Sanding wood with your own hands
Although it is labor-intensive, manual wood sanding offers a number of important advantages: less aggressive sanding, better control over the process, and high surface quality in hard-to-reach areas. corners, gentle curves, and other reliefs of any complexity.
Hand equipment is indispensable for sanding between coats, as it ensures the most delicate work and eliminates the risk of rubbing the applied finish. Using the same abrasive, hand sanding ensures a higher quality surface than sanding with a grinder, angle grinder, or drill.
Power tools make the toughest jobs in wood easier. But the final finish can only be done by hand. This is because electric sanding tools leave small but noticeable scratches that shine through the finish. Hand sanding, even with abrasives of the same grain size as an electric sander, produces, on the other hand, finer scratches running along the grain which will disappear under the first layer of stain, oil or film coating. In addition, manual sanding offers more flexibility and control over the process that sanding machines do not offer. For smooth curves, corners and other tight or hard-to-reach areas, there is hardly anything better than a purpose-built sanding block. An economical manual sanding kit will require a set of abrasives and other materials and blocks. And the right working methods can help with most of your raw or pre-treated wood sanding problems with the final finish.
SELECTION OF ABRASIVE MATERIAL: MAKE A STOCKPILE TO SAND LESS.
Your best goal is to keep the amount of sanding to a minimum, that is, finish with a 180 grit abrasive before applying film-forming coatings such as nitro or polyurethane, and a 220 grit abrasive before oiling. (Some craftsmen prefer to finish sanding with 320 grit abrasive paper. Try it out on a wood sample to see and see if it’s worth sanding further). For an extra smooth finish, lightly sand each finishing coat with 320 or 400 grit sandpaper, then polish the last coat. Not require much abrasive material when using an eccentric sander. For sanding raw wood, buy several rolls of aluminum oxide abrasive paper (120, 150 and 220 grit) in addition to your existing abrasive discs. Throw away the box of partially used abrasives. You should not save money, because abrasives that are frayed work slower and can leave uneven scratches or burns on the surface. The result is an uneven-looking surface. Have rolls of sandpaper, tear off exactly as much as you need, and discard used sandpaper when you’ve finished the job. For large surfaces, buy a sanding pad to which you can velcro the discs of an eccentric sander.
Since sanders instantly cut through layers of finish, it is better to perform manual sanding. There are two options: dry or wet sanding. Dry sanding allows better control of the process. However, particles of the finishing coating often clog the abrasive, especially if the coating is not fully cured. To avoid this, use zinc-stearate abrasive. The stearate coating lubricates the abrasive and prevents it from clogging, but the soap-like residue left after sanding can impair the adhesion of some water-based coatings. To be on the safe side, sand such coatings dry with silicon carbide abrasives or use wet sanding. For wet sanding, use mineral oils, white spirit, or soapy water to provide lubrication and to remove machining products that can clog the abrasive. Silicon carbide-based abrasive material for wet/dry grinding will be required. The disadvantages of wet sanding are the mess created when sanding, as well as the fact that the liquid creates the illusion of a thicker finishing layer. To avoid accidentally burn through it, periodically wipe the place of grinding and monitor the result. Several synthetic abrasive pads will be needed for the final polish. Ultra-thin (gray) sponges contain just the right amount of abrasive to remove the tiniest roughness without penetrating the finish. Sand the surface with a non-abrasive (white sponge with a little wax), then buff it with a soft cloth until shiny.
SAVE MONEY BY MAKING YOUR OWN PADS AND BACKING PADS.
A good pad is as important as the right abrasive. By keeping the abrasive paper in constant and even contact with the wood, the sanding pad helps finish the job faster and prevents unwanted indentations or rounding. To have good sanding pads and blocks, there is no need to spend a lot of money. Before you buy something, look for pieces of ceiling tiles, foam plastic or cork in your workshop, that is, a fairly dense and resilient material that can reduce the wear of abrasive paper.
hardwood scraps are not suitable for this purpose. The wooden blocks do not allow the abrasive paper to bend, so it wears out very quickly and scratches more than it sharpens the surface. However, by gluing abrasive paper to hardwood slats, you can get a wooden file that comes in handy for working corners and hard-to-reach places.
