Circular saws. the essentials in a nutshell
For carpenters, plank and timber are the most common blanks from which to make crafts and wood products in the future.
And the first thing you cut the material into exactly the right lengths.
In this case you should know how to saw a board evenly, because the wrong performance of this operation can spoil the workpiece or significantly affect the appearance, and not for the better.
For carpenters, plank and block is the most common workpiece from which to make crafts and wood products in the future.
And the first thing the material is cut into lengths.
In this case you should know how to saw a board evenly, because the wrong execution of this operation can spoil the workpiece or significantly affect the appearance, and not for the better.
Large companies don’t have the problem of how to cut a log or board evenly. Any serious enterprise has high-precision equipment to perform this type of work.
At home, one has to make do with what is available at hand.
In this case, the tool or equipment still need to know how to use correctly to cut the board properly, and the cut turned out without flaws.
It should be noted that many companies that sell boards and planks, provide services for their cutting. And for this they use all the same specialized equipment, so the purchased material will be cut qualitatively. But use this service is not always possible, and it often happens that you need to saw only one workpiece.
Cutting a board at home
Cutting a board at home is possible with such tools and equipment as:
Each of these options has its own specifics, which is important to consider before starting work, that is, you need to know how to saw a bar or board with this or that tool so that the quality of the cut was acceptable.
Circular saw. high performance and convenience of work
The circular saw is the best option for the job. It has an excellent performance and allows you to cut a considerable number of workpieces in a relatively short time, and with high quality. In addition, such a saw allows you to make a longitudinal cut of the material, but you need to know how to saw a board lengthwise even.
One of the most important criteria when choosing a circular saw, is the maximum depth of cut. There are devices on the market that can saw materials 30 to 130 mm thick. That means that you can choose a machine for cutting thin boards only, as well as for sawing bars.
You should also pay attention to the cutting tool itself. Blades with a big amount of teeth give a good quality of cut but cutting speed is not fast. But discs with a low amount of teeth provide high productivity, but the quality of cut is worse.
Now about how to cut evenly with a circular saw. One of the conditions of quality performance of works is a reliable fixation of the workpiece. If the material is not anchored tightly, then when sawing the board can “move”, and the cut will be uneven.
If the circular saw is manual, then all work should be done on a workbench, equipped with stops and guides for the workpieces. Such a device can be made independently, using any table as a basis.
Before you start sawing it is important to set the right depth of cut. Some manual saws have an adjustable lateral guide, which can be used to perform a longitudinal sawing of material. If you do not have such a device, use the same workbench.
convenient in terms of work is a table circular saw, which is already equipped with everything you need. guides, locks. Often such equipment also allows you to make an angled cut of the workpiece.
When sawing it is important not to exceed the force on the tool, otherwise the quality of the cut will be low, the increased load on the saw will lead to rapid blunting of the cutting disc.
Do not forget about safety when using such equipment. Perform work only after checking the serviceability of the saw and the correct clamping of the workpiece. Also do not neglect protective equipment. masks, goggles.
Hacksaw. simplicity and safety
A hacksaw is a simple tool that is quite suitable for carrying out work. And although the cutting speed is not high, and considerable physical effort is required, but for home conditions such a saw is the most acceptable option.
It is not difficult to correctly saw with a wood hacksaw. The main condition for a good cut of the material is to make a correct cut. To simplify the task, you can use an ordinary flat bar, which is used as a guide.
Often the question arises, how to evenly saw off a board with a hacksaw at an angle. To do this, a special carpenter’s device. a plane saw. is used. And it will help not only to make the cut at the right angle, but also allow any beginner to cut the board evenly.
Sawing off a log with a hacksaw is also possible. The only problem when working with such a log is that you have to make a lot of effort.
The last option is to use for the work an angle grinder with a set wheel with teeth. But since the “angle grinder” is not designed for cutting wood, you can use this method only as a last resort: attempts to cut a board can have serious consequences. It is better to use a hacksaw. it is time consuming, but safe.
First of all.
Pay attention to all the bends and convexities of the log. a perfectly straight trunk is rare. So we try to turn it so as to get from it as little waste as possible, such as a slab. Once a log is stacked and secured, it is important to make sure it slides freely between the guide rollers.
