Opening in a solid brick wall. How to safely penetrate a wall and make a doorway yourself
Before we tell you about the masonry methods (which you should, because your further actions depend on them), we must explain the structure of the brick itself. It has 3 sides. The flat surface, the largest in area, is called the “bed”. The side of the bed that has the same length is the “spoon” and the end of the brick is the “poke”.
An opening in a load-bearing wall with brickwork
The best option for a crossbar for an opening in a load-bearing wall would be a double-sided channel. You’ll also need the vertical struts, which can be 5050mm angles or a 2040mm sectional tube. These uprights will need a metal strip.
First make. then make cuts in them, using the same angle grinder. Get ready to sweat a lot, because if you have well masonry, and she certainly is such, you will have to. which is 2-3 bricks thick on both sides of the “well”. Knock out only part of the wall at the top so that you can install the transom. Then insert the channel on at least one side, and under it install an angle or a profile tube.
IMPORTANT! Only after you install one side of the channel with a vertical strut can you continue to knock the brickwork out of the wall.
Negligence in this matter can lead to injuries to people working at the site, up to and including fatal consequences.
- Try to knock it out first. where there will be a lintel, then install the crossbar there and fill it with cement mortar. It will take about a week, or even two, for the cement mortar to finally fix the rung. After that you can take out the rest of the brickwork and finish the opening.
- Brick halves in the case of spoon masonry, interfering with the installation of the door into the doorway, should be knocked out with a pen. Make sure that the fan head is perpendicular to the wall. It is forbidden to go into the doorway and knock out the halves with the hammers, directing the shock wave from top to bottom. This can lead to bad consequences (the lintel may not withstand such a load).
- You can also hit the bricks that are stuck in the doorway with the halves all the way out. But before installing the door, do not forget to pour the brick halves into the wall, the sides.
- The same halves can be cut with an angle grinder on both sides.
How to break through an opening in a load-bearing wall: the technology depends on the material
I will not say much, because the wall is not the same as the wall. The easiest in the process of dismantling is a brick wall. removed one row, and all the other rows will go without problems. The most difficult in dismantling is the concrete with all its armature. here you will have to sweat a lot. You will need an angle grinder and a rotary sander in turn.
Generally the technology of dismantling a part of the concrete wall depends fully on its thickness, but in general the most optimal approach to this case is considered cutting the concrete cubes. We immerse in a wall a disk of the angle grinder on all depth and we do at first vertical cuts with a pitch of 50-80 mm, and then horizontal. The resulting cubes are easily knocked out with a torch. The next layer of wall is removed in exactly the same way. With a standard thickness of a load-bearing concrete wall, such notches are made on both sides. the inner remnant is removed in one cut. This is what concerns the internal load-bearing walls in panel houses, but if we talk about the external load-bearing walls, then here you will have to do more than once cutting on each side. In general, this process is tedious, dusty and not very pleasant. in my opinion, it’s better to move on the shoulders of professional dismantlers.
Reinforcing openings in load-bearing walls photo
Punch in the brick wall
First remove wallpaper and plaster from the brick wall. Then, using a tape measure and a pencil, a marking is made. After that, a reinforcing lintel is installed on top. This is to prevent the wall from cracking and collapsing. The lintel is made from an angle of at least 35 mm. Two pieces 30 to 40 cm longer than the opening are cut off.
Angle grinder with a diamond disc from both sides of the wall is cut through the top. Cut in 15 to 20 cm. Cut into the wall more than the width of the future door opening, the depth of cut = the size of the angle (shelf). After that, the corners are inserted into the cut made, securing them with anchor pins and plugging the gaps with cement mortar.
Now you can begin to dismantle the brick wall. It is possible to remove an unnecessary section quickly and qualitatively, using a diamond saw. However, not everyone can afford such a pleasure. That is why it is more often necessary to use an angle grinder, a rotary sander or a hammer with a chisel.
