According to www.master-forum.ru. The official site of magazines “Tools”, “GardenTools” and “Everything for construction and repair” series “Consumer? One of the most common questions salespeople ask is. To answer this question, it is necessary first to understand: what is the principle of the perforator’s work?
The torch is one of those power tools that are most in demand among consumers, largely due to the widespread construction of bricks and concrete. You will find it both in the kit of a professional craftsman and in the arsenal of an amateur who uses the tool only from time to time.
What kind of tool is indispensable in many situations? Which can solve a decent range of tasks. make a hole in the concrete or brick, pierce masonry, clean the wall of the old ceramic tiles, remove plaster?
The electric drive of a gator
The electric drive acts as a motor in the construction of the tool. The gyrators use electric actuators of collector type.
Lightweight gimbals used in utility applications have a horizontal motor. In contrast, models of medium and heavy class, used in professional applications, are usually assembled with vertical placement of the power drive. However, there are exceptions to the rule. For example, the Metabo heavy-duty Metabo KHE 96 weighs 12 kg and is equipped with a horizontal drive unit.
The horizontal drive layout makes the tool compact and easy to use in hard-to-reach and confined places. This layout has several drawbacks, the main of which are the high load on the power component and poor cooling conditions for the electric drive.
A tool with a vertical drive component provides a more comfortable environment in which to use it. The reason is that the vertical arrangement of the electric motor reduces shock vibrations and provides better cooling of the electric motor. In addition, the vertical layout allows you to give the piston a wide range of motion, which increases the amplitude of the striker movement. This advantage is achieved by using a crank mechanism instead of a roller bearing in a horizontally mounted motor.
Vertical motors are capable of sustaining a continuous duty cycle that is not possible with a horizontally mounted motor.
What does the torch consist of
Important! Pistol and straight have the same structure and purpose, but differ in the location of the handle.
Both types differ not so much in appearance as in design, and therefore have different applications.
Pistol grip and straight grip
Let’s take a closer look at the structure of the first type. It has a body made of plastic, on which the control panel is located:
- Button and power controller at the same time.
- The clamp. Prevents the device from turning on by itself due to the owner’s negligence, and also secures the device in the selected mode, which allows you not to hold the on button for the entire operation.
- Chuck rotation switch (reverses direction).
- Switch for changing modes.
- Rotary speed switch.
- The second handle, which allows you to hold the device more securely in your hands.
- The chuck is the actuator, also important for changing nozzles.
This type of torch is more suitable for domestic work or semi-professional use, where the amount of power it has is sufficient. This kind belongs to the light category and is used more like a drill.
Barrel type, on the other hand, differs in the quality of the above-mentioned parts, as well as their arrangement. Radically different design because of the motor location. This entails some changes.
Such a device is best used in professional work. It has a huge power, rotation speed and impact force. This kind of machine is categorized as heavy.
Peorator straight what it is and what it consists of
Structurally, the tool in question is of two types. pistol-type or straight and barrel-type. They differ not only externally, but also structurally. Let’s see in detail what a pistol and barrel chuck are, how they work, and what are the peculiarities of their correct application.
Tool has a plastic body with controls on the outside. Such controls include (for straight and pistol type gears)
- Torque switch to activate the tool and control the rotation speed of the action member, chuck
- The switch lock allows you to prevent the tool from turning on by itself and eliminates the need to hold the trigger, which is convenient when you are working for long periods of time
- Reversing switch. allows you to switch the direction of chuck rotation in two directions
- Regulator for switching between tool modes
- Regulator of cartridge rotation speed. not available on all geared tools
- Additional handle for comfortable work
- The chuck, in which accessories are fixed depending on the work to be carried out
The inside of the power tool consists of the following elements:
- The electric motor is the “heart” of the tool and is what drives the chuck
- Gearbox assembly. the rotational energy is transferred to the gearbox, which allows you to adjust the speed as well as creating a shock action. Gearbox consists of gears and a special mechanism, due to which the percussion action is created
- safety clutch is a accessory that prevents tool from failing if the bit jams in the workpiece. If the drill jams, the electric motor could burn out
- The anti-vibration system is a device that reduces vibrations. Useful when working with a gator for longer periods of time, not only do you get tired, but your hands shake too. In barrel-type peorators, this system is also more advanced than the pistol type
These are the main internal mechanisms of the power tool, with which you need to become familiar in detail in order to understand the principle of operation of the peorator. So, to find out how a peorator works, you need to understand the inner workings.
Types and types of torches
The percussion peorator is a versatile tool. Many kinds of machines are used in many different areas. These can be: bailer; battery-operated; for siding; for concrete stabbing.
