Working with stone at home: methods and suitable tools
Natural stones, along with wood, were the first building materials mankind ever used. Centuries and millennia have passed since then, many things have changed, but the demand, the popularity of hard rock has remained the same. Such a beautiful natural material can be considered a classic for finishing work in apartments and houses. The master will not encounter problems if he is used to buying building materials in the store. However, those who like to do the arrangement of their own home, may have difficulties. There is one small disadvantage of natural minerals. their “sloppy” appearance, which requires giving products. Therefore, working with stone at home is impossible without a certain set of tools and materials.
Working with stone at home is possible, but it can hardly be called easy. To have an idea of what awaits the master, we must first describe the most popular methods of giving the surface a particular texture. Not all natural materials, different in texture and structure, can be processed with the same tools. Different tools and techniques are available for each kind.
This is the very first operation that allows you to turn large pieces of rock into neat slabs. Besides the usual sawing method, an abrasive method is used, which gives the product additional relief. This operation can be either a primary or a finishing operation. These boards are used to decorate areas, artificial ponds, garden paths. They become a coating material for plinths, walls, fireplaces, etc. д.
The purpose of this process is to smooth the sawn material with abrasives to give the products an even, but rough surface. There can be from 3 to 7 processing steps. Each subsequent operation is performed with lower grit abrasives. A moderate degree of roughness is acceptable: no more than 0.5 mm. The areas of application of sanded slabs are platforms, floors, staircases, as the roughened surface of the material provides friction that prevents slipping.
This third step is the maximum smoothing. The purpose of polishing. giving mirror shine to material, removing traces of previous processing. This can be done mechanically or chemically. The first type uses felt or felt wheels, the second uses nitric-acid gold or chrome oxide (GOI paste). All natural stones have an index of ultimate brilliance, or polishability. The luster limit of glass (200 units) is considered to be the standard. Certain values of polishability are given to each group of natural stones:
- 170-200. quartzites, fine-grained granites, full-crystalline marble;
- 140-170. granites, Jurassic marble (marbleized limestone);
- 70-140. basalts, dolomites, limestones.
The lowest index (less than 70 units) for tuffs, loose limestones. Polishing is the most popular kind of treatment of natural stones, but it is also used for other materials (the first, well-known example is wood).
This process is used for exterior applications. Firing (melting) is made at a temperature of 2300-2700 ° C, the method is often used for processing granite. Part of the minerals (soft inclusions) burns out during the operation, so that small bumps and hollows appear on the surface. The material, which has undergone such “hardening” acquires resistance to the influence of weather conditions: for example, to sharp temperature fluctuations.
Cleaving, or the texture of “rock
It is an imitation of a natural stone, untouched by man, or a mineral that has undergone only a rough, “primitive” treatment. The top layer of surface is sheared with special wedges. It is used to make large exterior cladding materials and to create monuments. Such stones are also popular in landscape design, if it is necessary to blend the texture in the natural landscape. This type of processing does not require special equipment, so such work with stone at home is possible.
The name of the method is not very clear, but it is simply “translated” from English into Russian: it is the treatment of stone with water and metal brushes. The aim of the process is to create a smooth, but rough surface, or to make it artificially aged. This method allows to obtain flat, but absolutely non-slippery surfaces, as brushes remove soft inclusions, simultaneously smoothing all hard fractions. The brushed stone is used for walls, floorings, tabletops and stairs.
In this case percussive or shock-rotating equipment is used. Its main tool is the mallet, which is very similar to the one used to beat the meat before cooking. Its name is Bucharda. This or that relief is obtained by varying the number and size of teeth. Before boucharding, the stone is heat-treated with a gas burner. Such material is used as an exterior decoration, for the manufacture of monuments, where there is a need for the effect of old slabs.
Acid treatment (etching)
Such operation is supposed not to all minerals. The “tests” are most often performed on marble and limestone. Acid removes soft foreign inclusions. Thanks to the aggressive composition, a high glossy surface with small pores is obtained. Acid processing gives the chance to dampen a luster of a granite somewhat. This “aggressive” method is used for materials designed for interiors that are decorated in classic or antique style.
