What parameters to choose an electric screwdriver

What electric screwdriver to choose for work: tips from foremen

If you need to tighten a screw or unscrew a bolt, you will certainly face the problem of how to choose a good electric screwdriver? We have considered the features of mains and cordless tools, breaking down their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we learned the opinions of foremen, figuring out where it is better to use a drill-electric screwdriver, and when a conventional tool will do.

One of the most common misconceptions: an electric screwdriver and a drill-electric screwdriver are one and the same. But it is not. The electric screwdriver drill and the traditional electric screwdriver have different functions.

Functions of an ordinary electric screwdriver

The functions of a power drill

Tightens screws/screws/bolts/screws

Taps self-tapping screws/screws/bolts/screws

Turns self-tapping screws/screws/screws

Unscrews self-tapping screws/screws/screws

Does not drill holes in materials

Drills holes in materials

As you can see, a electric screwdriver has more features. Both tools are about the same price.

Which electric screwdriver or electric drill wrench is better?? The answer to this question depends on the type of work you will be doing. For working at home, it’s better to use an amateur (household) tool. That means this gadget won’t bust your budget, but it won’t solve all your problems either. For example, it is easy to change a lock or assemble furniture with its help. The average speed of an amateur electric screwdriver is 350-500 rpm. Such performance is not enough for construction site work.

The opinion of the expert Sergey Pochtarev, master, g Nizhny Novgorod Construction experience: 20 years.

When thinking about how to choose an electric screwdriver, keep in mind that there are tools for professional construction and there are tools for home use. What electric screwdriver to choose for homework? If you only need it to drill one hole a month, it’s better to buy an inexpensive amateur home tool. At the construction site it will not be effective, they need more powerful tools. And if you choose an electric screwdriver for work, making money on construction, it would be better to save up and buy a professional electric screwdriver, or a drill-electric screwdriver.

A professional electric grinder for construction workers is more powerful than a household grinder. Its rotational speed is 1500 rpm or more. You can use these tools for drilling in hard materials like wood, metal, or ceramics. They can withstand heavy loads.

Expert opinion. Andrey Savin, site manager, Leningrad. Voronezh Construction experience: 12 years.

When working with a tool, it is important to control the speed so that the torque does not destroy the fastener. It is best to use a regular electric screwdriver with variable speed for installing siding and underlayment. But on the roof, in my opinion, one has to work more quickly and efficiently. So here it is advisable to choose something more revolving, so that the self-tapping screw can be turned quickly and qualitatively. On the roof, I use a drill-driven electric screwdriver. What brand of electric screwdriver to choose?? I have a tool of a popular brand with the letter “E”. I am satisfied with everything in it. When you’re used to working with the same tool for years, your hands feel it. You already know when to press the button and when to release it. But this is just my opinion.

Types of screwdrivers by type of power supply

Network powered screwdrivers

These wrenches are powered by the mains, and this leads to a number of advantages and disadvantages.

The advantages of cordless screwdrivers include:

  • higher power, that’s why professional tools prevail among networked tools. Household screwdrivers with mains power are not produced by all manufacturers;
  • There is no need to constantly monitor the battery level and recharge it. plugged in the socket and you can start;
  • the operating time is not limited by the battery duration, there is no need to break away to recharge the battery;
  • less weight in comparison with cordless models, because the tool is not designed with a battery.
  • networking. When assembling furniture, wires only get in the way, and when doing construction work there is not always access to electricity. Besides, the socket can be located far away, and then you have to use an extension cord. At work at height, mains screwdrivers are extremely inconvenient.

Cordless screwdrivers

This type of tool is more widely used. These devices are powered by batteries, the capacity and charging time of which can vary greatly.

  • Independence from the availability of electricity and the location of the socket, which gives freedom of action. It is possible to work at height, in hard-to-reach places, and practically in the field, and the wires will not be tangled underfoot;
  • the range of application is wider, which results from the autonomy and mobility of the tool.
  • Dependence on the battery charge level, the need to constantly monitor this parameter and periodically recharge the batteries. Experts recommend taking a spare battery with a cordless electric screwdriver: while one is being charged, the other is working. It is preferable to choose batteries which recharge quickly;
  • the cordless tool loses out to the mains tool in terms of power. The torque may not be enough to work with hard materials, but there are exceptions. professional cordless screwdrivers are powerful and reliable enough.