Or wrap self adhesive sandpaper around a scrap profile that is a negative copy of the one you are working on, to replicate the profile exactly as shown in the photo.
for wet sanding, choose pads that do not lose their shape or disintegrate when wet (sponges, rubber erasers, old computer mouse pads). Of course, the size of the block matters. In this case, the smaller the better. You should not take a large block for hand sanding, especially if you have already used a sanding machine. Small blocks, no more than a quarter of a standard sheet of paper, provide better control and sensitivity. The blocks should be about 25 mm narrower than the sanding paper, so that it is convenient to wrap it and hold it from the shackles. Small blocks are especially good for grinding difficult surfaces. In most cases it is quicker and easier to grind a complex profile in parts, using several small blocks, than to make a special profile block for a given surface. For wide, curved surfaces, try using a rigid foam pad. Shape the foam pad to fit the curvature of the surface and then attach the abrasive material as shown in the photo.
Drill bits for grinding and polishing
The drill is a versatile type of tool that can do more than just drill work. For other various jobs, you need to buy or make your own required accessories for the drill. Such products provide an opportunity to carry out grinding, polishing, scraping a variety of surfaces and even cutting thin metals.
Area of application
Drill bits become in demand for a number of the following manipulations:
All of these manipulations are carried out for a variety of materials: from paint and varnish coatings to corrosive manifestations on metal surfaces. To perform the above procedures, resort to the use of grinding attachments for different drills.
Drill bits are mainly used in various sectors: construction, mechanical engineering, manufacturing, etc. They can be used for sanding wood, polishing paintwork, glass, metal, removing scale and burrs.
You Need This Sander. AirCat 6-inch Random Orbital Sander [WITH VAC]
Special sanding discs allow you to perform appropriate work on concrete, ceramics, marble, granite and other stone surfaces.
Drill bits are produced by different manufacturers, so they differ not only in quality but also in price.
Which bit to choose
Such a device as a grinding, polishing or scraping nozzle differs depending on the material to be processed, as well as on the purpose of the planned procedure. Certain types of devices are used for work on wood, and quite different types for metal.
There are the following types of drill bits:
- Dish tools. Have a plate shape, and are also equipped with a shank in the form of a pin for fixation in the chuck. Special products for angle grinder have a threaded joint instead of a shank. Table-type nozzles for drills are divided into fixed and adjustable. The main advantage of plate products is that the sandpaper discs of different grit sizes, for sanding different materials can be easily replaced. They are attached by means of Velcro, and therefore there is no need to have a set of several plate nozzles, it makes more sense to buy one, and depending on the material to be processed, use the disc required grit.
- Cup type. These drill bits are also indispensable for sanding wood, metal, and other materials. Products are in the form of a metal base plate with a pin. This pin or shank serves for fixation of the nozzle in the chuck of a drill or an electric screwdriver. The end part of such a device is filled with bristles made of metal wire of varying thicknesses and metal of manufacture, which performs the main work of grinding surfaces. Cup types of products can perform rough sanding of various materials. There are also disk-shaped products that are filled with foam or felt. The base of such products is usually made of plastic.
- Disk. Are direct analogues of the cup types, as they have almost a similar design. The difference is that the base is a steel disk, and the bristles have a direction from the center to the edges. In bowls, the bristles point downward. This type of products is very useful when it is necessary to carry out grinding or polishing manipulations in places with limited access.
- Drum or cylindrical. Shaped like a sanding drum for a power drill, with sandpaper glued to the edges. The drum can be made of both hard and soft materials. Abrasive materials in the form of a tube can be fixed either by inflating the nozzle itself, or by tensioning it with special bolt connections. Great for machining the inside of pipes, round holes, and the end of sheet glass.
