What compression is in the engine of a power tiller

The most common motives for a power tiller breakdown

a single-axle tractor is equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE) and like all the others breaks down over time, its repair and maintenance is performed in the same way as for single-cylinder carburetor ICE in any other machinery. In this article we will analyze in more detail the reasons why a single-axle tractor doesn’t start, and how to eliminate these problems.

  • Shift lever put in neutral speed. Checked by the pointer or by simply rolling the crabapple: in neutral, it rolls easily, without engine rotation.
  • Turn the choke shutter to the closed position (located on the housing next to the choke lever).
  • The fuel tap is opened.
  • The “Start” button is pushed or locked on the handle (depending on the model).
  • Pull the recoil starter handle until the ratchet engages. Start the engine with a soft jerk (or several jerks).
  • After starting, the choke shutter is opened.

Nuances. if a particular ICE unstably works at idle rpm, the engine is started with the throttle knob depressed (throttle opening, “gas” to a third or half).

You can find more information on how to start the single axle tractor in

When starting a hot engine, the air filter damper on your power tiller does not close at all. No choke button, no manual choke on the carburetor on four-stroke engines. Fuel-air mixture starts to arrive (sucked in) in the combustion chamber during rotation from the starter without pre-pumping, which is used practically on all two-stroke single piston internal combustion engines.

We also recommend reading an interesting article on how to start a single axle tractor correctly. It contains a lot of useful tips and nuances that even experienced owners don’t know about.

Prerequisites for a successful diesel engine start

First, let’s refresh our memories of what happens inside a diesel engine when we try to start it:

Each of these items is called the tact, and all together is a cycle of a four-stroke diesel engine. Let’s consider the strokes in detail.

Air inlet

Air is needed to ignite and burn the diesel. it is sucked into the combustion chamber through the vacuum created by the cylinder piston group.

Hereafter, the CPC is the cylinder piston group, which includes the cylinder (or cylinder liner), piston, and piston rings.

In the first step, the piston moves downward creating vacuum in the cylinder. When it first begins to do so, the intake valve must open. The air passes through the filter and is sucked into the cylinder, where it is vortexed intensively. The latter is necessary so that the fuel injected later on could be mixed with it immediately, and an air-fuel mixture suitable for ignition and combustion could form.

The intake stroke ends when the piston reaches the lower dead center. At this time the intake valve must close completely.

Compression and Injection

After the first stroke of the stroke, the piston moves upward. Since both valves must be closed, the air that was previously sucked in has nowhere to go but to compress. This leads to a pressure spike that causes the temperature in the combustion chamber to skyrocket. The flash point of the diesel fuel-air mixture is 800°C. Accordingly, a pressure sufficient for such heating must build up in the combustion chamber.

When the piston reaches TDC, the nozzle must go off. It’s a high-pressure, high-pressure jet of fuel. It must happen before the piston has passed TDC, that is, with so-called advance advance. It is necessary for two reasons. First, the nozzle has time to do most of its work before the next cycle begins. Secondly, it has to get into the combustion chamber at the time when the air in the chamber is at its maximum compressed and heated up.

It’s not so simple with injection either. A couple of other conditions must be met in addition to preignition. The most important of them is that the fuel should be injected in the form of a fine mist, not in a sluggish trickle. This is to ensure that the fuel mixes better with the air and converts more quickly to flammable vapors.

This is the end of the compression and injection stroke. If conditions are right, when the piston reaches TDC the fuel mixture is ignited.

Operating stroke

The ignited fuel-air mixture burns and forms gases. The temperature rises sharply, the volume of gases increases, so that the pressure in the combustion chamber rises. The fuel gives up its energy. This energy in the form of pressure pushes the piston down. The engine starts. We hear a characteristic sound. If we don’t hear it, there is no ignition.

Exhaust

Converting the energy of the fuel into motion of the crankshaft, the piston passes the NFT. At this moment the exhaust valve must open. the piston by inertia moves upward displacing the combustion products through the exhaust port and muffler into the atmosphere. when the piston reaches TDC the exhaust valve must close and stay open until the next exhaust stroke.

On many diesel engines, the intake valve is already “in a hurry” to open at the end of this stroke. This lets you “air out” the combustion chamber and get more air in the next intake stroke. For this reason the valve setting must be done on the compression stroke when both valves are exactly closed.

