The regulator was assembled on a home-made breadboard by my friend and was tested in work with different loads: 1) halogen projector (200 W); 2) a heater; 3) LED group from TV matrix (150 V); 3) an electric drill (360 W); 4) different transformers (from old modem power adaptors to transformers from old TV receivers). The results were expected. And this means that the “regulator-transformer” bunch can be used as an autotransformer and get regulated from 0 to the maximum value of alternating voltage at the output.
I also got a very smooth adjustment of the luminous flux of both halogen lamps and the LED group.
The speed/power adjustment of the motors (fan heater and drill) was also successful, even though this function was not very important for me and was investigated for the sake of interest.
Adjustment of power of 2 kW section of heating elements. successfully. The regulator is stable over a wide range of currents (from tenths of a milliampere) and has no voltage spikes when switching.
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Scheme number 2
The new circuit also features a three-wire el. component (but this is no longer a transistor) constant and variable resistors, the LED with its limiter. Only two electrolytic capacitors added. Usually the typical schemes show the minimum values of C1 and C2 (C1=0,1 uF and C2=1 uF) which are necessary for stabilizer stable operation. In practice, capacitance values range from tens to hundreds of microfarads. Capacitors should be as close as possible to the chip. With large capacitances the condition of C1C2 is obligatory. If the capacitance of the output capacitor will exceed the capacitance of the input capacitor, then there is a situation in which the output voltage exceeds the input voltage, which leads to the damage of the regulator chip. To exclude it, a protective diode VD1 is installed.
This circuit has very different possibilities. Input voltage of 5 to 40 volts, output voltage 1.2 37 volts. Yes, there is a voltage drop at the output of about 3.5 volts, but there is no rose without studs. But the circuit KR142EN12A called a linear variable voltage regulator has good protection against overcurrent loading and short-term protection against short circuit at the output. Its operating temperature is up to 70 degrees Celsius, it works with an external voltage divider. Output current load up to 1 A in continuous operation and 1.5 A in intermittent operation. Maximum allowable power during operation without a heat sink is 1 W, if the chip is mounted on a heatsink of sufficient size (100 cm.kv.) then P max. = 10W.
The options for installing headlights with your own hands
After making headlamp and preparing tools move on to install the light on a single axle tractor.
Choosing the power source is one of the main tasks when mounting a headlamp by yourself
Step-by-step instructions for doing so:
- Lead the wiring from the power source to the headlamp, check the system functionality and the brightness of the light.
- install the switch in a convenient location for use, then integrate it into the headlamp power supply circuit. Only one wire goes from the button to the light.
- At the final stage, turn off the power supply and proceed to the installation of protective elements, corrugations, as well as fixing all the parts on the technique. Without shrink wrap and extras, lights can be damaged or fail.
One of the main tasks when installing a headlamp yourself is choosing source of electricity. Usually an alternator, battery, or ignition is used.
From the alternator
Most manufacturers make power tillers with electric generators with enough power to operate the machinery normally and connect the lights. If the equipment is weak, you can replace the alternator with a more appropriate type.
Without a generator and battery, you can connect the lights yourself
Step-by-step installation instructions:
- connect the wires to the generator terminals, one of which should be connected via a button;
- run the wiring from the alternator and the switch to the light fixture and check the operation of the system;
- fasten the headlamp to the frame and use protective elements to prevent moisture and damage.
You can connect the lights yourself without an alternator and battery, but you will need a headlamp with an independent power source.
Alternative variant of light on a single-axle tractor with their own hands without an alternator. connection to the ignition contacts. Every time after the engine starts, power will appear and the installed headlight will shine. Main disadvantage. inability to turn off equipment until single-axle tractor stalls.
Considering the options of how to put a headlight on a single-axle tractor from the ignition, think about the convenience of using the light. It is necessary to think of additional elements, which will allow to turn off the light when parked, regardless of the state of the equipment.
Connection to ignition contacts. alternative to light on a single-axle tractor
Lighting for all classes of machinery
Motorized tractors should be differentiated into certain classes:
- Light electric / gasoline engine, whose device from 10 to 60 kg;
- medium petrol engine with a weight of 60 to 100 kg;
- heavy class. gasoline/diesel engine with air or liquid cooling, power over 9 liters.с.
Light tractors are used for working small areas (e.g., summer cottages). The middle class is used quite a wide range. from tilling the ground to pumping water with attachments and trailed equipment. The heavy duty class is suitable for working in virgin land, cultivating areas, and transporting heavy loads in the countryside. In all operating conditions, you have to think about how to make a light on a single axle tractor.
The single-axle tractor can be used not only for plowing the land, but is also well suited for transporting goods. A trailer cart is used for this. The cart can be equipped with additional lights. All that remains is to read the instructions on how to connect the headlight.
- Relay. 12 volt
- Teristor KU201
- Transformer to power the engine and relay
- Transistor KT 815
- Valve from 2101 wipers
It is used to regulate the wire feed, so it has a motor brake realized by means of a relay.
To connect the relay 2 wires from the power supply. At the relay plus.
Everything else is connected by the principle of the usual regulator.
The scheme completely provided 12 volts to the engine.
A voltage regulator for a motor block with his hands
I lost my PP, which I bought on Ali for 950r. It only lasted about 5500km. Т.к. original can not find, and even if found, it was decided to integrate a homemade RR in a native housing. Here is a photo of assembling and also a short vidosic on installation.
