The principle of operation of the drill
The electric drill has the highest demand among all tools. But few people know in detail how the drill works. Many people use it not only to make holes in the walls, but also to mix cement or paint. In this case, it serves as a mixer.
The components of the electrodegro includes several main elements: an electric motor, a revolution regulator, a gearbox:
- Electric motor. Consists of three main parts: coal brushes, stator, anchor. Coal brushes. have a form of parallelepiped, with flexible electronic. Pressed from the schedule. Stator. a cylindrical shape with bases for laying stator windings. There are only two stator windings, and they are located opposite each other. Made of steel with high magnetic permeability. The stator is attached tightly to the electroderny housing itself, which provides reliable protection to the stator.
- Gearbox. The principle of operation is to lower the speed of the drill and increase the torque. The most commonly encountered gearbox with one transmission, but are also found with two.
- Revolution regulator. Serves to regulate the speed of the electroderel. The device is very simple. The speed is changing by clicking on the button specially made for this. The entire process of turning the revolutions occurs in a split second, which provides rapid switching without harm to the outlet. The board itself has small speeds, which allows you to place it under the button. Some models have two speeds-there the gearbox has two gears and somewhat similar to a gearbox in the vehicles.
- Drill shock effect. Not all types of drills are equipped with them. The reason is simple in this. The mechanism that performs the shock effect quickly wears out. Not for all types of work, shock force may come in handy. Most often for the detachment of cement walls.
What is a drill
A drill is a hand machine for drilling in various materials (wood, metals, plastic, as well as brick and concrete).
The first electric drills appeared at the end of the 19th century after the creation of electric motors. They looked naturally different than in our time, they were bulky, they must have been kept when working with two hands.
Drills with a “pistol” handle were invented at the beginning of the 20th century.
It is called a hand machine because when working it must be held in the hands. But by type of drive, the drills are called electrical, pneumatic and again manual (mechanical).
Electric drills are driven by a built.in electric motor, pneumatic. compressed air, manual. of course, with the hand.
We will only consider modern electric drills.
An electric drill is the most popular power tool that most owners are the first to acquire for their economy.
This instrument is necessary both in the city apartment by newcards, when repairing an apartment, and in the country.
Hang the cornice on the windows, drying dryers in the kitchen, various shelves in the bathroom, drill holes in the concrete wall or wooden board and many other works in which you can’t do without a drill.
Mechanical manual drill and its features
Mechanical tool and its features
A manual drill is of two varieties:
The most popular and practical is the two.speed option, because it allows you to change the speed of the tool, and, accordingly, the frequency of rotation of the drill with the handle, by rearranging the handle between the drive shafts.
Often use a drill of a hand mechanical two.speed with a two.stage multiplier. It allows you to increase the speed of rotation of the cutting tool (the multiplier is also called an accelerator in a simple tongue).
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Two.speed manual drills have several advantages:
- There are two operating modes with which you can choose the necessary speed and torque.
- During construction or during the repair, this tool will allow you to screw up any self-tapping screw or screw, mix paint, putty and more. It combines at the same time the “drilling”, and the peorator, and the electric screwdriver, and even the construction mixer;
- high reliability and wear resistance, which can be violated only with improper observance of the rules of operation of the tool;
- small cost and weight.
Manual drills consists of such elements:
The most important advantage of the tool is a simple design. Thanks to this, the manual drill is very reliable, easy to repair, economical. After all, when used, electricity is not spent.
Using the tool
Two.speed manual drill. the most necessary tool when performing repair and construction. It can drill wood, metal, concrete, wood-bruise and any other material. In terms of characteristics (except for the speed and time of work), the manual version is not inferior to the electric one if you drill, for example, holes up to 10 mm.
When choosing a tool, you should pay attention to the following things:
- For more pleasant work, light ergonomic handles are needed;
- a ratchet mechanism, the presence of which allows you to rotate the cartridge in any direction to facilitate work in hard.to.reach places;
- the presence of four fists in the cartridge allows you to fix a more stable drilling tool.
The drill is used mainly for drilling. If you need a conventional hole, it is necessary to control all the time so that the drill is exactly perpendicular to the surface. When performing an inclined hole, the drill is taken to the desired angle.
Also at the end of the drill, it is necessary to reduce speed and pressure so as not to break or bend the drill. If these requirements cannot be taken into account when working, then you can injure or lose balance.
The brand of the DRC DR-2 is even used to drill bones so that you can install knitting needles in them.
A manual drill can be used as an electric screwdriver if you need to tighten or twist a large number of screws. Sometimes, with large.scale repairs, it is used as a mixer to mix paint or putty.