Technical characteristics of the engine lifan 168f-2

Model 168F 168F-2
Dimensions, LxHW, mm 305x365x335 313х376х335
Dry weight, kg 15 16
Engine type 4-stroke, OHV, single-cylinder, 25º inclined
Cylinder volume (cm3) 163 196
Cylinder diameter, stroke, mm 68х45 68х54
Maximum theoretical power, kW/rpm 4.1(5.5 л.с.)/3600 4.8(6.5 л.с.)/3600
Recommended output, kW/rpm 3.4(4.6 л.с.)/3600 4(5.5 л.с.)/3600
Max. torque, N rpm 9.0/3000 11.0/3000
Fuel consumption, g/kWh 394 394
Cooling system Forced air cooling
Ignition system Non-transistor (TS1)
Spark plug type BRR6ES (NGK), NHSP LD 6RTCU173F
Crankshaft direction Counterclockwise
Adjustable parameters:Spark plug gapIntroduction speedValve clearance (cold engine) 0,7-0,8 mm1700±150 o6./Inlet: 0.15±0.02mm Outlet: 0.20±0.02mm
Starting manual
Fuel tank capacity: 3,6 л
Engine oil volume: 0,6 л
Recommended oil SAE. 30 years, SAE. 10W. 30 multigrade oil (same oil is used for gearbox versions)
Fuel Unleaded gasoline with octane number not less than 92
Closest analogues Honda GX-200, Champion CH200K/G200F

All engines in Lifan 6 series.5 L c (series include Lifan 168F-2, 168F-2R, 168FD-2R) equipped with automatic decompressor and oil level gauge. Decompressor is used to reduce engine starting force, and sensor is used in engine blocking system when oil level drops below preset value.

The graph of the dependence and torque on the engine speed

From the graph we see that the optimum operating conditions for the engine are around 2500 rpm

What oil to fill in the engine Lifan 168F-2

The engine owner’s manual will help you determine the best oil to use. Here is an excerpt from the manual: Oil. is a key factor in keeping an engine running. Do not use oil with additives and 2-stroke engine oil, t.к. they do not contain enough lubricant, which reduces the life of the engine. Check engine by placing it on a horizontal surfaceRecommended oil: SAE. 30 year old, SAE. 10W. 30 multigrade (see Figure 2). Fig) Since viscosity varies with temperature and region, the lubricant should be chosen according to our recommendations. See. Figure.1.Position engine on a horizontal surface.2.Remove the dipstick and wipe it clean.3.Insert the dipstick back into the neck of the oil sump without screwing on the cap, and measure the oil level.4.If the oil level is low, add the recommended engine oil.5.Insert the dipstick in place.

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The engine is equipped with oil flow control (oil sensor) The oil flow control system is designed to prevent engine damage due to insufficient oil in the crankcase. When the oil level becomes insufficient, the oil flow control system will stop the engine automatically to prevent damage to the engine while the engine switch remains in the “ON” position.”).

The oil sensor is a part of the system that locks the engine if the oil level drops below a certain limit. The engine lockout is needed:- If the vehicle tips over or overturns.- Lifan engines are not only installed as drive engines in vehicles, but also in generators. Generators, as a rule, are stationary mechanisms and do not require a long period of observation. Therefore, in the unlikely event that something should happen to the alternator oil during operation, a locking system will prevent damage to the alternator.

Unleaded gasoline with an octane rating of at least 92 is used. Using unleaded gasoline reduces fouling and prolongs engine life. Never use untreated gasoline or a mixture of gasoline and oil. No dirt or water in the fuel. A Japanese carburetor is installed. The engine runs steadily even on low-quality gasoline.If you choose to use gasoline that contains alcohol (gasoline spirit), be sure that its octane rating is not lower than the recommended octane rating. There are two types of gasoline: one. containing ethanol, another. Methanol. ethanol should not exceed 10%, and methanol. 5%. If there is more than 5% methanol in the mixture, it can reduce the efficiency of the engine and, in addition, damage metal, rubber and plastic parts.

It is possible to purchase a certified gas module, which makes the engine a dual-fuel gas. Petrol. The manufacturer’s warranty remains intact.