The circular saw blade consists of a solid frame, a table, a circular saw blade mounted on a shaft, an electric motor and a pump to supply coolant to the cutting tools. Most of the machines are equipped with diamond segment saws and only few have carbide blades.
Machine for sawing slabs. Manufacturer Gantelstan.
Circular sawing of stone is nowadays widespread and is used to work with rocks of any strength. It is divided into two types: diamond-disk sawing and disk sawing with cutters. Sawing disc stone machines are compact, high output, continuous sawing capability, and low metal consumption. The disadvantages are the low utilization factor of the diameter of the working tool that limits the height of blocks to be processed and the resulting blanks, as well as the high power consumption of stone cutting.
Depending on the purpose and design features disk machines are divided into:
Single-disc. This equipment, as a rule, is equipped with large-sized saws. 2000-3500 mm and is designed for passivation of stone blocks of different density and making from them blanks in the form of thickened plates. Single-blade machines are gantry, bridge and cantilever.
Multi-blade. The machine is equipped with a shaft with a set of circular saws (up to 30).) 1250 mm in diameter. Its main task is to cut stone blocks and bars of varying density into slabs. The advantages of the multi-shaft machines are simplicity of design and high performance.
Multiple disc machine. Manufacturer Gantelstan.
Depending on their design, multi-shaft sawing machines are divided into single-shaft, multi-shaft and orthogonal (rectangular).
Single-shaft machines are equipped with a set of circular saws fixed on one shaft. Depending on the attachment of the shaft a distinction is made between portal and cantilever machines. There is also a difference between single-shaft machines in the way they are fed: Positional and conveyorized. Positioning machines are equipped with a movable table top that moves together with the workpiece relative to the stationary disc. Conveyor type machines ensure continuous feeding of the workpieces.
Multiblade machines are equipped with several (2-3 pcs.), with parallel shafts with a set of circular saws. Like single-shaft counterparts, they can be positional, conveyor, gantry and cantilever.
Machine for sawing marble and granite blocks with a saw blade diameter of 3 m. Manufacturer Gantelstan.
How to choose the diamond blades
In order for the equipment to operate efficiently it is necessary to purchase and use quality consumables. For the proper operation of a stone sawing machine, it is very important to choose the right diamond disc and take into account some nuances, namely:
- Specific applications. For each type of work, it is necessary to buy a separate disc, and in the case of tile and porcelain tiles for each thickness. The use of coarse discs to work with finishing material will lead to its deterioration;
- inlays. Depending on the diamond grit content, the cutting edges have different names, properties and uses. The toughest material with a hardness of 80-90. on the Rockwell scale is a winner. Blades with these tips last over 10 years;
- Marking. Manufacturers always indicate on the product the disc diameter, the direction of rotation and the maximum allowable revolutions.
Areas of application
On the front side of the wheel, there are color markings that identify the scope of use of a particular product:
- discs with yellow marking are designed for work with plaster, tile;
- Green disk is used to work on granite and concrete;
- The orange marked circles are designed for brick and plaster;
- Gray is suitable for ceramic tile work.
Note. The color coding may vary slightly depending on the manufacturer.
Depth of cut based on wheel diameter. The larger the diameter, the deeper the carving. RPM will decrease proportionally with increasing diameter.
The discs with the larger diameter have a longer life due to the lower pressure on the diamonds. It is necessary to choose the diameter of the product taking into account the characteristics of the tool.
Cutting of stone with a stone cutter
Stone carving. Creating a monogram on the combustion chamber shelf
Hello! Today I will tell you in very general terms about carving a monogram in Crema marfil marble. First the designer draws the model on which the carving is to be made. There are two ways of working: by CNC and by hand. In this case we have a hand carving.
Next, we saw off the stone to size and start carving. Who is comfortable, I marked notches on the edges with a mug. After milling the piece to create a profile on the contour.
After that we take the sketch, translate it on the piece and start cutting. The carving is performed with a straight grinder with various cutters. For the fine trimming we use an engraver. First we cut out the contours of the monogram and make the basic background, and then create the volume of the monograms.
After that comes the fun part. sanding and polishing. How many nails were worn out during the first years of learning, but now everything is going fast and clear. We grind with abrasive stones of different grains. I have them sawn burrs for stone with abrasivity from 60 to 400. Then the sanding paper and the polishing powder come in course.