- Fan. Shaped like a disc, with pieces of sandpaper glued to the edges. The advantage of such products is the possibility of effective grinding of inner cavities with small holes.
- Soft. These variants are also interchangeable, and are used mainly for the treatment of paints and varnishes.
- End cap. Shaped like a shank with a head. Often used in place of a file, it is quicker and more effective to enlarge a hole or smooth the edges of circles in different materials. They also help to remove burrs, chips, bring the material to a smooth state, remove sharp corners.
Features when working with a drill
The disadvantage of drill bits is the need for experience in the craftsman to work with such devices. If you do not maintain a clear angle of the drill in relation to the work surface, then the product will be unnecessary or unnecessary scratches. To avoid such consequences, it is necessary to initially practice when working with them.
Grinding with a drill can be done by the following methods:
- When the tool is held in the hands of the master. For this it is important to observe the correct positioning of the drill in relation to the workpiece to be machined.
- When the tool is clamped. This option allows you to get better grinding results, but has a significant disadvantage. the lack of mobility.
Carrying out grinding and polishing work requires patience from the master, because the process is quite long. Every 5-10 minutes of work with the tool is required to take a break.
Work should be performed in goggles, mask, and gloves. Do not proceed to the processing of products if there is no experience in working with such devices.
Initially, it is recommended to practice, after which you can start the finishing work.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that the use of nozzles for the drill, which were listed in the article, can significantly simplify the work performed, as well as accelerate the final result.
Drill attachments for sanding and polishing Link to main publication
About grinding pads and their creation with their own hands
Although wood sanding by hand is labour-intensive, it does have some important advantages: less aggressive processing, better control of the process and high surface finish on hard to reach areas. corners, tight curves and other reliefs of any complexity.
Manual technique is indispensable for sanding between coats, as it ensures the most delicate work and eliminates the risk of rubbing the applied finish. Using the same abrasive, manual sanding ensures a higher quality surface than sanding with a grinder, angle grinder, or drill.
About sanding pads and making them with your own hands
Sanding blocks (sanding pads). an indispensable helper in the arsenal of a carpenter. These uncomplicated tools ensure even contact between the sandpaper and the surface to be sanded, increasing the speed and quality of the work performed. Using such pads, you will significantly improve the quality of grinding, prolong the life of the abrasive, avoid fatal defects in the form of recesses and rounded ends.
To get hold of such a grinding tool does not need to spend extra money. It is not difficult to make it with your own hands from dense foam or wooden scraps. Check out some easy sanding pad projects in our gallery.
Shoe with two wedge fasteners for sandpaper
Date of addition: 2021-03-18 ; Viewings: 99 ; ORDER WRITE WORK
Equipment for the novice painter (part 3) tools (info)
in this part we will look at the tools you will need to get started1. Blowing gun no different (except color and company) so you can use any that you come across, preferably that the set has a stinger (it is very convenient to blow dust and debris from hard to reach places)
medium 2. grinderIt is a huge variety, there are electric and pneumaticluchaetomobilnye pneumatic grinders with eccentricomnymi parameters they have three: 1. The most common and easy to use variant is 150mmthey always have consumables and accessories and are optimal for work2. the presence of the speed regulator, a must thing, for what it is necessary I think it is not necessary to explain3. step exentric. very important parameter.it is how much the platter moves on an axis at rotation. The best option in the initial stage. it’s step of 5 mm step so you can quickly and easily clean the body of paint, putty (small putty places) do not try to putty machine on the ribs and lines of the body. at the initial stage of the machine.it is an assistant, not a tool and serves to remove unnecessary things, the zeroing out should be done manually!do not try to take a two-handed and other machines, it should be as convenient to work with one hand, not too big and not very heavyIn my opinion, a very worthy unit at the initial stage is this machine
The parameters on the site stated that she eats 110 liters of air, but in fact somewhere around 280 average cost of 3000 for full operation of our machine needed lubricator (small bulb of grease) screwed it to the air machine and is connected to the air hosevydet this miracle so