There is also a marking method in which it is necessary to use a mechanical drill. Marking is performed in various ways:
- drilling. previously prepared hole expands to a larger diameter;
- Zenketing. defects of holes in the metal are corrected;
- Zenkovka. an increase in the end of the hole and giving it the necessary form;
- Deployment. final cleaning of the hole after Zenkovka (bringing work to a logical conclusion)
Compliance with safety rules when working with a mechanical drill
A manual mechanical drill is one of the safest tools, but even when working with it, there are several rules that need to be followed:
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- The workpiece with which you are going to work should be well fixed. Holding her hands is not allowed, as you can injure them.
- You cannot touch the cutting tool during rotation, otherwise you can also damage the skin of the hands or fingers.
- Having changed the drill, then you need to remove the key from the cartridge.
- The drill will last longer if it is periodically extracted from a drill and clean it from chips. You need to clean the cartridge.
- It is important to periodically lubricate the cutting tool, since during prolonged operation it heats up and can split into several parts.
- Under the detail it is worth placing a metal lining so that when drilling the hole does not skew.
- It is recommended to use specialized construction glasses if work is carried out at an accelerated pace and with fragile materials.
- All types of shavings need to be cleaned with a special brush, and not with the hand, so as not to damage the skin.
Having examined the features and scope of the use of a hand drill, it is safe to say that at the present time it is the most practical and safe tool when performing work.
How to choose?
It is difficult to choose an electric drill in a technically inexperienced person. I would like to purchase a drill so that it performs its functions, and the price is not reasonable. What characteristics of a drilling tool to pay attention to so that the purchase does not disappoint?
Most household drifts have a motor power in the range from 500 to 900 watts. This is enough for household needs. The weight of the tool does not exceed 1.5-2 kg, it is comfortable to use. Such a drill can drill holes with a diameter of up to 10 mm even in solid materials.
If you purchase the drill to drill holes of a larger diameter or mix viscous building mixtures, an engine with a capacity of 1,500 watts is required. It has large dimensions and mass. This leads to an increase in the size of the electric drill and its weight, which reaches 6-10 kg.
The maximum speed at idle is an important characteristic of the electric drill. The higher the speed of rotation of the drill, the more even the hole is obtained. Shock drills are better drilled at high speeds. For grinding and polishing, they also require a large speed of rotation. The rotation speed of the electric droplets reaches 3000-4000 revolutions per minute. You can recognize it in the technical specification of the tool.
For some tasks, the electric drill should operate at 500-800 revolutions per minute. Such speed is needed to tighten screws, drill materials of increased hardness, glass.
There should be a rotation regulator on a universal household drill. This significantly expands the capabilities of the drilling tool.
An electric drill can perform functions not related to drilling: to be a turning machine drive, a milling processing tool for wood, polish and polish, etc.D. Such opportunities give a variety of nozzles and devices. Of course, the drill cannot become a full.fledged replacement for a specialized tool. But in some situations it can be very useful.
Corner grinding machine device
To understand the operation of the mechanism and why breakage is possible, you need to have an idea, at least a schematic, about the main components of the tool.
Regardless of the model, manufacturer and technical characteristics, any corner grinder has the following details:
- The mobile part of the electric motor, it is called an anchor, or, what will be technically true, rotor. As a rule, this element is combined with a working shaft transmitting the torque.
- Contacts of the collector, which is a switching fee through which the voltage from the background is removed.
- Brushes clinging to it provide electrical contact. With a weak press, they begin to sparkle hard.
- Internal motionless winding. stator. The anchor rotation in it is achieved due to electromagnetic induction.
- Mechanical reducing gearbox for speed adjustment.
- Other components: housing, usually plastic, handles, starting button that feeds the cable.
As a working tool, an angular grinder is subjected to high loads and increased continuous operation time. Inside the case, despite the maximum tightness, dust, small fragments of the processed materials, scale, is periodically getting. This negatively affects both mechanical parts and the electric part.
As a result, the conductive parts and gradual burnout of the collector lamellas due to its overheating occurs due to its overheating. In turn, this leads to the destruction of the background brushes, as it repels increased sparking.
Dismantling is electrode
In order to find a malfunction and repair the device, you often have to disassemble the tool. Since all devices are outwardly similar, their disassembly can be represented in the following form:
- The screws are displayed around the perimeter of the device, for this you will need to use the cross.
- Having twisted the screws, the halves of the case are disconnected.
- The turning button and reverse are neatly extracted from the grooves.
- A gearbox is extracted from one half. In order to take it out, you will need to crank it in the seating.
- The assembly occurs in the reverse order. With it, it is necessary to ensure that all the removed elements and wires are located in the recesses specially made for them.
