What woodworking tools do you know

What tools for woodworking

Woodworking carried out by various methods, which are used as modern power tools in all its diversity, as well as hand tools for wood, which are also able to perform a number of functions. The woodworking process involves performing various works, each of which requires the use of some kind of additional tool.

In addition, the classification of all attachments used for woodwork is carried out depending on the following parameters:

  • Professional tools can be used in large-scale production and for large-scale works;
  • amateurski those that are used for domestic needs in the home;
  • Tools, which belong to the industrial category are used by the house, but more skilled craftsmen.

The first of the presented tools are the most expensive, and the last two types are ideal for those who want to work on wood in the house.

The woodworker’s drilling and tapping tool

For drilling holes in wood are used:

  • nail bit and center percussion. a feather or tape drill bit with a wooden handle. There is a screw thread in the center of the cutting edge of the perc;
  • drill bit. a small drill bit with a tapered cutting part and a thread;
  • sliding drill bit for drilling shallow holes of large diameter, near the cutting part of which there is a retractable rod with a cutter on the end;
  • a rotary drill. a tool with a chuck for clamping drills, which has a crank design;
  • hand or power drill;
  • drilling machine.

Wood drill bits have a spike or screw thread in the center of the cutting edge to make drilling easier and protrusions around the edges of the cutting edge to make the walls of the hole smoother.

Slots of various shapes are made with chisels and chisels. Chisels differ from chisels in that they have a metal ring at the end of the handle. Chisel has a thinner blade, used for selecting small grooves, chamfering. The chisel is used for gouging holes.

Special dies (dies), cutters, taps, lathes with appropriate accessories are used for thread cutting. Wood carving is cut with a large step, it has a round or trapezoidal profile.

Types Overview

Let’s consider what types of machines are most often used at home.

Grinding

Such machines are used in order to maximize the smoothing of various wooden products, giving their surface the greatest smoothness. Old products are also suitable for tapping on this machine. Machine tool makes it possible to perform a secondary processing of finished, defective or long used items, whose appearance after a certain time has become useless.

In turn, based on all kinds of functional purpose and individuality of design grinding machines can be divided into several types:

Despite the different from each other design and ways of processing products, all devices have a common purpose, namely, making the wooden surface smooth.

Sawing machines

A sawmill is an apparatus capable of separating wood parts and products in a straight line. At home workshops often use machines with a disc.

According to the specifics of wood sawing work, we can distinguish three main types of equipment.

  • Circular. Equipment with a flat working surface and a circular saw. During operation, the wood is placed on the disc to the side along the bed. The disk copes with its work one hundred percent, deftly cutting wooden products smoothly and accurately, preventing the appearance of various chips and other defects.
  • With a flexible saw. This machine can be equipped with a band, wire or chain saw. Performs its job faster than the disc type of equipment, is brisk and quiet.

Razmushers

Smooth the surface of the wood product. that is the main function of the planer unit. But beyond that, the machine is used to give all identical elements one common size. The construction of all sorts of units makes it possible to cut wood both lengthwise and crosswise.

The working surface of the planer is the table, which consists of two parts. The first part feeds the wood and the second part receives it accordingly. Between these parts there is a particular shaft in the form of a knife, which performs the cut. After sawing the material is sent to the receiving table. In this area, the machine is equipped with special rollers that support the wooden bar.

It is worth noting that you need to choose such a machine carefully, as some models are not equipped with automatic feeding of the material.

Circular

Circular machines are very similar to the sawing equipment. Machines are used for the following manipulations:

The circular saw is a tool that can be used to make longitudinal and cross cuts in wood and metal.

Parsing the design, we can distinguish three types of circular saws.

  • Desktop. They are used at home. Such machines usually weigh no more than 25 kilograms. This machine tool is installed on all kinds of surfaces, for example, on the table.
  • With stand. This machine can also be carried around wherever you want. Equipped with a stand, on which you can work boards of different sizes.
  • Stationary. These machines are rarely purchased for the home, most often they are used in industrial production plants. Since the machine is stationary, its stable design allows to perform any work most clearly, at the proper level.

It is important to note that for all three types of circular saws you should buy different cutting blades.