The middle with it our machine will serve as long as possible.Also for the machine need spacer foot, which will not allow you to “dive” machine in the putty, with it much easier to output details, and when you get a hand with it you can grind primervidet her so
medium 3. grinding and minimal set of sanders is mandatory and at the beginning of work with the body, I would make Accent on manual preparation without the use of a machine for the beginning I think the minimum I have three sanders1. soft rubber for hand
medium 2. a small one with clamps for abrasive, optimal length 20-25 cm
medium 3. large with clamps for abrasive length 35-40 cm
average 4. a set of spatulas and sets I would advise to get two. one with handles, the other with plates
Polishing machine. Choice and price range is enormous. do not go too deep into them the main parameters are of course speed regulation. it should be in the range from 100 to 3000 and it is the lower threshold that is important in them, because the upper threshold is at allnormal polishers are quite large and heavy, so the second handle should be comfortable, Adjust the speed should be located at the bottom of the machine at the top end of the handle directly under your thumb, because at the initial stage of polishing you can “set fire” to the varnish and so you can lean on the body at minimum speed and gradually increase the speed with your thumbIn one example of a reasonable quality and price machine
Power 1400 watts weight 3.69 kg wheel 180 medium I do not know why, but almost all are equipped with mediocre 180 K it needs to buy a normal wheel for polishing, preferably the one shown in the picture from the company Farecla
The vast majority of grinding operations in the home is done manually or with a drill. This is understandable. Buy expensive specialized equipment for use in the home, where sanding operations are usually very diverse in type, is not always appropriate.
There are various devices for manual and mechanized sanding. All of them can be divided into two basic types.
- Tools that perform the actual machining of the workpiece. Manual devices, which include grinding blocks (pads, bars) and grinding attachments on the drill or angle grinder, which are all kinds of support plates and drums.
- Devices which ensure the correct position of the grinding tool in relation to the workpiece. rails, bearing surfaces, etc.п.
A separate type may include devices for dust extraction, which, because of the abundance and harmfulness of grinding dust also should not be neglected.
Manual sanding devices
A wide range of abrasives are used in manual operations in order to achieve the required processing parameters.
The simplest manual devices include sanding pads, which may be called: sanding blocks, sanding stones, etc.п. Depending on their shape, they can be used for both flat and profiled surfaces.
A grinding block comprises of three main components. body with a working surface on which the skin is stretched, a clamping mechanism that fixes the skin on the shoe, and a handle to which the grinding force is applied. The latter as an independent element may not exist, in which case its role is performed by the body. The clamping mechanism can also be replaced by other elements that perform its function, for example, or velcro.
Many types of branded pads are available, differing from each other in shape and method of attachment of the sandpaper. The body is most often made of plastic, the working surface of which is covered with a soft material that helps smooth out irregularities.
The simplest pads for sanding are not difficult to make yourself. Wood is best suited for this purpose. The work surface should preferably be pasted or padded with a soft material such as felt.
The simplest wooden block construction is two pieces of board or chipboard, which are tightened together with screws. so that the sanding pad covers the bottom piece and its ends are clamped between the pieces.
Homemade sanding block
If you make a little more effort, you can make a more functional rubbing block, in which the clamping of the skin will be carried out by a wing nut, which is much faster and more convenient than using screws for this purpose.
For processing large surfaces, if for some reason does not fit the power tool, it is best to make yourself a grinding “planer”. Its possible construction is shown in the picture below. It is so simple that it needs no explanation. The size of the device is determined by the specific working conditions. The parameters of the processed plane and the physical data of the employee.
For grinding edges that are positioned at an angle of exactly 90° to the adjacent surface, a device that makes it possible to achieve the required right angle is useful. It is shown schematically, the concrete implementation can be any.