Even far from industrial models are known.
The main problem in working with bricks and concrete is the high dust generation. The size of the dust particles is such that it is not easy to wash them off the skin, in the lungs they make trouble when working for a long time. Overall cleanliness suffers, the tool itself gets dirty.
Dust collectors in various configurations are available. It can be a dust bag, mounted or mounted vacuum cleaner.
The bag collects particles and dust through the collar, put on the cartridge. You can make one of these by yourself.
Vacuum cleaner will pick up dirt much better. Depending on its power and characteristics the working place can become pretty clean.
The hydraulic peorator is used for field work and production operations. Main purpose. drilling holes, penetration of rock formations.
This professional peorator has a simple, reliable design and is powered by a compressed fluid supply. Consists of impact and pivoting mechanisms, power supply and control drive.
The hydraulic peorator is powered by a hydraulic pump. It can be restricted in operation. by pipelines and connecting fittings. But the ease of repair is lower than the electric.
The hydraulic peorator has up to 2 times the drilling power of other designs.
The smallest and compactest peorator, which is intended for making holes. the medical type. It is very silent and serves as an alternative to the scarifier.
Used for blood sampling, it punctures the skin with laser light. It is so called because of the “piercing” and similarity of the effect to the usual kind of machine.
There is a variant that does not work on line. the cordless pen. It is safe and good outdoors and in rooms with very high humidity.
Their principal use is in mobile operations and operations in hard-to-reach places. Powered by rechargeable battery. This wireless peorator is made in a plastic case for low weight.
Specifications: battery type and parameters, electrical voltage, weight, impact and rotation parameters. For mini-models. reversing options, speed regulation. Handlebar and backlighting options for improved handling.
The pneumatic peorator differs from the hydraulic one in the type of supply medium. Instead of liquid, it is powered by compressed air.
Pneumatic hand tools also work by impact and rotary action. It is widely used in machine shops and repair shops.
The air tool consists of an almost airtight housing with an air outlet. It mounts a ratchet wheel, piston, cylinder. The chuck can have a cooling system, which is needed for high power.
According to its weight, the peorator can be of three types:
- Lightweight up to 3 kg. Used for drilling small holes for dowels or plugs.
- Medium. up to 5 kg. Used for chiselling in reinforced structures. Can be used for hard stone.
- Heavy. more than 5 kg. This tool can replace even a small demolition hammer. It is often used for demolition drilling in concrete with a thickness of 30-60 mm.
- Single-mode tools. are used for drilling only.
- Dual-mode. used when it is necessary to drill with a blow;
- Three-mode. in addition to normal drilling and drilling with impact are used for chiseling.
Depending on the functionality, manufacturer, and power of the tool, there are different design features. However, despite this, the basic elements remain the same:
- The core element is the electric motor, which can be designed as vertical (heavy and medium) or horizontal (light). Horizontal configuration makes the unit compact, but this design expects a high impact load on the motor. Vertical design provides effective cooling of the engine, which improves the quality of its work. This layout is best suited for intensive work.
- The most important component is also the striking mechanism. It can be pneumatic, mechanical, or electromechanical It is used to transmit torque to the chuck axis from the motor and simultaneously reduce rotation speed.
- Anti-vibration system. It has a significant impact on the quality of the work performed, including the health of the craftsman who works with the tool.
- The body of the device, which is made of shockproof plastic or metal.
- Electric circuit. Used to control the speed of the motor.
- The overload clutch is used to stop the chuck if the tool jams in the hole. It provides protection for human hands from possible injuries.
In addition, the rotary sledgehammer can be equipped with additional systems, which help to make the application of the device more comfortable or expand its capabilities. These include:
- Drilling depth stop mechanism.
- The workpiece retention system.
- Dust extraction system for the working area.
- The mechanism for changing the modes of action of the tool and so on.
Tool principle is based on impact mechanism. pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical or electromagnetic. The percussion mechanism itself is driven by the rotary motion of the motor. The electromagnetic mechanism involves two electromagnetic coils. They allow the core to move in a reciprocating direction. The core wire transmits these blows to the face of the drill. The pneumatic version is provided by the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cylinder.
The pneumatic system of this unit has 2 variants of execution. with the use of a rocking bearing, as well as a crank mechanism, which is combined with the gear part. Rotation of the shaft produces an oscillating movement of the piston which pumps air into the working cylinder of the system. The cylinder, due to its small space, generates a compressed air pressure that causes the ram and striker to move.