Recommended spark plugs: BP6ES, BPR6ES (NGK) or NHSPLD F7RTCU. The cleanliness of the spark plug ensures that the engine will run properly and that there will not be any soot deposits around the spark plug. Measure the spark plug gap with a dipstick. The gap should be between 0.7 and 0.8 mm Adjust distance by bending the side electrode.

Check that the spark plug washer is in good condition and replace it if necessary. Screw in the spark plug by hand as far as it will go, then use the spark plug wrench to tighten. When installing a new spark plug, tighten the washer an additional 1/2 turn. If you are installing a spark plug that has already been used, tighten it 1/8-1/4 turn.WARNING The spark plug must be carefully seated and tightened. A loose spark plug can get very hot and cause engine damage. Use only recommended spark plugs and equivalent. Incorrect spark plug temperature range can damage the engine. Screw in the spark plug carefully so as not to disturb the threads in the cylinder block.

Engines for power tillers and cultivators. technical data, user manuals

What is the best engine for the motor block?? Which manufacturer is the most reliable and how to choose? This is the question that arises among those who have decided to buy a single-axle tractor, cultivator or to change the engine on the existing equipment. Let’s try to understand all the variety of produced vehicles.

Having analyzed the Yandex query statistics for the keyword “Engine for power tillers”, we can distinguish four clear leaders: Lifan (Lifan), Subaru (Subaru), Honda (Honda), BriggsStratton. In doing so, the statistics take into account such queries as:

Rating Engine brand
2015 2016
1 Lifan Lifan
2 Subaru Subaru
3 Honda BriggsStratton
4 BriggsStratton Honda

Judging by the mood of the forums, the Chinese brand has recently gained popularity, primarily due to its low price and fairly high quality. Lifan pursues an active policy in conquering the market, now many manufacturers equip their vehicles with Lifan engines on a par with Japanese and American manufacturers (There are also exceptions. Krasny Octyabr does not install Chinese engines on its Neva equipment).

I want to note that the well-known in this area American company BS in our ranking takes 4 position. Almost all manufacturers are actively installing BriggsStratton engines on their motor blocks. As can be seen from the table in 2016, Honda has conceded the position of BriggsStratton. Engines of domestic production are also often interested readers (mainly due to the fact that many are looking for information about obsolete engines of Soviet production).

Let’s carry out a comparative analysis of the three brands in two categories of the most popular models of engines 9 liters.с. и 5.5 л.с.

Technical data comparison for 5-component power tillers.5л.с.

Net power (as per SAE J1349) 3.6 kW (4.9 litres).с.) at 3,600 rpm./min.

Comparison of technical characteristics of engines for power tillers with 9.0л.с.

Useful power (according to SAE J1349) 4.6 kW (6.2 hp.с.) at 3 000 rpm./min. 5,1(6,8)/3600 rpm./min

Power output of your Moto-Block engine. It is important to note that the power produced by salespeople does not correspond to the performance parameters of your machine. This is just the maximum, peak or short-term power they can deliver. In the data sheets of the manufacturers indicate the recommended power or continuous power output, and here the figures are no longer 9 but 6 hp.с. This is the power you actually get from your motor.

Price. Having analyzed tables with technical characteristics it is possible to draw a conclusion that engines of our leaders are comparable by many parameters. The most significant differences in price. To be honest, there is a trading infidelity, the of different sellers differ by almost 2 times, which complicates the average price, but it is obvious that Lifan is twice cheaper. The situation with the big price difference between sellers can serve as an idea for another article, I can only warn that when buying an engine be careful not to be deceived (possible fakes, fraudulent dealers, etc.).д.).

Motoresource. Reliable data on the service life of engines for power tillers could not be found on the official websites of manufacturers and in the manuals, although this information is of great interest. On some websites this information is available, but the source from which it was taken is unknown. Producers evasively comment on this, citing the fact that the engine life of the motor-block engine is very dependent on the conditions of use by different users. Here is the quote from the Honda representative (Timofey Golubchik, Technical Director of the company “General Engines”:)

“As for the performance, you should consider that the service life of power equipment depends very much on the conditions of use. where and by whom it is used, what is the situation with maintenance, with the quality of consumables. That’s why Honda never indicates the service life of its motors. It’s like Rolls-Royce. “engine power is sufficient” no one names the figure, although it can be measured or indirectly calculated.