The circuit was found on the pipe forum here TUT. There is also a list of components, let’s give it here as well: Resistor 0.5W 300 ohm. 4pcs BTA26 Semistors. 3pcs Capacitor 1000pF. 1 pc (ceramic) Circuit ULN2003. 1 pc Stabilitron BZX55C14. 1 pc (can use BZX55C13) Diode Bridge 36MT60. 1 pc (can use 36MT80, 36MT120) Approximate price of all components: 1000р.
Electrical schematic diagram.
As said before the original hull was used as a base. All inner stuff was removed from the case by milling machine and the bottom was dusted to provide flat and smooth surface for good heat dissipation from electronic components. Here we go:
Drilled holes in the housing and cut M3 slots to hold the diode bridge and semistors to the housing. I also put thermal paste on the fitting areas. Just to be sure!
Fastened all the elements with screws in the cut holes.
Next, we soldered the elements to the ULN2003 chip according to the schematic.
And now the condenser:
We start the inner assembly:
Power For Your Electronics Projects. Voltage Regulators and Converters
Practically the final result:
Next we covered everything with black aquarium sealant (just happened to be at hand). It cured perfectly, it became such a strong rubber. The process of fixing back into the engine can be seen on the video with a little Комментарии и мнения владельцев. The disadvantage is the height of diode bridge, which is a little higher than the walls of the original radiator in which everything was mounted. As a result I will have to put some spacers between the plate, to which RR screws down, and the RF itself to keep the projecting parts from resting against this plate. The assembled vortex relay works and I am very satisfied. Now I will do the same procedure with the case of Chinese mobile phone from Ali. And I will have a spare AVR! Thank you for reading and watching this, I hope it was interesting and informative!
Pulse width stabilizers are characterized by a more stable operation, that is, the network is fed into the car almost constant voltage, and small deviations within the normal range are smooth. In the circuit of the device we used the same parts as in the original, but at the same time included a chip K561TL1. This made it possible to assemble the multivibrator and the short pulse shaper on the 1st node. Also simplified the control unit output switch due to the use of a field-effect transistor, higher power.
Cycle of the regulator
When the ignition is switched on the output of trigger DD1.1 appears as a low logic level. As a consequence, the charging current of the CZ capacitor opens transistor VT1. This in turn begins to supply to the inputs of element DD1.2 high level, simultaneously discharging capacitor C4. When the low level appears on the output of DD1.2 opens the field transistor VT3. The stabilizer output current flows through the excitation winding of the alternator.
After the pulse is terminated on the DD1 output.1 forms a high level and transistor VT1 closes. The capacitor C4 is charged with the current flowing through the resistor R5 from the generator which is controlled by the transistor VT2. While the voltage across the capacitor C4 will fall to the lower switching limit of the trigger DD1.2, it switches over. A high level appears on its output which closes transistor VT3. In order to protect the input circuits of DD1, the voltage of capacitor C4 is limited by diode VD4, which will not cause DD1 to switch when it is further charged.2. When a low level pulse is generated at the alternator output again, the process repeats itself.
So the stabilization is done by the ON time of the field transistor, and the process is controlled by the measurement device as well as the oscillator. When the voltage increases at the oscillator pin, the collector current of transistor VT2 increases. When the amperage increases, the capacitor C4 starts charging faster and the duration of the switched state of transistor VT3 decreases. As a consequence, the current flowing through the excitation winding decreases and, of course, the output voltage of the generator decreases.
When the voltage at the output of the generator decreases, the collector current at the transistor VT2 decreases. As a result the charging time of the capacitor C4 increases. This leads to longer ON period of transistor VT3 and the current that flows through the alternator field winding increases. The alternator output voltage also increases.
Pulse width regulator with its own hands
Although the efficiency of the presented relay and its serial production device is difficult to find on sale. over, it is not always possible to find out anything about it from sales clerks. Therefore, if you have experience in radio engineering, an alternator voltage regulator relay can be assembled with your own hands.
For the above circuit diagram, you can use the following elements and their alternative replacements.
What to do if the voltage regulator is broken
Sometimes there is a situation where the relay controller becomes defective. In this case there is no need to panic. It is very important to take certain measures to prevent all the systems of the motorcycle from failing.
To begin with, it is necessary to urgently disconnect this device from the generator and from the battery, so that they do not fail. The voltage will be applied alternately.
The only important thing is to pay attention to the fact that the alternator is not out of order. In this case, the voltage will be supplied from the battery, where there is a chance that it will begin to boil out and increase in size. The result is an explosive situation.
The motorcycle steering relay diagram shows its construction. Thanks to this you can figure out how to repair it and make the connection.
Light on a power tiller: how to install a headlight, if it is not provided by the manufacturer
Manufacturers of special equipment offer spare parts for power tillers and ready to connect sets of lights, consisting of a headlight, toggle switch and wiring. However, many owners of units to avoid additional costs prefer independent preparation and installation of lighting equipment. Installing lights on a mini-tractor with their own hands does not require special skills, the purchase of expensive materials and the use of special equipment. Headlights from various soviet-made cars are often used as lighting devices for agricultural machinery.
Pay attention! The brightness of the old lantern may not be enough to take special vehicles out on the track or perform a large amount of work. In addition, the lifetime of such a device does not exceed 2-3 months.