Professionals know that choosing a cordless electric screwdriver is even more difficult than the mains one, because not only the direct function of the device, but also the features of the battery must be considered.

The first thing you should pay attention to is the type of battery:

  • Lithium-ion batteries, Li-Ion. It is the most popular and modern type of battery, used everywhere, not only in screwdrivers. Of the advantages, low weight, sufficient power, no memory effect, a long service life of charge/discharge cycles (about 3000 or more), high charging speed. Of the disadvantages, the cost is relatively high, so it is a good option for permanent, but not one-time work. This battery is not designed to work in freezing temperatures. To make the battery last as long as possible, it is better not to discharge it less than 15% and not to charge it more than 90%. Service life of about 3 years;
  • Nickel-cadmium, Ni-Cd. Highly resistant to low temperatures and voltage fluctuations. On the other hand they have a distinct memory effect, so it is better to fully discharge such battery and fully charge it, not to decrease its capacity. The battery can withstand about 1000-1500 charge/discharge cycles, but it takes a long time to charge. about 7 hours, so it is better to have a spare battery. The battery has a considerable weight, but it is the cheapest one. Service life of about 5 years;
  • nickel-metal hydride, Ni-MH. Such batteries are becoming increasingly popular, they are lightweight, low resistance to low temperatures, the memory effect is not pronounced. The big plus is the minimal self-discharge, and the minus is the price;
  • Lithium-polymer batteries, or Li-Pol, are very rarely used in electric screwdrivers. They are high-capacity, but not very long-lasting batteries.

The Skil 4V Electric Screwdriver is Pretty Legit

You should also pay attention to the battery’s Ah capacity: the higher it is, the longer the electric screwdriver can work without recharging. Another important parameter. voltage in volts. The maximum power you can get from a cordless electric screwdriver depends directly on this indicator.

As a rule, the voltage varies from 9 to 36 V. For simple jobs, you can take a 9 V model: these are compact tools for infrequent use. A 12-volt electric screwdriver is an excellent option for household tools, suitable for many home repair jobs. Electric screwdriver 14 V. this is the golden mean, screwdrivers for 18 V and more. this is a tool for professionals.

See also  How to remove dust from the walls after sanding

Combination wrenches

If you are professionally engaged in the performance of repair and construction work, you can have both types of screwdrivers in your arsenal. However, there is an alternative. a combined model with the ability to be powered from the network and battery, though the choice is not very big.

Cordless or cordless electric drill: which one to choose??

How to choose a drill-powered electric screwdriver on the type of power? It all depends on the task at hand. For example, the mains model is suitable for those who plan to make repairs in their home and occasionally moonlight. And it will only be possible on objects that are connected to the light. What is the best cordless drill. electric screwdriver?

The main advantages of cordless devices over cordless ones are higher power (in other equal parameters) and the ability to work for a long time (no need to take breaks to recharge). Although the second advantage loses its relevance if you buy a spare battery for a cordless model. Among other things, the network models are somewhat cheaper (if we consider products of the same brand).

Of the minuses note the lack of autonomy (will not work without electricity) and the need to drag the power cord (in hard-to-reach places, it can create a real inconvenience). Perhaps for some, these factors will not be so critical: for example, for those who plan to use the electric screwdriver at home or in a workshop for assembling furniture. If it is your case, from network models we recommend to take Makita HP0300. it has a good assembling, decent torque of 56 Nm and has a drilling mode with impact.

Cordless models have a good autonomy and mobility, they are convenient to work even in remote areas. For working on different objects it is the best option. However, you need to monitor the battery charging, which tends to run down at the most inopportune moment. It is possible to buy a spare battery, but it is an additional cost. If you use the electric screwdriver often, it makes sense to pay extra for comfort, otherwise you can get by with the mains model.

How to choose a cordless drill electric screwdriver for the home? It is better to take models with a lithium (Li-Ion) battery, because in contrast to nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) and nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) it has no “memory effect”, and it does not need to be fully discharged for recharging. Also with the same dimensions, lithium batteries have a higher capacity. To save on a second battery, we recommend the Bosch GSR 180-LI, which comes with two 18-volt lithium batteries of 2 Ah. This model is often included in the rating of cordless drills screwdrivers on reliability.