So when you see information from some of the manufacturers: “We have 5600 moto-hours, and Honda has 4700 moto-hours”. you understand that people are somewhat deceiving. Like in the “Shampoo in Russia” commercial, when no one specifies what parameter it is or among whom it is. or which side”

Maximum torque. The most objective parameter seems to be maximum torque, from the point of view of many specialists this is the most important parameter when evaluating an engine for a power tiller. over the manufacturers put different meanings into capacity concept: maximum, rated, continuous, recommended. it is difficult for a buyer to orientate himself, moreover he can be misled for example by substituting the recommended capacity for the maximum one. So in terms of maximum torque Subaru is ahead of its competitors. For a power tiller it is very good.

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Engine hours. Another thing I want to draw buyers’ attention to the following moment: if you use a single-axle tractor in the garden for 10 hours in the spring and fall, then 10 years of operation of the engine will be 200 motor-hours. And here you are to judge from what engine will fail, from time or from work, so you decide for yourself what amount of money is better to invest in the purchase of an engine for power tillers.

Detailed technical characteristics of UMZ-341 engine

The engines are designed to operate under the following conditions:

UMZ-341 and UMZ-341E engines are single-cylinder, four-stroke, gasoline, carburetor engine with overhead valves, spark ignition, horizontal engine shaft, tilt cylinder, has a centrifugal all-mode rpm regulator balancing the shaft.

UMZ-341 engine is designed to be installed on a motor-block Agro made by UMPO and supplied to the domestic market and for export to countries with temperate climates

UMZ-341 E engine was designed on the basis of the base model UMZ-341 and designed to drive an electric generator set AB-4.

Regulation of the UMZ-341 carburetor

Adjustment of the engine carburetor is made in case of unstable engine work

Kubota 12 hp DI Engine | Power tiller piston install (part. 1) | kubota engine

1 Start the engine and warm it up without load for 2 to 3 minutes.

2 Turn out the idle speed adjusting screw 8 (Figure 3) to a position, at which the engine starts to run unsteadily slowly screwing the screw to achieve a stable, smooth operation of the engine

3 Turning the knob screw 10 to set the throttle to the lowest opening position at which the engine operates stably at minimum idle speed, then turn the adjusting screw 12 to maximize engine speed. Adjust the regulated revolutions using the stop screw 10

4 If gasoline overflows through the carburetor float chamber take off the float chamber and check the condition of the float, the needle, and the valve seat

Thermal valve clearance adjustment on UMZ-341 engine

Adjust the gaps between the valve and rocker arm in the following sequence when the engine is cold

compression, engine, power, tiller

Install the cylinder head and starter covers in place, securing them with nuts.

Note: For more accurate installation of the piston in the top dead center you must remove the fan cowl and align the mark “E” on the flywheel face with the pin “G” on the crankcase housing (Figure 1 sheet H).

Here is the first list of possible faults and troubleshooting methods from the user manual; to learn more, please read the whole manual.

Using the Neva MB-1 power tiller.2 based on personal experience over 15 years

This article was kindly allowed to place on our site by the direct owner of the tiller, he simply has a wealth of experience in operating probably the most common in Russia models. Let’s read it interesting. I have been plowing my land for 15 years. During this time I have gained a lot of experience and developed my own technology to work with the Neva MB 1.2 power tiller.In one season I had to cultivate up to 60 gardens. During this time, I have come to the conclusion that this process can be improved and produce high-quality plowing that saves time and effort. 1) before starting work, you must measure the width of the arable land (example. 6 m) 2) divide the results by 2 (6/2 = 3) offset the received result from the beginning of the arable land, exactly in the center 3) turn the single-axle tractor in second gear, at medium engine speed and drive in the middle of the ridge without burying deep, not reaching the edge of the distance measured in paragraph (2) 4) turn around at this point to the left side in the opposite direction. 5) when moving backward, to bury the single-axle tractor on the left cultivators and continue moving, making sure that the left side is completely buried in the soil, and the right side can be above the surface, it can not be watched it serves only to move the power tiller (pulls it and does not let it sink) 6) having reached the place from where we started the movement, 6) Reaching the place where we started from, turn left again and go in the opposite direction. When driving, please drive forward slowly so that the single axle tractor ploughens the furrow properly. 7) Gradually the circle of our plowing begins to expand and as a result we finish the work exactly on the perimeter of the bed and if you noticed that after our work is not left footprints and the field looks neat. 8) So we came to the end of the work, now on the edge of the bed, we turn around to the opposite side of the single axle tractor and slowly start working over the chink, letting the tiller to dig in all the depth, passing on the entire perimeter. As a result, we got an even field without a single trace, plowed to the full depth without jumps and skipped sections. 9) Some useful tips for beginners and not only, if the ground is very soft and the single-axle tractor sinks in it you need to move the right cultivator blunt ends forward. In 15 years of work I have not received any quality problems, and I wish you the same.