And at the end of the final result. On the monogram are stylized three letters YA SHA. The initials of the fireplace owner.
Cutting stone on your own
Natural stone is often used in construction and decorations, such as paths, walls, lawns and flower beds. It is a durable material that hardly changes or deforms. However, before using, the stone must be processed: sawed into pieces of the required size, sanded, polished.
There are 2 options for cutting stone at home:
- Mechanical. This includes cutting, impact breaking, shearing.
- Physical-mechanical. Concludes in the application of high-frequency current or thermoactive gas burner. It is often used in the manufacture of monuments of high-strength stones.
Only the first method can be used at home.
At work it is necessary to protect oneself completely: use goggles, earplugs, respirator. It is desirable to work outside or in a well-ventilated room.
Work with angle grinder
Most often cutting stone with an angle grinder is performed if you need to saw a stone slab. granite, marble. The work itself is called “diamond cutting” because it is done with an angle grinder with diamond discs. The discs should be for working with granite or stone. not suitable for working with metal or concrete, they will quickly deteriorate. You can also use a special diamond saw for dry or wet cutting. It does a good job, in addition, it leaves little dust behind, as there is an automatic water supply through the tube when working.
- The board is placed on the work surface and fastened along the sides with strong clamps, placing them at a distance of 10-20 cm. This is necessary so that the stone does not vibrate and can not accidentally crack.
- On the part that must be cut, glue a masking tape. It is enough to lay a few strips right on top of the future location of the cut. This is to protect the upper part of the board from being chipped.
- On top of the tape you need to draw a fishing line for the trimmer of the cut. It is important to remember that during the work about 2-3 mm of the stone will be “lost”.
- Before you saw the stone, at a distance of 2-3 cm from the edge of the board you must make an incision (about 2 cm). Along the entire length of the marking you must make small cuts, otherwise the vibration of the tool may cause chips or even break off large chunks.
- Then return the saw to its starting position and begin to cut the granite. The tool may be pressed lightly, but otherwise it should “walk” itself along the marked line.
- Remove dust (wait until it has settled) or water after the work is finished.
Similarly, the stone can be sawn using a diesel or electric saw. The tools can be manual and stationary (machines).
Chipping the stone
This is an alternative that allows small pieces of the stone to be split off. The latter will be irregularly shaped, but if you want to preserve the natural angularity, this is an excellent option.
There are several ways to split the stone:
- Deburring: some excess material is removed from the stone with a hammer or sledgehammer;
- Splitting: the work breaks the stone into several pieces;
- Cracking: The stone is split in two halves using wedges;
- undermining: using a hammer to shape the stone, knocking over projections or making hollows.
Deciding how to saw a stone at home, it is worth taking care of the measure. It is best to work with stones that rest firmly on the ground. In some cases it helps to dig a hole and put a cobblestone there. Try to hit it in one point.
Of course, you can not get an even cut with this method, but you can split the stone and then cut off the surplus.
Cutting with a laser
It is important to note that not all stones can be cut with the laser. Only suitable for stones whose melting point is lower than that of the laser itself. For example, granite has a temperature of 1200 degrees.
Working with a laser is done through a computer, which allows for high accuracy of the result and to create many identical products.
- When cutting artificial stone. It consists of resin and stone chips. Resin melts already at 300 degrees.
- For engraving monuments, jewelry or souvenirs. The laser leaves minute chips on the surface when heated, which form a pattern. It is even possible to make a precise picture.
Laser stone sawing machines vary in size and other characteristics. For example, when working with jewelry, a table easel is enough, for monuments you will need a model with sufficient capacity.
Stones. Stone-cutting machine. Or how not to cut off your fingers ))
First of all, I would like to say thank you to all those who supported me with their Комментарии и мнения владельцев in the previous post. It was my pleasure. And if my experience will be useful to someone, it means I did not start publishing these publications in vain. Background here https://pikabu.ru/story/o_dikh_mechakh_ili_kak_mechtyi_mogut_transformirovatsya_vo_vzloe_khobbi_predyistoriya_6743506
And so, we settled on my husband giving me a mini stone cutting machine. It was spring, there was snow and as I said before under the snow in the parking lot I was wrenching my first test subjects for sawing.