Set the size by diameter on the ruler of the sawmill, and to this size add the greatest height of the convexity of the log. This is the bulge that is higher than the diameter of the top or narrowest part of the log.
With an ordinary tape measure measure the height of the highest part, and from this size start counting the size of the necessary material, taking into account the size of the cut, which is from 2 to 5 mm.
A smooth cut of materials
Now let’s see how professionals evenly cut different building materials. This will allow you to understand whether the jigsaw can saw boards, metal, plastic, tile, and so on.
If they saw lumber, for example boards, they choose standard cutting blades. The teeth have an upward spacing. They are of medium size, and the spacing between them is 2.5 to 4 mm. Their length is chosen taking into account the thickness of the part. The maximum stroke rate is set on the power tool. It can be reduced if it becomes uncomfortable to work with or if the saw blade begins to overheat.
Professionals usually increase the cutting speed when sawing wooden parts that are not visible after installation. For this purpose the pendulum stroke is switched on, which negatively affects the quality of the cut.
The cutting process itself is performed on the back side of the wood. Otherwise there is a risk of damaging the wooden element. While working, the power tool is pressed evenly against the workpiece and moves it smoothly. The more the jigsaw moves in the lumber. This can be clearly felt when the pendulum motion is activated.
Sawing laminate or chipboard
Before sawing laminate or chipboard with a jigsaw, choose a saw blade. Usually a back-cutting blade is used. That enables a quality cut without damaging the laminate surface. However, during work, vibration increases, which makes some craftsmen feel uncomfortable.
Please note! Sometimes an ordinary cutting blade is used. In this case the cut is made to the back side of the laminate or chipboard, because the chips occur on the part where the cut is made.
To reduce the likelihood of splintering, the pendulum assembly is turned off. In doing so set the maximum stroke frequency. During the process the power tool is pressed firmly against the lumber, but not too hard.
Often craftsmen use an anti-slip insert during the sawing process of laminate or chipboard. It is inserted in the guides that are on the jigsaw blade. It is not rare that several inserts are included in the tool set. They differ from each other in thickness of kerf. This characteristic is matched to the similar parameter of the saw blade.
Before sawing a metal workpiece with an electric jigsaw, a cutting blade with fine teeth with a distance between them of 1 to 2 mm is installed. This saw is very similar to the metal saw. It is also used for cutting other materials. It allows you to make the cleanest possible cut.
When the metal workpiece is cut, the minimum stroke frequency is set. In doing so the pendulum mechanism is switched off. Sawing itself is carried out slowly, the jigsaw is not pressurized. Usually the workpiece is first clamped firmly so that the kerf is as close to the support as possible. If this is not possible then the metal is clamped between two pieces of wood-fibre board. In this case the cut is performed all at once to prevent the formation of burrs on the metal workpiece. Usually this method is used when it is necessary to saw thin sheet metal along a curved path, which is marked on the top sheet Wood-fiber board.
Please note! To avoid overheating of the cutting blade, it is necessary to pause for a while during the sawing process and to cool the saw blade by force.
Saw plastic material
Before properly sawing plastic with an electric jigsaw, prepare a saw blade similar to that used on metal workpieces. In other words, it must have fine toothing. Only with such a saw masters can make a qualitative cut.
The type of plastic to be cut influences the jigsaw settings. The cutting frequency is set to a maximum of 40 % of the maximum possible cutting frequency. The pendulum mechanism is either switched off or set to a minimum. This is the only way to cut the plastic evenly.
For sawing tiles a special saw blade without teeth is installed in the jigsaw. Such a cutting blade has an abrasive surface. It wears down very quickly when sawing. Because of this, tiles are rarely sawed with an electric jigsaw, as too many special cutting blades need to be used to perform a large amount of work.
If, however, the master decides to saw tiles with an electric jigsaw, then he turns off the pendulum mechanism on the tool and sets the minimum frequency of the saw’s stroke. Power tool is usually used for sawing small curved pieces of tile.
Any home workshop should have at least three or four saws of different types.