Please tell me where you can watch the repair gearbox reducer Neva MB-2?

Where is the timing mark on the crankshaft pinion on the Neva MB-2

Hello Victor. the single axle tractor is very badly started. Maybe there are some general guidelines. I would be very grateful. Respectfully,

I will gladly answer your question. communication is a pleasure. The engine may start badly or not start at all due to 3 reasons. 1)Because the fuel level in the float chamber is not correct.overflow.The plug of such an engine is black and the exhaust pipe emits black smoke. 2) Wrong advanced ignition timing, early. pulling the starter cord causes a jerk in the opposite direction. Late-exhaust pipe has a blue tint. 3) And the most unpleasant thing, it is not very often that there is no compression from piston rings breakage or their burial and wear. You need to start with the setting of the ignition advance angle. To do this, remove the snail with the starter, to bring the flywheel arrow under the magneto on the right side, unscrew the 2 bolts with a wrench 8 in the magneto and put a dipstick between the flywheel and magneto 0,1-0,15 or 2 razor blades on both sides of the magneto, tighten the 2 bolts.The smaller the gap, the earlier the ignition. It happens, but not very often, the flywheel shears a key to the crankshaft and knocked off the angle, this fault is very difficult to determine “like everything in place, but does not start. Carburetor adjustment. unscrew the spark plug and look at it. The black skirt on the plug shows that the mixture is very rich. White skirt of the plug, very poor (with poor mixture you can pop into the carburetor) The candle should have a straw color (brownish), it means that the mixture is prepared correctly. If the mixture is rich, remove the carburetor, use a workbench to unscrew the cap and pull out the float. On the float, there is a tab with a spring, which you bend to the large side (the needle locks the hole earlier). This way, we reduce the fuel level in the float chamber (do not lose the spring, it is very small). If it’s lean, bend it backwards. Start the engine, unscrew the bottom screw in the carburetor for 2 turns (quality screw) throttle lever to achieve the lowest speed and begin to tighten the quality screw when the engine speed increases, again decrease the throttle lever and the screw on the soldier on top of the carburetor, repeat this again. A properly tuned engine should not run smoothly but “hum” i.e. A properly adjusted engine should not run smoothly, but “buzz”, i.e. revolutions up and down, for this purpose there is a centrifugal regulator and from it there is a wire rod 2 mm thick, which is connected to the carburetor. It is necessary to achieve the best results by adjusting the length of this wire. When this happens, there is another 1 screw (maximum idling), adjusting the upper limit, at which the engine at idling accelerates (adjustment is not critical) So having made these adjustments, the engine should start and run steadily Any engine should start when the air damper is closed, and in the carburetor with a pump, be sure to drown the button swap. Occasionally, when the engine shoots from the muffler. this indicates that the spark plug works through and has a defect or not the correct gap (replace the spark plug or set a normal gap between the electrodes). All engines have the same defect that comes with time. This squeal from the starter ratchet, removable or replacement ratchet or take out the ratchet and grind the ends of the contact with the balls (not much) this defect never repeat, and the most unpleasant defect, which expects almost every engine (rod breakage, all) TIP is simple, DO NOT SKUCK ON OIL. Good oil increases engine life by 2 times, change oil every season, check oil level, change air filter more often, do not overheat engine.

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Compression and compression ratio

The concept of compression refers to a measure of the maximum pressure inside the cylinder, the pressure created at the upper point where the piston is located (t.н. “dead center). Compression is measured in the following values:

  • In Pascals (1 Pa = 1N per sq.м).
  • In millimeters of mercury.
  • In physical atmospheres, which is equivalent to 360 mm.rt.st.
  • In technical atmospheres, which corresponds to 1 kgf./cv.see.
  • In bars.