Deburring machines

A filing machine is equipment whose purpose is to smooth the surface of various wooden workpieces.

Despite the various characteristics of planing machines, their main task is the initial processing of wooden materials, before the material is sent to other machines.

Ploughing machines can be of two types: single-sided and double-sided.

When working with a single-sided machine, you can use only one side of the wood material, with the double-sided machine the working area expands to the processing of two sides simultaneously.

These units can also be divided by the type of feed of blanks into automatic and manual.

woodworking, tools, know

Machines with automatic feed are equipped with an integrated feeder or conveyor mechanism.

Copying

These machines are used to produce replicas of wood samples that will match the original sample as closely as possible. The machine copes with its task as quickly as possible, also the possibility of making several wooden parts simultaneously.

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The method by which the copying machine works is called pattern copying. This technique makes it possible to produce copies in which the parts look exactly the same, in addition to which there is no limit to the number of parts produced. The whole work is performed on an automated level, which reduces the occurrence of any kind of errors to a minimum.

It is important to note that the compact size of the copying machines does not affect their durability, even in constant use.

The unit will serve you faithfully for a long time without failures, without requiring repair, if you perform timely maintenance of devices.

Planer

Planing machines are used to shape wooden workpieces. After using the machine, the wooden product acquires a smooth surface, devoid of all kinds of defects and burrs.

The construction of this machine gives the opportunity to process wooden parts in different planes:

This function is available thanks to the fact that absolutely all woodworking machines have a plank, which makes it possible to change the angle of inclination. Since the design is quite strong, it does not fidget, and remains in its place, so no matter what plane is the product, its processing will be at the highest level, because the vibration at work is almost imperceptible. Considering the working surface of this unit, it is worth saying that it is divided into two parts, namely, moving and stationary.

Between these parts there is a planer shaft, the main task of which is to cut a thin piece of wood. In the process of work, when the workpiece moves on the work surface, it is held firmly by the rollers.

The planer can be equipped with either two or three knives. blades means a higher level of woodworking. Also, such a machine has an additional set of knives.

You need to choose knives depending on the wood of which a particular bar is made. Some blades are designed to work with soft materials, while others are suitable for hard materials.

Band saw

The main distinguishing function of band saw machines is the ability, by cutting a wooden product, to give it absolutely any shape. This machine can be used for straight and curved cuts.

There are two possible positions for this machine: vertical and horizontal.

According to the automated nature of the work, machines can be divided into several types.

  • Fully automatic. Often they are used for industrial purposes.
  • Semi-automatic. designed for furniture production. The cutting saw and the vice in them perform their work automatically.
  • Manual. The product in such devices is fed manually, as well as the sawing process is carried out. These machines are considered domestic and used in home workshops.

The belt type of such machines also varies:

Speaking about the power of band saw machines, we can distinguish three main ones:

For the use of machines at home mainly choose small machines, which, in turn, can be semi-automatic or manual.

Combination

The most in demand in home workshops for woodworking are combination machines. They are characterized by their compactness and convenience, as they combine several work settings.

The great advantage of a combination machine is that it can simultaneously perform several functions, for example:

Combined machines for industrial needs, in turn, can be divided into such categories:

The main difference between these two types is their size, motor and supply voltage.

In addition, some combined woodworking tools can be made by your own hands and then used in your home workshop.

Woodworking with hand tools

We pay your attention that according to the Federal law N 273-FZ “About education in the Russian Federation” in the organizations which are carrying out educational activity, training and education of students with disabilities is organized both together with other students, and in separate classes or groups.

2. Woodworking with hand tools.

Woodworking tools are divided into two types: hand tools and mechanized tools. In this article only manual tools are presented, because they are much cheaper than mechanized tools, and are often used precisely at home, for a small amount of work.

Let’s see what hand tools are available for working with wood: planer. a tool for planing wood.

Chisel. used after chisel work, for filing blanks. They come in several varieties, which differ in width of the blade.

The chisel is a tool that helps you cut a part at right or oblique angles.

Screwdrivers. the master needs to have a set of screwdrivers, different shapes and sizes, they will help to fix details, screws.