- Saws with a wide blade for rough cuts in large parts and pieces of wood. The longer the blade, the faster the work. However, for the same reason the mobility of the blade increases, which makes the saw tend to move sideways, as they say. That’s why it’s important to pay attention to the cutting line and not let it deviate from the marks. A novelty of the last years is the Teflon coating of the hacksaw blades that makes the cutting of fresh wood much easier and protects the saw against rust.
- Saws with a “back” differs from the usual hacksaw not only because it has a rigid nozzle that “dampens” the oscillation of the blade, but also because it has finer, closely spaced teeth. Such a saw allows making a clean and thin cut.
- A finish saw provides a smooth and accurate cut.
- A saw with a narrow blade is designed for sawing rounded parts and large holes. A basic rule for every chainsaw is to keep its blade dry and clean at all times. The teeth of the saw. even if hardened. should be sharpened regularly.
Tools for sawing logs
Sawing tools and methods depend on the total volume of logs, length, thickness. In addition, you need to consider the quality of the future lumber. Sawing logs requires different tools and specialized equipment. To get a small amount of lumber at home the manual method of log handling with a chainsaw or traditional hand saws with teeth for longitudinal sawing is suitable.
Sawmill is probably the most well-known type of sawmill equipment. This is a woodworking machine that features frame saws. Longitudinal sawn timber is produced on the sawmill, for example edged boards or logs. Sawmills allow processing logs with diameters from 15 to 80 cm and with length up to 7 m.
Logs are sawn into boards with circular saws by means of a circular saw. Such equipment is classified as single-band (single-blade) and multi-band (multi-blade). Single-disk devices are suitable for cutting small-sized and low-quality materials. Large round billets can be sawed with the multi-disc saw.
The most popular today are band saws. They are available in two types: vertical and horizontal. Cutting tool in such devices is the band saw blade, which is put on pulleys. Work on band saws ensures the receipt of high-quality longitudinal and mixed lumber, such as plank and beam. The amount of waste is minimal.
Large industrial companies use wood sawing lines. They allow to achieve very high surface quality and precise geometry of the final products. Such lines are characterized by the highest productivity.
In addition to all of the above, such types of highly specialized sawmilling equipment are used as debarkers, edgers, band saws, and other types of machines.
It is often the case that you need to produce a very small quantity of boards or cants for your own needs. Of course, buying machines in this case is absolutely not an option. Having certain knowledge and skills is much more profitable to saw logs with your own hands, using an electric or gasoline chain saw. Despite the fact that this work is rather labor-intensive, the result is quite justified.
Most experts believe that a chainsaw is better suited for this purpose. Such equipment has high capacity and can operate without interruption for a long time. Besides the chainsaw does not need any electricity, so you can work away from the power supply, for example in the construction site.
In order to cut a log into boards with a chainsaw special tools are needed, such as a mechanism for securing the log, a frame-attachment on the chainsaw, as well as a guide for sawing. The frame head must be fixed on the chain saw bar so that it is possible to adjust the gap between it and the chain. It makes it possible to make boards of different thicknesses. You should get a special chain for making longitudinal cuts. It has a special angle for sharpening the teeth. The guide line can be made of a metal profile of the required length or a smooth rigid board.
Before you get to work, you need to remove all bark and remaining limbs from the blanks, as well as carefully inspect the log for various flaws. In this way, you can choose the most suitable cutting scheme and therefore reduce the amount of possible waste.
If you saw longitudinally you must make sure the density of the sawn timber is the same across the entire width. Since the density of wood from the northern part of the log is much higher than from the southern, then the sawing is carried out in a plane directed from east to west (or in reverse order).
The first thing to do is to remove the slabs from the two opposite edges of the log. As a result you will get a double edged beam which is then sawn into boards or other timber of equal thickness according to the planned sawing scheme. The end product is an unedged board, which then necessarily remove the edges.
For centuries lumber has been the most popular raw material for home construction. Today, the primitive machining methods have been replaced by modern equipment. For example, for sawing timber and processing it to the right size, masters use a sawmill. The minus of such a machine is the cost. For this reason, many people make mini saws based on a chainsaw.
If you decide to buy or already have it, you will need to learn all the specifics of working with this tool. With a successful purchase and work, working with a chainsaw will be safe and bring you one pleasure.
To work with a chainsaw, buy yourself special protective clothing, which will consist of a helmet and mask, a bright jacket and pants. This uniform will protect you from the cuts of the saw.