Along the marked lines of the door opening an angle grinder makes a cut as far as the diameter of the diamond disc will allow. Then the brick is gradually removed with the rotary sander or hammer with a chisel. After removing all unnecessary bricks, you need to finish the lintel. To do this, the two corners need to be welded together from the bottom.
If for some reason it is not possible to carry out welding work, they can be fixed with metal plates. Drill out the plates and angle and fasten them to each other with heavy-duty metal screws. Almost everything is ready, the only thing left is to decorate and you can insert the door.
Oxygen-drilling the concrete
You can make an opening in the concrete slab, using oxygen lance drilling. cutting, during which they work with an oxygen lance, which is a thick-walled metal tube saturated with oxygen.
The lance is heated to a very high temperature (about 1360-1400°С), for which foreign objects. welding, torch. After the lance ignites, the torch is removed. The end of the tube starts to burn at 2000°C. A steel bar is placed in the lance to increase the thermal force.
When the lance comes into contact with the concrete, it breaks the resistance of the dense slag. In this case, the concrete surface does not exude its own heat, it is not subjected to oxidative processes, and when the tube is removed, it quickly cools down.
For this reason it is not recommended to make reciprocating movements when working. For more efficient piercing, the tube is rotated during operation (drilling is obtained), but care must be taken to ensure that it burns, not extinguished.
The disadvantage of this type of work is considered an increased risk for the worker performing it. red-hot particles of slag scatter in different directions at a distance of up to several meters.
Features of cutting openings
The reason to order the service of creating openings with this technology is the high level of accuracy, even and smooth cut. Such parameters allow the company’s customers to reduce the budget and facilitate the installation of window frames or door constructions. The staff of the company uses only professional installations, for example:
- circular saws of different diameters;
- ropes equipped with a steel rope with a diamond coating;
- laser equipment.
Specialist chooses the device in all cases individually after assessing the amount of work, features and material of walls, partitions. Installations guarantee quick, high-quality creation of openings for windows, doors, as well as other types of structures. The cuts are perfectly precise, straight and smooth.
A few words about the types of door openings
Often people who are far from building wisdom order masters such an opening in the wall as they like. In principle there is nothing wrong here, because the one who pays the piper calls the tune, but in this case you should be prepared to pay a lot more.
Types of doorways are divided mainly in width and height. Guided by the fact what size you want to insert a door. The width of the door varies from 60 cm to 90 cm is standard. As for the height, then here at an average figure is taken 2 m, /. 100. 150 mm.
Basic rules for calculating door openings.
If you do not fall into the standard you will have to make the door block to order which is 2 times more expensive than the one made according to State Standard. Learn more about domestic and foreign GOSTs, as well as the rules for calculating door openings with photos and video you can find out “here”.
Rules for calculating door openings with and without a threshold.
Another option, when at this point the owners do not plan to put the door in at all. But it is not a fact that after some time you do not want to equip in this place a door, and then it is better that this opening was standard. By the way about the types and methods of finishing doorways without doors you can find out “here”.
Variety of door openings depending on the size of the door according to State Standard.
Equipment for cutting concrete and reinforced concrete: laser machine
The most effective equipment for cutting concrete and its drilling, with which you can handle concrete structures, are diamond drilling and cutting machines. It is also used during concrete sampling, rock sampling and other construction work.
Diamond drilling equipment or a wire saw allows you to make holes of different diameters (25-1200 mm) in the monolithic concrete. If the latter lies between 20-502 mm, the depth to which it is drilled can be several meters. For cutting in a circle, diamond segments soldered on the drill bit are used.
Tip: after using this equipment, you can really save money on further processing of the holes.
Methods and tools
Such a tool for cutting concrete can be used both during the “dry” process and with the use of water. The latter method is used in cases where it is necessary to reduce the amount of dust produced. Therefore, “wet” drilling technology is applicable even during the repair of operated premises.
If the wall is very thick, a wire cut of the concrete.
The construction of such a tool consists of three mechanisms:
- power unit;
- The latter method is used when it is necessary to reduce the amount of dust that accumulates;
- The pulley, which drives the wire itself under the influence of the power pack.
