Types of harrows
Agricultural harrows are divided into types:
Tooth harrow is a simple mechanism consisting of metal frame with attached to it teeth of needed length. The power of power harrow affects their number and frame size. Teeth are set in a zigzag or rectangular shape and connected to the frame rigidly, articulated or on a spring leg.
Harrowing depth depends on how the tines are set. When they are installed with the sharp edge forward in the course of movement, the depth of loosening increases, when installed backward, it decreases.
The disc harrow differs from the toothed harrow by the working tool. Instead of tines, spherical discs with a smooth or serrated cutting edge are attached to the frame and placed at an angle, called the angle of attack. It varies and ranges from 10° to 25°. While working each disc cuts surface layer of soil, intensively breaks roots of weeds, mixes them with soil and compacts the soil. Agronomists recommend the use of a needle harrow for harrowing. The needles plunge into the ground and loosen it.
Disc harrows are attached to a power tiller with front or rear suspension.
The rotary harrow is best suited for initial cultivation. working depth is 7 cm, but this factor does not prevent its application for loosening virgin soil. It is similar in appearance to a cultivator and a disc unit.
Rotary tool for a power tiller consists of 6 edges, disc and sleeve. Its working elements are sharpened plates, which are arranged at different angles.
The active rotary harrow is mounted on shafts instead of wheels or tillers, which greatly increases its performance, especially on virgin and heavy soils. For quality work it is better to be aggregated to high-powered power tillers with gearboxes.
How a power harrow works and what it does
The first harrow that man made with his own hands had the form of bound logs of spruce. They were not made very long, so they could maneuver in the fields, but the weight of the harrow, was too great, which gave the opportunity to break the clumps of earth after plowing and keep the natural moisture in the ground.
Today, this unit is used both on its own and with other types of attachments like seeders and cultivators. The harrow not only handles clods of earth but also covers the soil, leaving moisture inside. Technical characteristics of the harrow allow it to collect dry plant residues and pull the roots of weeds.
It is a device that has passed through the centuries and has managed to modernize to such an extent that in its use, human effort is required to a minimum. Harrows come in several varieties:
Technical specifications of the harrow comply with generally accepted standards and are based on the weight per disc or tooth. Accordingly, based on this classification, there are heavy, medium and light harrows. And their use can be specialized or general.
Types of harrows for power tillers and tractors
First, let’s consider a rotary harrow for a power tiller, it is very good for removing the topsoil. The rotary harrow tills the ground after the harvest. It is also a good option for leveling the soil. Thanks to it, there is no need to cut the grass. The working depth is adjusted based on what tasks are set. It varies usually from 5 to 7 cm.
No matter what kind of harrow is used, the more important and valuable thing is to take into account the dimensions required for the soil cultivation. If the field is several hundreds of hectares, the wider the harrow, the better.
Large harrow is made specifically for power tillers, so to make it with your own hands is not very difficult. It is attached to the tiller to the hitch.
Farmers have come to a conclusion: for good efficiency in the field, the harrow, or rather its blades should have an oblique shape. The tines should be placed at an angle to the ground plane, so they can easily cut into the ground and level it.
The second type of harrow is a disk harrow, the application of parched soil. The disc harrow performs all the same functions as the rotary one, but differs in design: it uses discs, each standing on a separate axle. But, unfortunately, this kind of harrow breaks down more often.
Classic tooth harrow is used in places, where an even and loose soil layer is needed. The tines are set evenly in the frame, their length varies from 25 mm to 45 mm. Size of teeth depends on the weight of the harrow, the more weight, the bigger are the teeth. The disadvantages are, the speed of the efficiency of power tiller, the power must be significantly high, and should be at least. 12-14 km / h. If you are looking for a harrow to work in small areas, the rotary harrow for your power tiller is the right choice.
I’m BUILDING CULTIVATOR for tractor
Rotary harrow. pros and cons of design
If you harrow with a power harrow on an untilled area, or if you plan to use the unit to remove only the top layer of soil, it is best to use a rotary harrow. Despite the fact that the maximum depth of cultivation with this equipment does not exceed 7 cm, this design is best suited for the primary treatment of the land, where previously crops were grown.
Rotary harrows for power tillers can be active and passive. In contrast to passive designs, active harrows on a single-axle tractor are mounted instead of wheels or tillers on the standard shafts of the machine. To increase the efficiency and productivity of the harrow, it should only be used in combination with high power tractors equipped with gearboxes. These designs are best used in combination with other types of attachments. in this case the harrow on the power harrow will not only loosen the top layer of soil, but also effectively level the ground on the plot.
The advantages of rotary harrows for power tillers include ease of use, high efficiency and durability of these designs. Among the main disadvantages of this type of mounted equipment should be allocated a high cost, the complexity in the manufacture with their own hands, as well as the cumbersomeness of the design.
It is much more pleasant if the harrow for a single-axle tractor is made by our own hands. So, today we will tell you how to make a harrow yourself.
These types of harrows are used for power tillers:
The rotary harrow lets you remove the topsoil effectively. The working depth can be adjusted from 4 to 8 cm. The harrow width is a very important factor that affects the speed of working the land in the garden. Obviously, the larger the harrow, the greater the power of the power harvester must be. Rotary harrows have drums with sharp metal strips (see. video), which are installed at an angle. Not only that, but this harrow allows you to remove plant debris from the soil.