When it comes to auto mechanics, compression is usually measured in atmospheres, less often in micropascals (abbreviated as MPa).

Engine cylinder compression is the compression of gas that occurs under the influence of an external force to reduce gas volume, increase pressure and temperature.

To understand this phenomenon in detail, it is necessary to understand the structure of the engine, which consists of the valve, cylinder block, pistons and piston rings, crankshaft and connecting rods.

When the piston ascends during the compression stroke the valves are in the closed position. The fuel mixture ignites and the pressure in the cylinder is at its maximum. The figure reflecting the pressure reading at that point in time is the compression.

Often, when the compression as a concept of physics is confused with the compression ratio, which is a mathematical quantity that shows the ratio of the combustion chamber volume and the total cylinder volume. It, that is, the compression ratio is measured in fractions, for example, 1:12 or 1:20, etc.

As a rule, compression and compression ratio in ICE are the same, but there are exceptions, so we can’t speak about the identity of these concepts. Indicators in turbocharged and boosted power plants differ significantly.

Main faults of power tillers

Diesel and gasoline engines have different motor resources. For the first normal figure is 4000 m / h, but the latter are able to provide only 1500 m / h. Despite this, the diesel models of power tillers are not in high demand. In fact, both at purchase and in the process of operation they cost much more. So it is likely that you work with a power tiller with a gasoline (carburetor) engine.

All the breakdowns that can arise during the operation of agricultural mini machines can be conditionally divided into two categories:

  • Engine malfunctions:
  • problems with starting;
  • malfunctions.
  • Faults in the other nodes and mechanisms:
  • Improper operation of the clutch;
  • gearbox malfunctions;
  • problems with the chassis;
  • malfunctions of controls and automatics;
  • Faults in your power tool system (cooling, lubrication, etc.).).

A lot of success in repairing a suddenly malfunctioning machine depends on proper diagnostics. As for maintenance, it is carried out just to identify minor malfunctions that will later lead to serious.

If you do not have the necessary knowledge, space, tools and materials to maintain and repair your engine, leave the work to an expert!

Step-by-step instructions for tuning on any power tiller

Valve adjustment on power tillers Neva, Lifan, Patriot, Cascade and all others with a single-cylinder 4. stroke engine is carried out according to the same general scheme. On a power tiller of the same brand, for example, “Neva” can be equipped with Subaru, Honda, Yamaha, Lifan and other engines. The same engines can be found on other brands of power tillers.

How to independently make adjustment of valves at home, using improvised means clearly shown in

Power tiller engine parts

In addition to the above, engines from the following manufacturers are common today on different motoblocks and cultivators:

Occur also WEIMA (China) diesel engines. Gasoline engine from the U.S. Briggs Stratton is found less often, but. There are also engines of purely Russian manufacture.

compression, engine, power, tiller

Adjustment scheme on the “Neva MB2” power tiller.

compression, engine, power, tiller

Step-by-step adjustment procedure for all models

The engine of the power tiller must be cold. Spark plug is unscrewed on gasoline engines. In the rest, the adjustment on diesel and gasoline engines is the same.

  • The cover, that closes the valves, is unscrewed.
  • Slow rotation of the flywheel in the working direction sets the TDC of the 3rd stroke (compression stroke, the order of finding described above).
  • Readjust each valve in turn, starting with the first.
  • Use the stylus to check the gap. Check its size. increased, decreased or normal. Readjustment is not necessary in the last case.
  • Unscrew the adjusting screw locknut.
  • If the feeler gauge does not provide enough clearance then the screw should be unscrewed.
  • probe is inserted into the gap and the screw is tightened until the probe is pressed in slightly.
  • Retighten the lock nut. Do not turn the adjusting screw any more.
  • Remove the dipstick.
  • The operation is repeated with the second valve in the same order.
  • The flywheel is turned to the operating side and returned to the adjustment position at TDC of the third stage.
  • The gaps are checked again: the dipstick needs to be inserted into the gaps with a small amount of force. If the adjustment is off, as it may be the case when tightening, it must be readjusted.

Because valve tuning is very precise, great care and attention to detail is required. In case of knocks under the valve cover the adjustment should be done immediately, because the problem will grow and it can cause more serious damage. If you have any questions about how to adjust the valves on the motor block, then ask us, to do this, use the Комментарии и мнения владельцев form immediately below the article.

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