Rope cutting machine for concrete works
The drive on such a mechanism can be both hydraulic and electric.
This equipment is used during work on:
- Cutting beams and columns;
- Expansion of door or window openings;
- arrangement of openings for communication systems;
- dismantling of various structures.
Also wire cutting reinforced concrete can even be used:
How to use an angle for cutting aerated concrete
Cutting of horizontal surface to a depth of 320 mm
In cases where work is carried out with the pavement, or the cutting of niches in various overlaps, the most effective are floor saws. Such tools create technological or thermal joints in concrete structures (see the article “Cutting of concrete structures”).see also the article “Concrete mini plants. design and advantages”).
Tip: Using this equipment, you can minimize the likelihood of cracking, as it does not put a serious load on the coating.
The basis of such a tool is a frame on which a motor of various types is mounted:
The motor is led to the shaft, which has a belt transmission, which leads to a device that regulates the depth of cut. Most of the modern models have a shaft with Ø25,4 mm for inserting the discs. In addition, the design of some floor saws includes a water tank for cooling the latter.
There are also self-propelled and manual floor saws. The first are more complex in terms of device, as well as quite bulky, which excludes the possibility of using them in a small area.
|Gasoline||These are the most powerful and can be easily operated even in places where there is no mains electricity supply.|
|Electric||They are less bulky and noisy, but there are a few contraindications to their operation. For example, it is not allowed to use an electric floor saw in rooms where humidity is high.|
|Diesel||Such units are designed for long-term work. Therefore, they are most often made in the form of self-propelled machines, so that their price is quite high.|
Advice: if during the work associated with the reconstruction of facilities, you are faced with a problem. the need to destroy the surface without damaging the reinforcement, in that case, use concrete cutters. They help divide the construction into several parts.
There is also laser cutting of concrete up to 40 mm thick. The equipment with a capacity of 8 kW is used.
Laser cutting of concrete walls is an emerging technology, which is based on the use of CO2 gas-discharge lasers. Currently, the industry is gradually moving away from bulky machines, offering consumers portable versions.
Cutting of concrete walls with a depth of up to 540 mm
If you have a huge amount of work to do, or if you have to cut quite thick walls, the best option would be a wall cutter. The basis of its construction is a solid frame, to which the transmission and the diamond cutting disc are attached.
The simple models are electric, but the high-powered machines use oil stations that connect to hydraulics.
The diamond cutting disc itself consists of two main elements:
Running water is used for cooling the hydraulics. On average, the diamond should receive about 10 liters of water per minute.
Tip: The harder and more reinforced the part to be cut, the more intense the cooling must be.
The water prevents the diamond-containing parts from falling off and also removes the waste material from the epicenter. In some situations, it is possible to use a water vacuum cleaner, which will divert water from the place of work.
The guiding rail combined with infinitely variable speed control enables high levels of cutting precision.
Such a tool is used during:
- Reinforcing structures made of metal;
- cutting of foundations, facades, transoms;
- Cutting of new openings;
- cutting of structures of monolithic type;
- angle diamond cutting;
- disassembly of structures and constructions;
- When cutting work in close proximity to the floor, ceiling, or wall.
Cutting of concrete surfaces with thickness up to 250 mm
For works that are carried out in the premises of the residential type with surfaces that are less than 250 mm thick, manual cutting machines are used. The cutter is still the same diamond disc, which moves thanks to the force exerted by a gasoline or electric motor.
Examples of service prices, types and features
Examples of for piercing a standard door opening 2100×900 are shown in the table below.
|Thickness of brick partition||Cost,|
|Concrete partition thickness|
|up to 70 mm||3500|
|up to 120 mm||8000|
|up to 160 mm||12000|
|up to 180 mm||16000|
|up to 250 mm||21000|
for reinforcement are also calculated on the basis of the thickness of the wall. On average, 1 m of masonry reinforcement costs 1000-3000, for the reinforcement of concrete structure will have to pay 2 times more. If necessary, the customer pays for additional services: reinforcing, screeding, slotting, dismantling.