Chisel (device). joiner’s and metalworker’s tool for marking and measuring angles, drawing parallel lines. Consists of two parts, fastened together by a clamping screw. The thicker part (shoe. base) is pressed to the workpiece, the thinner part (ruler) is used to make a marking. Sometimes there is a scale for measuring angles between the two parts of the chisel. Large mallets may be used for construction work.

A joiner is a carpenter’s tool for measuring and marking angles of 45 and 135 degrees.The jig is a block into which a ruler is inserted at an angle of 45 degrees. When marking a ruler it is necessary to put it to the board so that the part under the ruler was tight to the side of the workpiece, and the ruler itself was flat on the horizontal surface. A pencil or a sharp awl is used as a tool to draw a line or mark.

A caliper is a universal instrument for making precise measurements of external and internal dimensions as well as of hole depths. The caliper is one of the most common measuring tools, thanks to its simple construction, ease of handling and quick operation.

Having a list of such tools, you can safely take up the processing of wood, and create something new and unique, with their own hands.

Before buying tools is worth remembering that you should pay attention to quality products known brand, you should not save much, in order to avoid a quick breakdown and spoiled material.

Presentation on technology Tools for woodworking. Artistic Woodworking

Please note that in accordance with Federal Law N 273-FZ “On Education in the Russian Federation” in the organizations carrying out educational activities, training and education of students with disabilities is organized both together with other students, and in separate classes or groups.

Description of the presentation by individual slides:

Tools for wood processing. Artistic woodworking MBOU Gymnasium of the city of St. Petersburg. Safonovo, Smolensk region Technology teacher: Morozov S. P.П. Safonovo 2020

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Wood processing Mechanical processing of wood. is a type of material processing, which involves changing the shape and volume of the wood, but keeps all of its properties intact. Mechanical processing can be carried out using both special equipment and hand tools. It is the machining of a small amount of wood with hand tools that can be called manual woodworking. The technology of manual woodworking depends on the method of treatment.

Manual woodworking Manual woodworking includes such methods:. scribing;. Changing shape and size: sawing;. leveling the surface: planing, sanding and scraping;. making holes by drilling, chiseling, and chisel work.

Tools for woodworking Depending on what we will do when working with wood, we choose and tools for work: sawing. cross and longitudinal saws, jigsaws and hacksaws. Splitting and chopping. axes and cleavers. Planing. planers, scrapers, and various types of planers. Chisels and chisels. chisels. Drilling. drills of various designs and drills.

Hand tools for working with wood Chisel. used to make a hole in the wood. Chisel. used after the chisel is finished to clean up. Nailer. helps get rid of nails in unwanted places. Hand drill. used for drilling, holes of different sizes. Clamp. will help fix the part at the workplace, also used at the time of gluing or drilling products. Chisel. used when it is necessary to cut a piece at an oblique or right angle. Pliers. used for auxiliary work or when small nails must be removed. Workbench. this is a sturdy and large table that helps make woodworking easier, as it has fasteners that will hold the pieces in place during processing.

Hand tools for working with wood

Electric tools for woodwork Electric planer. used for planing wood. With its help, the surface will quickly become smooth and ready for further work. Takes less time than a hand planer. Circular electric saws. help to saw the product evenly into blanks. Electric drill. used for what to drill a hole, the right size. An electric screwdriver. it is convenient to use not only for tightening screws, but especially for unscrewing them. Which helps to save both effort and time of the worker. Electric jigsaw. indispensable in the household, it can be used to perform shape and directional cutting of materials like wood, plastic, laminate and other materials.

Artistic woodworking Carved wood ornaments and practical decorative items in the light of a return to the Russian classics in interior design are becoming popular. It is not difficult to learn how to carve wood on your own. you need a professional carving tool and the desire.

Tools for woodcarving Professional woodworking tools are required for the proper processing of workpieces. The relief is created in the following ways: Through-carving, which implies a punched and slotted processing of a wooden workpiece: the punched carving is implemented with a jigsaw or hacksaw; the slotted variant is a through percussion punching of the workpiece with chisels or special wood cutters. Also used by woodworking machines. A flat-jeweled version of carving in wood is a decoration of a deepened pattern. Variants: contour carving, bracket carving, geometric treatment and carving on a dark background: contour carving is a groove deepening, which is formed by a special chisel, angular or semicircular chisel or a carpenter’s knife; the result of bracket carving is a bracket notch in the wood, which is done with a semicircular chisel.

