvent the wheel”, as the blender already has its own body and motor, we have made a separate description of the manufacture of this device drill at home.
- the casing and the electric motor from a blender;
- collet chuck for a drill (you should buy in a building material store);
- switch or button.
The scheme of creating our homemade device is as follows:
- We disassemble the body of the blender;
- insert the switch into the housing, then connect it to the electric motor;
- now we need a collet chuck, put it on the motor axis;
- make a hole in the casing to fit the size of the clamping device;
- collect the casing, and our homemade mini drill is ready for operation;
- Put a drill bit or an engraver bit in the clamping device and use.
However, such a device is quite enough to do simple jobs, such as drilling holes in circuit boards or engraving parts.