Edge grinding fixture (front view): 1. base, 2. handle, 3. side stop, 4. stiffener, 5. sandpaper, 6. strip of felt.
One of the main tasks in the manufacture of homemade bars is to securely fasten the sandpaper to them. Except for mechanical clamps (with screws, nuts, etc.), it is possible to nail the sanding on the ends of the table with a clinch.п.) in homemade sanding blocks, you can use other ways of fastening sandpaper.
You can simply nail it at the ends with small nails. The method is easy to implement, but inconvenient if you have to change sandpaper frequently.
An acceptable way to fasten sandpaper. gluing it on. For this purpose, adhesives are suitable, allowing you to separate the sandpaper from the base relatively easily when replacing it.
Sometimes the skinning slots can be fixed with wedges. In the block make cuts, in which the edges of the emery are tucked in and wooden wedges are driven. Gouges and wedges can be of many different sizes.
A grinding block with a groove for the wedge
Attachments for drill and angle grinder
Manual grinding requires a great deal of effort and time. For large amounts of sanding work, it is advisable to use electric tools. with a drill or angle grinder, in particular. To turn the latter into a sanding tool, they need to be equipped with a suitable sanding attachment. the backing pad or drum.
Attachments on a drill and angle grinder for sanding
Grinding plates. These nozzles are a disk of plastic or rubber, to which is attached an abrasive disc in the form of a circle. Plastic plates have a soft or not so soft layer between the base and the Velcro, for better adhesion of the skin to the surface to be treated. Plates for the drill have a shank in the form of a rod, for the angle grinder. threads for screwing them onto the output shaft of the angle grinder. The nozzle for grinding on the angle grinder can be turned into an attachment for a drill by screwing into it the adapter with a shank.
Grinding bit and drill adapter
Curved edge sanding
Sanding curved edges is a challenge that flat bed sanders just can’t handle. Use curved pads made of wood or foam plastic for such work.
Sanding complex profile edges is a headache. You can’t cheat here, because the applied finish will expose all the imperfections of dishonest sanding. Milling a counterblade is the easiest way to solve this problem once and for all.
Tool, for deburring, grinding and sharpening of wooden, plastic and metal parts.Files have many varieties. The first thing to decide is what type of notch. If you are going to machine wood, plastics or soft metals, choose a single cut. In the case of work with hard metals and alloys, a file with double-cutting is suitable. These tools have intersecting notches that cut over the chips that are formed.
Orbital Sander Basics | Beginner Tool
There is a division of files by their shape, respectively by the way they are used. Round files are used for oval and circular surfaces, semicircular files for concave surfaces with a large radius of curvature, flat files for external and internal surfaces, etc.
Grinding is usually accompanied by dust, which rises into the air and gets into the eyes and respiratory tract. Use protective equipment: respirator, goggles and gloves. Take care of your health and learn more about grinding tools in these detailed articles on each tool.
Alternate lacquering and sanding
When the first layer of varnish is completely dry start sanding the surface: spread a mixture of pumice powder and water on it and sand off section by section with a homemade block. Try to treat the entire surface, including corners and edges. this is very important. If you think you have reached your goal, wipe a small area with a clean cloth and check the condition of the surface and whether it needs to be continued.
If the quality of the polish meets your requirements, clean the entire surface as thoroughly as possible with a wet cloth, let the surface dry, and then remove any remaining streaks with a dry cloth. After that you can apply the next layer of lacquer.
Layer by layer
After the second coat the surface is also sanded and then carefully cleaned. If you are satisfied with the results, the work is finished. But all rules say that you need one more, third coat. Five or even six coats are not an exception. It is by applying several layers of lacquer that the surface becomes evenly colored.
A mixture of pumice powder and water is rubbed into the coat of varnish. The clear and glossy coating turns into a matte finish. The surface is cleaned from paste first with a wet rag, then with a dry one.
At least three coats must be applied and sanded to achieve a flawless surface. But even five or even six coats are not an exception.