Artistic wood carving carving relief carving is used to decorate carved panels. In this version, the elements appear elevated. The main wood carvers are chisels. Sculptural carving is characterized by volumetric shapes, which are given to figures-sculptures. A variety of tools are used to implement this variant, including a pantograph. The house variant of carving is used to decorate a large area of the surfaces of log, panelboard or frame houses. To implement the above options are used basic, auxiliary, carpentry and carpenter tools for woodcarving.

Knives The cutter is a versatile tool for carving in wood. It is used in shaping the main part of the object. Such wood carving tools have an elongated, straight or bent blade, a bent shoe. Cutting angle of the cutter blade is 350. Such knives are also designed for fine operations. A modern cutter can have interchangeable blades. A pantograph knife has a cutting angle of 600. The blade itself is beveled. such cutters are designed for cutting geometric lines, roughing and finishing wood. Bogorodsky is similar to the European chisel knife, but with a longer blade and shorter handle. It is designed for roughing and fine finishing work. The cutting part of the blade, 30-90 mm long, is evenly partially ground. The cutter owes its name to the Bogorod carving (a wood carving art direction).

Chisels. used for wood carving A straight chisel is used when carving regular recesses. Bevel chisel has cutting edge angle 450, it is used for cutting long grooves. Angular chisel used for cutting V-shaped cavities. Half-round chisel designed for complicated patterns and serifs. Available in round, medium and chamfered. A cleaver differs from the previous version in that the blade is rounded both on the face and on the shank. Can be rounded, carbonized or straight. Caesaric differs from the variant in that it has a narrow working part. Caesar cuts narrow grooves and small patterns. The chisel is used to cut grooves. Klepik (miniature chisel) with a narrow cutting edge that resembles a sharpened sheet. Used for precise ornaments. The nail is equipped with a narrow end with a rounding.

Saws Saws types: hand saw; hacksaw; chain saw; circular saw; jigsaw, electric jigsaw; chain saw, electric saw.

Special tools Engravers (electric and manual) equipped with nozzles for woodworking and flexible shaft. A flexible shaft for wood carving. The laser engraver can cut, sand and polish surfaces in addition to its cutting function.

Special tools Laser engraver

files and rasp files for removing excessive layers of wood. Surface of the tool: rough, medium rough, smooth. Abrasive tool shape: flat, semi-circular or round. Flexible sanding bands are used for sanding bent surfaces. Sanding cylinder nozzle for drill or electric screwdriver. Sanding, grinding and polishing tools have different roughness and texture surfaces to work with different types of wood.

Abrasive woodworking accessories

Electric tools Cordless or 200 volt cordless drill. The jigsaw can work as a hand-held, jigsaw or archer. Quick accessory change and low vibration level are advantages over handheld jigsaws. A circular saw can safely cut wood lengthwise or crosswise. Electric planer used to trim or trim a piece to size. Electric circular or band saws are for polishing, sanding, or varnishing surfaces. An electric hand router replaces the hand planer, scraper, tongue and groove router. Designed for cutting edges, grooves, quarters and chamfers

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Supporting devices A support is a plain board used to support the workpiece. Clamped to workbench or table. The saw is held vertically in a V-shape when working on the workpiece. Workbench vice is designed for relief carving.

Other tools A wooden or rubber mallet is used when chiseling wood across the fiber with a chisel. Blanks can be big in size, of hard wood. Mallet has a rounded side that allows you to strike the cutting tool at any angle. Standard diameter of the hammer blade is 75-150 mm. The Tesla is used when it is necessary to quickly select the wood during roughing work on the piece. Has a round or flat cutting edge. Chisel is convenient for extruding small hollows in the workpiece, creating mottled patterns and making ripples on the surface of the article.

Cutting tools A cutter is a sharp blade fixed in a handle. Hand or electric saw, planer, one-handed planer, etc.д. All kinds of cutters, including patterning tools.