Rapid pulse transitions between ram and piston convert these movements into a kick. The mechanism when idling and not pressing against a hard surface is self-acting, so no compression pressure is created and no shock is emitted. The operating mechanism itself is stationary. Shaft speed can be adjusted at the touch of a button in the presence of a soft starter. In some models, the button is equipped with a regulator for setting the trigger limit, which allows you to set the power and number of revolutions of the engine.
sophisticated electronic systems can be used. constant electronics. It maintains the set impact energy, torque and rpm under load. The result is no loss of performance under heavy loads, especially at lower speeds. Advanced models have armature rotation monitoring and power reserve that starts up when the load increases.
To protect the user from injury due to tool jamming, a safety clutch or release clutch is used that locks momentarily. It ensures that the shaft is disconnected from the gearbox.
The tool is often required to work with materials that produce a significant amount of abrasive particles and dust. They interfere with the user and contribute to wear of the tool shaft. To prevent this, several models are equipped with dust extraction systems that extract the dust from the working area.
Peorator is used for making holes in concrete, stone, brick building structures of high strength through mechanical impacts of the nozzle, which performs a combined forward and rotational motion.
Principle of operation of the rotary drill, its advantages, and the operations performed
The principle of the peorator is simple. Punching out holes is achieved by a combination of reciprocating and rotating movements of the auger. It does not cut the material with a sharp edge, but punches through. These tools are therefore properly sharpened.
Picture : drills for rotary hammers
How rotary drills differ from impact drills
Peorators differ from impact drills in the impact technology. In the latter, it is created by the operation of the ratchet mechanism. It defines the following differences between the tools.
The speed of penetration into hard materials
Here are the key points that can be extracted from this comparison.
Peorator is better suited for working on hard materials than a drill.
The latter are an excellent choice for drilling holes in brittle and friable materials.
pressure is needed on the drill when working on firm substrates. The lifetime of accessories and tools is shortened because of this.
Advantages and disadvantages of a rotary table
Tell us about the advantages of a peorator.
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Versatility. Many jobs can be done with a rotary tool.
Reliability. Peorators last much longer than impact drills.
Performance. Quicker operations.
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The disadvantages of peorators include higher for tools and increased weight.
Tools and steps performed
Let’s start with the fact that torches are divided into two types: two-mode and three-mode.
The former can be operated in two modes, as you can easily guess. That’s drilling and drilling with a hammer.
The three-mode models can additionally perform only impacts without drilling, which expands the list of operations.
Drilling. Everything is handled like with a drill.
Peoria (drilling). Drilling mode with impact is set for it. Drill bits and diamond core bits are inserted into chucks.
Milling. This operation is performed, for example, when dismantling old ceramic tiles and laying cables and pipes. The result of drilling is a groove in the wall. To perform this operation, the rotary hammers are equipped with chisels. Setting the hammering action without drilling.
Destroying surfaces. To do this, the spade tips with wide spatulas are used. The operation is carried out in impact mode without drilling.
Picture : Tooling for the chisel gun
Mixing machines are used for quickly mixing mortars. There are also special tools for this.
Photo : Mixing mortar with the pelletizer
In the Russian market two manufacturers enjoy the greatest trust and even love of users: Bosch and Makita. They produce both professional and household tools, which have proven to be reliable and well thought-out design. For household needs, you can choose products of brands Interskol, Energomash, Metabo, Defort, Bort.
- Do not overpay for a professional tool if you don’t plan to use it regularly and all day long. The main difference of professional models is their ability to work 7-8 hours without interruption. Such amount of work is rarely encountered in everyday life.
- The same advice can be applied to the additional functions: Pay only for those you will use.
- For household peorator the following characteristics can be considered optimal:
- Weight. up to 6 kg.
- Power. from 0.5 to 0.9 kW
- Mounting type. SDS plus system.
- Impact force. from 1,2 to 2,2 Joules.
- 3 operating modes: drilling, chiselling, boring. The latter, however, is only really needed during major repairs in the apartment.
Working principle and modes
In the work of the torch there are three basic modes:
- Impact with rotation. makes it possible to drill through hard and thick surfaces without much effort.
- Non-rotating impact. makes it possible to hammer on concrete surfaces.
- Rotating without impact. turns the tool into a drill.
Important! If you choose the right mode, you can use the tool in the process of wiring. The result is far from perfect, but the subsequent processing of the walls will hide any defects.
- The electric motor passes current through and starts the other parts of the machine.
- The stator shaft begins to rotate due to its location on the bearings. It has a helical gear at its end that lowers the speed and increases the torque.
- Due to the rotation of the bearing an impact option occurs.
This causes all the parts inside the rotor to move and interact with each other, transmitting energy to the gear that controls the power and performance of the rotor.