Basic types of screwdrivers

Under the general name “electric screwdriver” consumers often mean several types of similar tools, which, despite the general similarity of the functions, still have differences. So, we can distinguish three main varieties:

  • Electric screwdrivers.
  • Electric wrenches.
  • The most versatile. drills and screwdrivers. Some models can also be equipped with an impact function.

The most popular tools are those that work independently, from batteries. However, you can also get an electric screwdriver. working from a normal 220 V /50 Hz network. Tools with a cord to plug into a socket are commonly referred to as “corded” tools.

it is necessary to get acquainted with the main types of tools. it will be easier to make a choice, realizing the anticipated nature of work, their intensity and the load on the tool.

Electric screwdrivers.

Although cordless screwdrivers are in some ways inferior to standard drills and screwdrivers in terms of their basic performance and overall functionality. They have their own specific advantages, which make these tools widely popular among both professional craftsmen and amateurs. These inestimable “pluses” include the low weight, compact overall layout and good ergonomics. This allows the use of cordless screwdrivers in situations where the use of a larger tool is very inconvenient or even impossible.

Electric screwdrivers are especially handy for making small fasteners

Such a tool is indispensable in production lines for the assembly of small household equipment, computer and office equipment, it is widely used by craftsmen in the process of production or final assembly of furniture items. Their compactness, ergonomics and low weight do not make your hands tired, and are therefore suitable for works at height, including, for example, the installation of suspended ceilings.

Cordless screwdrivers come in different configurations. Many models have a cylindrical body, which, however, is equipped with a swivel joint that allows you to fold if necessary, to concentrate the clamping force of the hand.

Screwdriver with articulated cylindrical body

Other screwdrivers have the usual “pistol” shape, but are always very compact, fitting comfortably in the palm of the hand.

Cordless screwdriver in “pistol-grip” design

There are also very handy models with a swivel joint for a spinning chuck working head. This makes it possible to tighten or dismantle screws in the most awkward places, where no conventional tool can be used.

Screwdriver with pivoting working head

Compactness of these power tools is achieved by using small batteries, typically between 3 and 9 V. Screwdrivers do not have high speeds, usually between 150 and 250 rpm./min. For their direct application this is quite sufficient, as well as the tightening torque of about 10 N×m. For the vast majority of fasteners, especially in domestic conditions, such indicators are more than enough. However, there are more advanced models, equipped with a two-speed switch, and allow you to perform drilling work with plastic and wood. their rotational speed can be up to 600 rpm./minute.

Virtually all cordless screwdrivers have a ¼-inch hex shank bit adapter. Usually bits for different types of fasteners, as well as small-diameter drill bits with the same hex shank are included with the screwdriver itself.

Drills and bits with hexagonal shank are very often included with a screwdriver

Unlike larger tools, electric screwdrivers are often equipped with a non-removable battery, placed in the body of the product. A special power adapter is used for charging. that plugs into a socket.

What’s in it for you? If the owner has a good drill in his tool kit and only needs to mechanize the process of working with fasteners, a cordless screwdriver can be a very useful helper. It is superior to an electric screwdriver in the convenience of such operation. but is considerably inferior to it in terms of functionality.

Electric wrenches

Another type of tool, which is very similar to an electric screwdriver. and even in certain circumstances can be used as a wrench, but still has special characteristics directly connected with its direct purpose.

If the work involves frequent operations with bolt connections, it is better to buy a wrench

If the master by the specificity of his work has to resort to mounting or dismounting of threaded connections of medium or large diameter very often, then to be limited to performing the same operations using wrenches. it means to dramatically reduce the productivity of his work. The classic example is the assembly line or, even more common in private practice, in auto repair shops or tire dealers. In addition, in particular when repairing cars, very often we have to deal with old, “hardened” units, unscrewing which manually, even after treatment with a special compound, seems very difficult.

Technical parameters

In addition to the above differences, each electric screwdriver should be chosen according to a number of technical parameters. Study each one of them carefully and decide which one is better for you.

Motor: Brushed or brushless

According to the type of motor used to rotate the spindle, all screwdrivers are divided into collector (brush) and brushless (inverter).

Look at the figure, here is a fundamental difference. the brush version has graphite brushes for current collector. The main advantage of such an engine is its low cost. The disadvantages are the high losses at the sliding contact point and the low efficiency.