Tools for making patterns Knife jamb. universal tool. Chisel. for cutting notches. Blade carver. a chisel with a curved blade for deep-drawn carving in relief. Spoon cutter. special tool for making spoons. Equipped with a blade in the form of a ring or half-ring. Circular mills, end mills, hand or electric mills. engravers.

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Tools for fastening of shackles Rotary clamp. Locksmith’s vise. Carpenter’s quick-action clamp. Bench Stops. Presses for woodcarving. Model (copy) vise. A workbench screw for wood carving. Wood carving bench. Workbench Mounting Screw.

Homework Checklists What two types of woodworking tools do you know?? What a chisel is used for What a saw is used for? For which purposes the planer is used

The final stage. sanding the resulting workpieces with sanding pads.

The most popular electric tools for machining wood mechanically include jigsaws, power drills, and sanders.

For the jigsaw it is necessary to choose correctly the saw blades depending on the specific type of wood. it is necessary to choose saw blades with tooth pitch in the range of 2.5-4 mm.

Drilling is performed with an electric drill, a replaceable part of which are drills. cutting tools of different diameter and shape. The most common types of drills are

When working with electric tools, sanding is also the final step. For him are used sanders, which level the surface of the workpiece to be processed. For machines, it is important to choose a suitable sanding disc with abrasive material for rough and softer processing.

Special features

The carpenter’s kit is a set that consists of a huge assortment of different tools designed for solid wood craftsmanship and quality woodworking. In order to properly organize the work of the joinery workshop, you should not only buy a minimum set of tools, but also have a well-equipped corner.

Also important are job safety and accessibility of joinery tools. For this purpose, all tools should be placed on racks or shelves in a certain order.

Many beginners often confuse joinery tools with carpentry, locksmith and mechanical tools. But the main difference of such sets is that they are used to work with wooden workpieces that have already been pre-sawed and sanded. Carpentry tools can be used to cut and size future parts. They allow you to process solid wood with maximum surface quality. For beginners and amateur carpenters, experts recommend buying sets in suitcases consisting of the most necessary accessories, while experienced craftsmen will suit sets that include 50 or more accessories.

What they are?

Wood planing. processing wood by removing shavings. Working process is accompanied by reciprocating movements of special tools with planing cutters, which in colloquial form are called knives. Each movement of the tool involves the removal of a layer of wood, rolled into chips. The reverse travel of the pick is characterised as a mini-preparation for the next operation. This cycle lasts until the wood surface has the desired shape and smoothness.

The material receives a quality surface only if a regulated planing tool with one or more sharp knives is used.

Another factor affecting the quality of planing is the direction of chip removal relative to the wood fiber. In this case, 3 options are considered, namely planing lengthwise, crosswise and flank planing.

The method of machining along the fibers is often used. This ensures the wood surface is as even and smooth as possible, which is a requirement for high quality woodworking. The method of processing cross planing is in many ways inferior to the option of removing the wood layer along the fibers, because the finished surface has some roughness. The cross planing method is most commonly used for roughing wood.

The most difficult is considered to be planing wood at the end. This method cuts a layer of wood at right angles using intense pressure. However, without skill, it is impossible to get a perfect cut.

Still, if you need to make an end-cut, you’ll need to stock up on thin, freshly sharpened cutter blades.

Electric hacksaw

Also known as a saber saw, or in common parlance as an alligator saw

The operating principle is identical to the classic hand-held hacksaw, except that the reciprocating motion is energized electrically rather than by your hand.

Unlike a circular saw, a sabre saw is dirtier, slower and rougher, but safer to work with. But the alligator has advantages, too: the depth of cut is limited only by the length of the saw blade (and they are interchangeable, so you can always find consumables for any task in the store), and the ability to work in hard-to-reach places.

What you need to know when choosing

  • The parameter for adjusting the speed of the blade will allow you to choose the optimum mode based on the hardness of the wood;
  • The higher the power, the faster you can do the job;
  • The longer the blade, the thicker the board thickness you can aim for.

As the name suggests, it is needed for milling, namely, chamfering, picking out a quarter and cutting grooves and slots.

What to pay attention to

All the tools assembled here are most often suitable not only for woodworking operations, but also for working with other materials: plastic, metal, plywood. You just need to choose the right consumables.

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