How to saw a felled tree with a chainsaw
How to saw boards with a chainsaw with your own hands?
Wood is cut at full throttle with that part of the bar closest to the machine body. And each material requires a specific cutting technique.
If you want to cut branches from a tree, you need to stand to the left of the trunk and start sawing at the bottom. Make all movements slowly. Cut with the nose of the bar, namely the top and bottom blades of the chain.
Saw thick, difficult branches in several steps.
Start cutting with the chainsaw from the end toward the base of the tree trunk. It should also be noted that without some support the trunk may roll, and before starting the work process make sure that the tree lies secure and stable.
Once all the branches have been cut, you can move on to the next step
Circular saw. high output and operator comfort
A circular saw is best for the job. It has excellent cutting capacity and allows you to cut a large quantity of material in a relatively short time, and with high quality. Such saw can also make a longitudinal cut of the material, but it is necessary to know how to saw a board longitudinally straight.
The maximum cutting depth is one of the most important criteria in choosing a circular saw. There are devices on the market that can saw materials from 30 to 130 mm thick. That is, you can pick up a machine both for cutting only thin boards, and for sawing bars.
You should also pay attention to the cutting tool itself. Blades with a large number of teeth provide a accurate qualitative cut, but the cutting speed will be low. But discs with a small number of teeth will provide a high performance works, but the quality of the cut will be worse.
Now about how to saw evenly with a circular saw. One of the prerequisites for quality work is a reliable fixation of the workpiece. If the material is anchored weakly, when sawing the board may “go”, and the cut will be uneven.
If the circular saw is manual, then all work should be performed on a workbench, equipped with stops and guides for workpieces. Such a device can be made independently, taking any table as a basis.
Before you start sawing it is important to set the right depth of cut. Some handheld saws have an adjustable side guide that can be used to make longitudinal cuts in the material. If you do not have such a device, use the same workbench.
convenient in terms of work is a table circular saw, which is already equipped with everything necessary. guides, locks. Often such equipment also allows you to make the cut at an angle.
In the process of sawing, it is important not to exceed the force on the tool, otherwise the quality of the cut will be poor, the increased load on the saw will lead to rapid blunting of the cutting blade.
Types of disks
It is not enough to buy a good electric tool with a single cutting wheel to work with wood. This ubiquitous material has many varieties. And each has its own hardness and resilience.
In addition, tasks of varying complexity arise in the process of work. And solving them requires an individual approach. That is, the use of a specific nozzle that is suitable for the best processing. That’s why a craftsman’s arsenal must be equipped for all occasions.
The wood circular saw blade is available in just two types. The monolithic design is made entirely of either high-carbon steel or high-speed steel. An inexpensive product can handle any kind of wood. And besides it can saw polymeric alloys.
Carbide construction is made of tool steel. But its teeth are made of very strong alloys, in which tungsten carbide is added. This solution allows you to saw not only the most capricious wood, but also to process many metals.
In addition, the design with hardfacing has several other advantages compared to the monolithic:
- No need to resharpen the teeth of the disk.
- One sharpening of cutters allows you to work through the time in which the monolithic counterpart will be re-sharpened several times. Therefore, the life of a carbide disc is several times longer.
- Passes through any material with literally a perfect clean cut and takes less time.
But sharpening the carbide disc for circular saws at home is not done. This requires special equipment. And the price of such a tool is very high. But experts say that the blade pays for itself before it has to be resharpened. And many craftsmen do not spend on it, and immediately buy a new cutting wheel.
In addition to the basic two types of discs for the circular saw, it is worth mentioning about the disc cutters. The tool is designed for metalworking, but many woodworking operations are carried out with it. For example, the cutter is used when it is necessary to select a groove in a wooden product.
How to work with a circular saw
A ruler with a stop or bar
If you want to cut a straight strip from the board, a guide ruler with a stop is a very useful tool. Very quickly it is installed at the front edge of the circular saw’s platform and ensures quite precise advancing in a given direction.