Harrow for a power harrow with their own hands: drawings
Drawing of the homemade design
The disc harrow does the same job, but its design is different. Here the working tool is discs, which are separately mounted on special stands. Tooth harrow has teeth, which are attached at the same distance on the same design. Usually the tines are up to 30 centimeters long.
So, before you make your own harrow, you need to decide on the design features, as well as study the drawings.
the harrow design is very simple. It is a metal frame that has a connection to the power harrow. Tines should be bolted rather than welded together to make repairs easy.
Features and benefits
What is a discator? It is a disc harrow with a disc support for each cutting unit.
Such design allows to exclude completely the clogging of cutting disks, which positively affects labor productivity.
In addition, discusers show good performance in conditions of high humidity and dense vegetation. The main purpose of this type of agricultural equipment: to prepare the land for sowing without prior plowing.
It is worth noting that the individual mounting of discs allows better control of weeds, mixing the soil with plant residues. However, these are not the only advantages of PM.
Discators can perform the following operations:
- Prepare the soil for planting all varieties of agricultural crops, including technical and forage crops.
- Preparation of shallow contours and difficult fields.
- Stubble breaking and mulching.
- Preparation for sowing sodded areas of the field, grassland and meadow.
It is worth noting that during one pass over the field, the discator performs several operations at once: crushes the soil, levels the surface and mixes the soil with the remnants of weeds.
The discs are individually adjustable so that the working width or working angle can be changed infinitely.
Thanks to their multi-functionality, compactors can save up to 12 liters of diesel per hectare. This kind of equipment pays for itself in only its second season of operation.
There are also design disadvantages with the discs. For example: a rigid version of the rack often leads to mechanical damage to the hub.
To avoid breakdowns, you have to regularly lubricate the bearing, which causes additional time spent on maintenance.
Characteristically, such problems are encountered only with Russian-made disc harrows. The imported models have a spring-loaded system for fixing the tines.
Harrow for the Neva power tiller
The Neva power tillers are one of the most qualitative and popular on the domestic market. There is a wide range of attachments for them, which can be purchased from the manufacturer or made by your own hands. Thanks to the universal H-type coupling, aggregation with the attached implements is not difficult.
Any kind of harrow will be suitable for the Neva power tiller, it all depends on the purpose of creating the equipment, as well as the resources spent. Any of the types can be made by improvised means. Aggregate a homemade harrow with a power tiller with a quality hitch, which can also be made with your own hands.
Tooth harrow with your own hands
The toothed homemade harrow to the power tiller differs from the factory one in the quality of the material from which it is made. The harrow is made from structural steel that withstands high loads. Consider how to make your own harrow with the same properties.
Tooth harrow for power harvester with their own hands can be made by any craftsman. This process is not complicated. The design is simple and has no complicated connections.
First you need to design a harrow on a single-axle tractor with your own hands with drawings, giving an idea of the dimensions, connection nodes and the general scheme.
The tool is made of steel strip, square tube or angle.
The algorithm for making a toothed device is as follows:
- Metal strips at an angle of 30° to each other are welded to the tube on the underside. The edges must protrude evenly on both sides.
- In the middle is installed by welding a sleeve. The harrow is attached to the tiller by the pin through the bushing. Lifting height should be adjusted by the prop for loosening depth.
- Using bolts or welding method set the tines on each edge of the steel band.
- On the hub we mount the drawbar.
- Attach a screw to the drawbar for adjusting the position of the tines. The front and the rear tines must fall equally into the soil.
Specialists recommend that all harrow working parts be made of hardened steel. It’s better to make teeth out of reinforcing steel with diameter of 10-14 mm and length of 10-20 cm. The longer the tines, the thicker they should be. Sharpen and harden them before attaching to the frame, otherwise they will bend.
The toothed harrow for your power tiller is an excellent helper for small-scale farmers and dacha owners, who till their own plots.
1st stage. making the teeth for the impellers
Depending on the size of the future structure, the height of the mini-tractor for this we need up to 600 mm of wire with a thickness of 0.5-0.7 cm (for each element).
The number of steel bars is calculated on the basis of the circumference length of the impeller. They should be placed every 10 cm and carry one extra tooth.
Stage 2. attaching to the base disc elements
The easiest way to do it is with bolts. The discs themselves can be made from 4 mm steel in diameter to suit you;
The 3rd stage. attaching the wheels to the rake
We take bearings and hubs (can be from an old VAZ). It is desirable to take tapered bearings, which will give greater sealing of this working unit.
Stage 4. making the axle
Wheels, tines will be attached to it. You can make it from a reliable thick bar.
Fixing the metal stops. the fixators for the hitch to the tractor. They are made from steel to the size of 30×100 mm;
6th. installation of the support posts
We choose a length of 120 mm for them. Fix them to the axle by welding.
Types of tools
The rake is an agricultural tool used in tillage. Harrowing protects the soil from dryness, levels or breaks it up, destroying weeds. Such a construction for planting potatoes, made by our own hands according to the drawings, allowed to crush large lumps of earth, formed after plowing.
It is known that such implements appeared at the same time when people began to cultivate the soil with an ordinary axe. At that time, such ploughing tools were very big, they lacked maneuverability, and they weighed a lot.