Let me tell you what this machine is. It is very compact and well assembled, you can hold it in your hands and feel the quality of a factory item. For a girl it’s a plus)) Tools also need to be beautiful)))
About the technical specifications attach text from the manufacturer.
Juvinstr 1 stone cutting machine.3-100-2″. The machine is small in size and can be used by both experienced craftsmen and novice stonecutters. Noise is much less than other similar machines. Water and dust splashing is minimal. it can be used at home on the kitchen table, for example.The machine can cut any stone and has a thin disc, which is especially valuable for cutting precious stones. A planetary reduction gear is attached to the motor, reducing the rotation speed to 3000 rpm. The gearbox has large bearings of 28x12x8 mm, which allows you to use the machine for a long time without replacing them. There is no mains voltage on the machine, and the power supply unit, thanks to the long cable, can be positioned far away from the place of work so that it does not get water on it.Raise body cap and fill with water before operating the machine. The water level should be such that the water is 1 to 3 mm above the diamond layer at the lowest point of the disc. Some water is consumed during operation and the water level must be checked and topped up. If too much water is poured, it will splash out heavily.Position the machine so that the cutting line for the trimmer is in front of you and the blade guard is behind the blade. Press the stone to the table between the disk and the visor and, holding it with both hands, slowly move it toward the disk, keeping it strictly parallel to the movement. Cutting speed should be set so that the disc does not slow down too much. Do not try to press the stone hard. This could lead to deformation or break the diamond disc. If the diamond disc has scored, you can still work, but there is a danger of injuring your fingers. Of course, I understood that I would not cut my fingers off, even after a while I ventured to touch the rotating disk with my hands, but I was still afraid of it. A couple of times the stone jammed, or the shards could fly into the protective visor and then into my face. Now I use protective goggles ) It’s very funny and scary, when something goes wrong I quickly remove my hands from the machine and the stone, instantly turn off the machine and jump a couple of safe meters to catch my breath )))) (I don’t do that while driving if anything) Just heard a couple of stories how a jammed disk is flying in all directions, somewhere I saw a photo with pieces of disk with safety goggles on. The process of sawing is always pretty messy sometimes. A couple of times sat up late, I was too lazy to clean up the mess, and I just went to bed. (I, of course, do not have their studio, now everything happens in one of the rooms of our apartment, and the first time in the kitchen on the floor at Ikeevksim coffee table) my husband took pictures of it all going to work, commenting smiley with bulging eyes. I realized that since this is the case, I’ll buy a table at least. I saw a man’s post here, who has made a full-fledged home jeweler’s workbench by himself. It’s gorgeous. But I’m not a jeweler or a craftsman. I will have a table, just a table and a piece of linoleum on top!
Now I already understand that this size machine has both pluses and minuses. I’m calling it a scoring table now. For big rocks, which I now order, of course, it’s small. Someone uses tile cutters, someone uses huge factory machines, which obviously do not fit into the interior of my apartment )))) but for small stones and for trimming it is the best.
While I was getting used to the machine, I managed to ruin one disk. Maybe it was a defect, I do not know.
Talked with the seller, I think his name is Oleg or Ilya bought a spare discs. Nice man to talk to, answered all my stupid women’s questions) By the way there is something else worth mentioning. Accidentally ( well, how accidentally? I’m texting everyone I can find and pestering them with my questions. If you recognize me in this post, please understand and forgive me) met with the owner of the same machine as mine, and he told me that the machine was out of order very quickly. The engine or motor as it should be expressed? just burned out, and this is a problematic place of the machine. The manufacturer has replaced without unnecessary questions. Well, I kept sawing.)
Turned to us by our longtime subscriber Alice.
She wanted to make commemorative rings for her and her friend.
The task was as follows. silver, fiery red resin, and such abstract images of a cat and a fox:
Discussed the size, the color of the resin, the ratio of details in the rings.
But we did not want to make these images, as ordinary engraving. a recess in the metal, followed by a blackening. And it was recommended to fill the engraving with jeweler’s resin.
This version seems more complete and pleasing to the eye.
This can be seen in the following pictures (the first ordinary engraving, the second engraving filled with resin)
It wasn’t without its faults. there were some unsuccessful pours of resin, but in the end we got what we wanted.