See also  What kind of gasoline to put in a single axle tractor?

Brushless is characterized by a much greater number of advantages:

  • Easily adjustable drill speed, and in a much wider range;
  • Can withstand short-time overloads;
  • The efficiency is 30% higher than the collector version;
  • Longer life before failure;
  • Can also be used in potentially explosive atmospheres, as there is no sparking;
  • Provides the same speed in both directions, and the engine speed does not decrease when the load is applied to the chuck.

Its main disadvantage is the higher cost, which makes brushless screwdrivers suitable for professional applications where battery economy and the preservation of the main characteristics during continuous work are important.

parameters, choose, electric, screwdriver

Power

The power parameter for such a construction tool directly determines its ability to drill holes, drive self-tapping screws, or only disassemble simple structures. As such, the motor power on an electric screwdriver is determined from the product of voltage by the current in the winding. For plugged into the mains, the voltage is known in advance. 220 V, these are powerful enough models, capable of performing any task.

But the cordless versions are designed for supply voltages of 3, 6, 10, 15, 18 and 36 V. Accordingly, the higher the voltage to choose from, the more power a cordless electric screwdriver will give you.

Torque

This parameter is measured in Newton meters (Nm). Depending on the torque generated, an electric screwdriver will be able to tighten loose fasteners or drill wood, metal and other materials. A total of three categories of torque are distinguished from models for domestic use:

  • 30 to 40 Nm. suitable for drilling hard surfaces (wood, brick, metal);
  • 20 to 30 Nm. good for driving screws into various surfaces;
  • up to 10 Nm. suitable for repair of interior items, toys, machinery, where screws are already screwed in, in everyday life such models are called electric screwdrivers.

All of iFixit’s Driver Kits, Explained!

Professional screwdrivers can have a torque of up to 130 Nm. But for home use, a torque of over 40 Nm would be excessive. Some screwdrivers are equipped with a torque regulator, it is made in the form of a handle with appropriate divisions.

Speed of rotation and number of speeds

The following speeds are the basis for selecting the speed:

  • In the range of 400. 800 rpm. for unscrewing screws, on most models the speed can be adjusted in a smaller range;
  • From 800 to 1300 rpm. designed for drilling holes;
  • From 1500 to 3000 rpm. professional, designed for light finishing works, can operate not only in drill mode, but also as a peorator.

Some screwdrivers can have several variants of rotation, for this purpose, they are equipped with a speed selector that allows you to select the most suitable mode.

Chuck type

All models are categorized according to chuck type: quick-change chuck, key chuck and hexagonal chuck.

Look at the figure, here you can see all types of chucks. The key is used for powerful models equipped with an impact mode, because it allows to securely fix the working element of the electric screwdriver.

Hex chuck allows you to change bits very quickly, but they are extremely weakly fixed in the socket. Therefore, it is only used in low-powered screwdrivers.

The quick-change chuck is a universal chuck because it makes it possible to change bits quickly and ensures that they are well clamped.

Working Modes

The main mode of operation for an electric screwdriver is screwing and unscrewing fasteners. But, in addition to the basic, you can find a tool with:

  • Impulse. designed to remove a screw that is tightly seated or rusted;
  • Blow. helps to conduct light finishing operations, but can not fully replace the peorator, in most cases, is used to screw screws in solid materials;
  • Drilling. allows you to get a hole of a certain diameter, which corresponds to the diameter of the drill.

Presence of reversing

The reverse button allows the electric screwdriver to be turned in the opposite direction. This feature helps you work with different thread directions when standard rotation doesn’t work. Also, the presence of reverse allows you to unscrew or loosen fasteners that have already been screwed in. This makes it easier to assemble and disassemble furniture, appliances, etc.д.

Comfort and design

To choose a particular electric screwdriver, it is advisable to hold it in your hands. the handle should fit comfortably in the palm of your hand. This parameter is especially important for professional models, because prolonged work can lead to hand chafing. If you’re going to hold it in one hand, pay attention to the balance. a pistol-type electric screwdriver would be most appropriate.

Drilling spot light. helps to navigate more accurately in low light conditions. With this feature, you will precisely set the drill to the right point.