To make a lubricant of mechanical parts, you need to disassemble the gearbox. For this, the protective casing is removed, after which the screws are removed and the upper cover is removed. Visit materials such as agrinol are used as lubrication. It should be noted that the repair of power tools with your own hands is almost impossible with the gearbox damage, since it is difficult to purchase a separate replacement for worn gears.
When repairing often, you have to face the need to analyze the cartridge. It is a fast.packed design. Fixed using a threaded connection or a cone cone. In the first method, you will need to unscrew the mount with a hexagonal key, and then, setting the key in the cartridge, squeeze it tightly. The cartridge itself is unscrewed by rotation of the key. Extracting mounting with a cone Morsa is neatly blows into the end of the cartridge.
Shock and unstressed
An ordinary, unstressed electric drill is designed for drilling wood, metal and plastic. But the structure of some materials is such that by ordinary drilling it is difficult to make a hole in them. These are materials such as:
The main part of the urban population lives in multi.storey buildings, which are built just from concrete or brick. And to make a hole in such a wall, you need to use a shock drill. In such a device, in addition to the rotational movement of the cartridge, there is also its progressive movement, which resembles the movement. And such an additional function allows you to quickly and efficiently make a hole in such materials.
Device and principle of operation of the tool
The main element setting the entire tool in motion, electric motor. It is from it that a rotational force arises for the drilling element, which, in turn, is fixed in a special cartridge. The engine creates a very high speed of verification, which is unacceptable for work, therefore, using the gearbox, it is regulated.
The device of the electric drill consists of the following tools:
- Puletting grate.
- Power regulator (in the process of twisting screws or screws).
- Speed regulator, which acts as a torque limiter.
- Shock switch.
- Quickly collapsible cartridge.
- Self.centering fist.
- Cartridge mounts.
- Cooling fans.
- Electric motor.
- Right lever.
- Fixer for power cord.
- Dutation cord terminals.
Of course, there are many elements, but everyone has their own purpose. In some models, manufacturers have provided a function that helps regulate the limit of torque. Then there is no need to pull the twisted screws and screws.
Drill shock mechanism device diagram.
The gearbox is connected to the cartridge through the output shaft. Cartridge. a device whose purpose is to hold drills and other similar nozzles. Most models are equipped with three self-regulating fists-losers, and the gear key can also be used so that it is possible to lock and unlock the cartridge channel. Another part of the electric drifts regulates the mounts by turning the cylindrical ring, which is located around the mechanism.
The trigger is the same switch that serves to turn on the device. modern models use it not only to launch the tool into work, but also to adjust the speed of rotation. This moment directly depends on which force to press the trigger.
In separate models there is a function that allows you to choose the optimal speed due to a round rotated regulator. It limits the course of the trigger, which is extremely convenient when working on screwing screws. The main thing is to carry out the whole process at slow speeds.
A brief description of the functionality of the electrode
You can perform a large number of operations with a drill due to the presence of a mode of operation, which is a reverse. It allows you to turn the screws. There is a shock function that provides the ability to drill particularly solid materials. The presence of a trigger lock allows you to work with a device continuously and continuously.
Since the reverse regime is associated with the presence of a switch that is located near the trigger, a drill can be turned out by the fastener by changing the direction of rotation of the drill from the main to the opposite.
The impact on the drill is made due to the shock mechanism switch.
This contributes to the destruction of brick and concrete. Shock drilling is carried out using special drills. It is important that they are securely fixed in the cartridge of the drill. If you press a small button on the electric drill handle, then you can fix the trigger so that the tool works in prolonged drilling mode. Pressure on the trigger allows you to lower the lock.
The collector mechanism of the electric motor provides for the inclusion of the following three elements: anchor, stator and coal brushes. Electrotechnical steel is used for the manufacture of the stator, which is characterized by high magnetic permeability. The form of the stator is cylindrical, and the stator winding is laid in the grooves in the amount of two, located one against the other. The stator should be rigidly strengthened in the tool case.
The rotor is a shaft with a core. For its manufacture, steel of electrical type is used. The part is protected by grooves located through the same distances, where anchor windings are laid. To create them, it is necessary to have whole wires, allowing the rotor to strengthen the plates along which the spring.loaded brushes are promoted. This allows you to create an anchor that is divided into segments.
The collector is stiffly fixed on the device of the ramp of the shaft. Rotor rotation occurs inside the stator during the tool. For this, bearings are provided, they are located at the beginning of the rotor and at its end.
A modern electric drill is characterized by good ergonomics. It makes it possible to use the tool for a long time. A quick.packed cartridge allows you to fix the drill in a few seconds without the use of tools. During the repair of the product, special attention is paid to collector plates. Graphite is used to press the brushes in the form of parallelepiped. Flexible electrodes are mounted in them.