How many dumplings do you see in this photo? 🙂
Rating of the best stonecutters
This classification will help you to choose the right tool, so that the user can enjoy both the process and the result of his labors. The first thing to pay attention to is how well it meets the requirements.
Tile cutters, stonecutters household, electric
In addition to tile cutters, there are primary class machines that reduce the time required for tile preparation work. Possibility to control the position of working parts, forces applied to the fixtures and precise adjustment of the bed increases the clarity of machining. Correct choice of disc protects the tile from jagged edges.
The mechanism of the machine has a significant advantage. the cutting part is installed on the main support, the tray is equipped under the working table. The cutting tool is driven without using a clutch, moving along the guide by hand. In such a case, there is no need for impressive material costs in the event of a breakdown.
There is a rumble and uncontrolled spraying of water during the production process. It is possible to put up with such phenomena, provided that the enamel on the tile is not chipped during cutting. To get the degree of suitability that meets the requirements of the user, it is enough to clean the screw thread of the landing axle from burrs, tighten the nuts better, and change the factory carrier for a more respectable version.
|Depth of cut (max 90 0 /45 0 ), mm||30/21|
|Cutting length (max), mm||500|
|disc diameter (external/internal), mm||200/25.4|
|Speed of disc rotation, rpm./min.||3000|
The best variant for the base. table, because the legs are not long enough for comfortable work. The mechanism is monolithic, but it is not stubborn. during the operation, when feeding the tile on the carrier, it is necessary to move the bed on the surface. Consequently the table must be covered with a non-slip and water repellent cloth. The Hammer Plr 900 stands on its supports more solidly than the table-mounted one. Check all connections and assemblies during assembly. Even the old segmented blade can be used instead of the new continuous diamond one. It is pleasant to work on such machine.
|Cutting depth (max. 90 0 /45 0 ), mm||36/29|
|Cutting length (max), mm||630|
|disc diameter (outer/inner), mm||230/25.4|
|Turning speed of disc, rpm./minute.||3000|
Professional stone-cutting machines
At such mechanisms accuracy of a cut for a ceramic granite facing material makes 0,5 mm, i.e. does not exceed admissible norms of deviations. Under load, the motor power allows to hold from 2800 to 3000 rpm. Thanks to these features, high-professional machines are practically different from domestic machines. No need for any unnecessary sanding of edges or surface finishes after cutting.
All samples of this series process any stone, and possibilities of the user are limited only by dimensions of working surface. Almost all cutting machines are available in several models, and for single-, two- and three-phase power you can choose the same design of machines. Manufacturers do not equip produced equipment with a dust disk, because the user selects it according to his needs. Some models also come without electric cable.
This machine consumes a lot of water. Such nuance as a vigorous water supply does not bother the consumer at all, because the working tool leaves the cutting line. There is no clearance on the axle, which makes it uncomfortable to work. During close inspection it was determined that the pin was not tightened all the way. That’s why it is necessary to adjust the equipment during operation.
|Depth of cut (max 90 0 /45 0 ), mm||90/60|
|Cutting length (max), mm||600|
|disc diameter (outer/inner), mm||350/25.4|
|Turning speed of disc, rpm./min.||2800|
Working mechanism in the machine is German-made. Tongues on the edges of the bracket are limited to two prudent positions. To secure either one, you need to tighten the nut easily. And if you replace the factory fixing nut with an extended one, the setup time is cut in half.
No additional clamps, burrs of the bracket are held in place by the base. When setting the working tool in the neutral position it must not be forgotten that the gate has a long rod and that there are no holding pins. If you over tighten the nut a bit, there is a risk of ripping the rifling.
|Cutting depth (max 90 0 /45 0 ), mm||100/70|
|Cutting length (max), mm||800|
|blade diameter (external/internal), mm||350/25.4|
|Turning speed of disc, rpm./min.||2800|
Stable construction, tools rigidly clamped. The carriage moves evenly, it is equipped with an anti-slip coating, so there is no need to hold firmly the tiles to be cut. The factory-made sludge catcher does not do its job properly. microparticles are discharged into the main tank from the sump at the same time as the fluid.