Different attachments. allows you to work with different types of fasteners. Note that the use of the appropriate bit allows you to keep both the screwdriver and the replaceable bit intact

Speed of rotation

A good electric screwdriver must be equipped with a speed switch to be able to work in two modes. This indicator is very important if you are going to use the tool as a drill, where at low speeds the drill simply will not give the desired effect.

For tightening/unscrewing screws and bolts, a lower speed of about 500-600 rpm is used. If you want to drill something. choose a tool with the ability to rotate up to 1300 rpm.

Screwdriver types

Manufacturers are always trying to take into account the needs of users, and therefore are constantly improving their models, inventing new and new technologies of work and produce a variety of tools that are suitable for certain types of work. If we talk specifically about screwdrivers, then we can distinguish two types. these are electric screwdrivers and drill devices, which were mentioned above. Let’s get to know them.

Electric screwdrivers

So, electric screwdrivers are devices that are designed only for screwing and unscrewing fasteners. It has a chuck where you can insert the right bit and lock it in place and start working. Its rotation speed is no more than 500 rpm. in one minute.

attention! The classic electric screwdriver is not designed for making holes in any material!

Makita electric screwdriver

You can find special drill bits for such screwdrivers on the market, which will allow you to drill a hole in, for example, wood, but you will have to drill each hole long and hard in this case. So it is better to perform this task with a drill.

  • low price
  • small dimensions;
  • low weight
  • ergonomics;
  • It is easy to perform fastening work with small elements.

Such a screwdriver is ideal if you need to assemble and disassemble office equipment, perform furniture assembly from parts with holes already made for fasteners. It will also be suitable for working at height and with raised hands (for example, when installing a stretch ceiling), as due to the low weight of the master simply will not get tired in a short time.

For your information! The screwdriver can be pistol-shaped or standard. But in any case it is notable for its small size. There are also variants with a swivel joint, which will allow you to change the shape of the product in one motion.

Electric screwdrivers have small batteries and do not have much power. They are often not removable. The charger usually plugs directly into the device in the appropriate socket.

In short, if there is a drill in the house, you can buy just an electric screwdriver, which does not differ in high cost. This is a very handy, fast and useful helper.

Screwdriver drills

Those who do not have a drill at home should consider such an option as a drill with an electric screwdriver. This device is capable of solving two tasks at once: making a hole and screwing/unscrewing fasteners.

Such model has a cam or quick-action chuck and usually. several speed modes that allow you to change the level of rotation from 500 to 1500 rpm. That is, by installing a drill bit instead of the usual bit, you can quickly enough drill the required number of holes in wooden materials. It’s easy to change from screwing to drilling and vice versa. It is this variant of the tool is purchased more often: it is easier to have a model at home that has two functions at once than two different devices.

See also  How to choose a quarter in the board with a router

HAMMER DRL420A Electric Screwdriver

As a rule, these screwdrivers always have a pistol shape as the best option for performing drilling and screwing work. The handle often has special rubber pads or a coating that will prevent the tool from slipping in your hand. The battery is usually installed at the bottom of the handle and is most often removable. It must be charged using the special charger included with the model when purchased.

Advice from! It is best to purchase a model with a second, replaceable battery. It can be used while the first one is standing on the charger after it runs out during operation.

An indispensable element of the device is a special mechanism that allows you to limit the torque level, if necessary. When drilling, rotation is transferred to the chuck without restriction. For convenience, almost all models also have a small light bulb in the work area, which will make it easier to perform work in dimly lit areas.

Note! There is another type of device that resembles an electric screwdriver by all its appearance. it is an electric wrench. But it is used to work with a completely different type of fasteners. nuts, bolts of large diameter.

What criteria to pay attention to when choosing an electric screwdriver?

If you are wondering what to choose a cordless electric screwdriver for the home, then you should pay attention to the main characteristics and additional functions, because they can be useful in this or that work.

Design

A cordless device can have this design:

  • Pistol type. Standard perpendicular position of the handle in relation to the body. Pistol-type devices are convenient to hold and push while drilling/unscrewing. If you do not often have to work in cramped conditions, the pistol electric screwdriver is your option. Also note that units of this type are more powerful than angle “screwdrivers”, for other things.
  • Angular. In these models, the chuck is located at an angle, so you can get into hard-to-reach places, for example, when you need to screw in screws somewhere under the ceiling. Also angular devices are very convenient when assembling furniture. However, if you are a serial furniture assembler, the pistol gauge is most likely enough for you.
parameters, choose, electric, screwdriver

Note also that there are so-called adjustable models in which the chuck can rotate at different angles. However, they are more expensive than angle and pistol units and at the same time less powerful. For the home, they are not very relevant, and often the conventional pistol model fully meets the need. But according to what other parameters to choose a cordless electric screwdriver for home?