A guide bar
If you want to level the edge of the plate, cut a very narrow or even a wide strip from it, narrower or wider than the guide fence with stop allows, you need another guide fixture. Not hard to make yourself. For this purpose it is necessary to cut one or two slats from plywood 12 mm thick. Solid wood slats are not at all suitable for this purpose, because wood warps over time.
Mark these plywood strips so you don’t saw them or throw them away by mistake, and hang them on the wall. But remember: plywood also warps if stored improperly!
The guide rail is attached to the circular saw’s platform and moves with it, resting with its bent end on the end of the workpiece.
A plywood strip about 10 cm wide to serve as a guide and universal stop for your hand held circular saw.
Some manufacturers make circular saws complete with a lightweight metal guide rail that allows you to guide the saw with great precision. A special clamping device connects the circular saw’s platform with the profiled edge of the bar, which actually sets the direction of the saw, not allowing it to move sideways. Such strips are more reliable than a ruler and stop or a plywood guide bar, which can cause a sideways shift of the saw.
Not in contact with the workpiece thanks to the saw blade guide plate. That means that any dirt that might get on the base of the table when the saw is in use will at most scratch the guide bar, but not the part itself.
Slide bars in various lengths are available.
If the need arises in a particularly long stop, several of these slats can be connected one by one, using special fasteners.
Angle stops are a useful complement to the blade guide and allow workpieces to be sawed at any angle.
The wide light metal strip acts as a guide for the circular saw.
Cross strut of your own making
If we must saw across a board width of only 15 cm, the guide bar length of 80 and even more 120 cm will be more of a hindrance, rather than an assistant. In such cases, either the guide is abandoned, or a shorter and more convenient stop is used.
You can make one yourself and use it for many purposes. You will need a piece of plywood about 25 x 30 cm and two 5×2 cm wooden strips.
Attach a slat about 40 cm long at the bottom on the short side of the plywood plate, and the second slat 30 cm long. at right angles to the first one on the long side of the plate.
The resulting fixture must rest on the narrow long side of the board. Side edge of plywood plate for marking, short plywood plate as a guide for the circular saw. The tool should be installed so that the saw blade moves close to the marking edge of the plywood plate.
With a homemade stop, it is convenient to mark at right angles to the long side of the part.
Thanks to a home-made device, the cutting disc moves in an exact accordance to the marking.
Wall sheathing is a laborious job, but it can be accelerated if the sheathing boards are sawn to size in bundles of five or six at a time. But a bundle that is several meters long may be very unyielding. To “tame” it, you need to use two or three clamps or twists to fix the selected blades and additionally fix the entire bundle on the workbench. This is necessary because both hands must be free to operate the circular saw.
It would be extremely inconsiderate to hold the bundle with one hand and drive the saw with the other. Any obstacle in its path, be it a knot or a lump of resin, could lead to sudden pinching of the cutting blade. The bundle will not move and it is unlikely that anyone will be able to hold it with one hand. This means that it is no longer possible to accurately cut all the slats.
In short, if you intend to saw several parts at a time, try to ensure that the bundle is securely and rigidly supported on the workbench. For particularly long, protruding beyond the limits of the workbench, additional support is needed to ensure that no one slat springs or slips out of the overall bundle.
Several slats, bundled together, are clamped with screws and fastened to the layout. The result is that one pass of the circular saw is enough to flawlessly align the ends of the slats.
Homemade guide plate
The plywood guide strip, which is used as a parallel stop, makes sawing much easier. However, it is even more convenient to work with the guide plate, which the home handyman can, without much cost, make himself.
You need a piece of elongated plywood (120 x 30 x 0.5 cm) and a slat made of carpentry board (100 x 12 cm). Both parts are glued together (for security, the joint can be secured with plug-in spikes), and then the thin plywood stripe is sawn off with a circular saw, running along the stop.
This simple device allows you to saw a piece exactly to a predetermined size, and there is no need to pre-measure the distance between the cutting disc and the support strip, as well as to make a marking on the part.
If you use a large-diameter drill to drill a hole in the guide plate, you can hang it on the wall of the workshop. So it’s always within easy reach and easy to use, so you’ll never have to be afraid to spend too much time looking for it. In addition, this storage method will prevent warping of the board in the future. Cover your new fixture with colored varnish, so as not to confuse it with an ordinary piece of plywood and not to use it for any other purpose.