Torque

Torque (KM) is the force with which the device screws in a screwdriver. The higher the torque, the easier it will be for the fastener to penetrate the hard material. Pay attention to the torque in screwdrivers, which are divided into three groups:

Devices with low torque are good for drywall work only. For furniture assembly, it is best to use a unit with torque in the 30-70 Nm range. But if you need to constantly work with hard materials, then you definitely need a unit with more torque.

Impact or no-impact drill?

An impact electric screwdriver is not the same as an impact drill. Here, the blows are in the form of pulses that rotate the nozzle in some jerks. In fact, the impact mode is designed for screwing large fasteners into high-density material. Also, percussion mode helps you drill small holes in concrete.

Other things being equal, percussion models can cost much more than hammerless tools. Therefore, if you do not plan to drill a brick or twist long self-tapping screws into Canadian maple (the fifth hardest wood in the world), then a hammerless model is suitable for you.

The functions and capabilities of a screwdriver

How to choose the right cordless electric screwdriver by additional functions? It all depends on the type of work to be performed. Here are the most sought-after features that a quality electric home screwdriver should have:

  • Reverse. A function designed to unscrew fasteners. It would seem that absolutely all “screwdrivers” should have this function. But we noticed that some “neweyme” Chinese devices allow only to screw in a bolt but not to unscrew it. Watch out for this when buying.
  • Backlighting. Backlighting improves visibility of the fastener (or hole) you’re screwing in. This function is especially useful when working in unlit (or poorly lit) rooms and in hard-to-reach places.
  • Torque adjustment. One of the most useful features of a screwdriver because it allows you to adjust the rotation force for a certain material. For example, it is better to increase the torque when screwing in hardwood fasteners, and it is better to decrease it when unscrewing rusty screws in order not to break the slot. If you are an appliance repairman and often have to work with old fasteners, then you definitely need a machine with adjustable KM.
  • Speed adjustment. If the torque can be changed in 20 to 25 positions, the device can have 2 to 3 speeds at most. Speed adjustment is important for screwdrivers when drilling in different materials. For example, for soft materials a high RPM will do, and for hard materials a low RPM will do. But if you need to drill often, then we advise you to look at reliable mains drills.
  • Power button lock. This design element in screwdrivers is often intended for drilling. If you are drilling several holes in a row in the workpiece, it is convenient to press the button without constantly holding down the start button. These buttons are usually fitted on heavy, powerful devices that are supposed to be used for frequent drilling. If you already have a drill at home, you do not need a brushless screwdriver.
  • Motor brake. After power off, the motor can still rotate the chuck for a while. This feature shuts off the motor almost immediately, so that you don’t have to keep the device in the air, waiting for the chuck to stop.
  • Motor protection. A motor protection switches the motor off in the case of overheating (which is very rare in a screwdriver) or when the drill jams in the hole.
  • Brushless motor. Brushless motors deliver higher efficiency than a collector motor without causing sparks. Brushless motors are usually used for powerful devices with a high torque. But of course, they also come at a high price.

And what battery to choose an electric screwdriver with?? It doesn’t take long to explain. with lithium-ion. It has no “memory effect”, has a good capacity (depending on the model) and is more durable than nickel cadmium. It is worth noting that currently lithium-ion batteries are used in 99% of all screwdrivers.

Which electric screwdriver is better mains or cordless?

According to the type of power screwdrivers are divided into 2 groups:

  • Mains. They function from the mains 220 V, do not require charging batteries. Cheaper than rechargeable models. Their movement is limited by the cable, they cannot be used in wet rooms, they are heavy.
  • Cordless. Compact models for hard-to-reach places. Are powered by removable batteries. Ideal for rooms with high humidity and situations where there is no possibility to use mains electricity. Disadvantages of these tools are low-battery power and higher price.

For constant professional activity it is better to buy a model with a mains cable. Batteries are better for occasional housework.

Related Posts

| Denial of responsibility | Contacts |RSS