Rivets under a hammer how to rivet.

Installation of rivets on metal

When fastening sheet metal, a variety of devices are used, ranging from bolts with nuts to modern detachable clips. But first of all, rivets began to use such problems to solve such problems. and today they are still used.

Naturally, a modern rivet differs from its predecessor quite strongly. That is why it is worthwhile to figure out what rivets are used in the production of metal structures, and how such compounds are mounted.

The use of rivets

The choice of specific parameters and varieties of fasteners is determined by three main criteria:

  • Ensuring the necessary strength strength, taking into account additional parameters and seam requirements;
  • Technological capabilities of equipment for working with a specific type of rivet connection;
  • Economic feasibility of using riveted compound;

Threaded nuts-clicks

The method of connection using threaded rivets can be called the most universal today. The main idea of ​​the connection is the witty idea of ​​fixing the body of the rivet in the riveted hole. For these purposes, a rivet for threaded rivets is used. The threaded structure itself is a half.liner with internal thread.

When performing the connection, this sleeve is inserted into a drilled hole and is aligned so that the united parts are tightly adjacent to each other. After that, the rifle rod is screwed into the threaded hole inside the workpiece. The front wall of the sleeve is fixed by the supporting surface of the tool, preventing the rivet from leaving the hole. To plug the sleeve, the rod of the rivet moves with great effort towards the supporting surface. The sleeve is crushed and besieged, thereby forming a strong motionless connection.

The rod of the riveper is freely wrapped from the body of the sleeve. Most often used rivets aluminum, brass or copper. The use of the latter is limited by high cost, so they are established in cases where it is necessary to provide good electrical contact between the cooked surfaces.

The advantages of a threaded rivet connection include its “low.traumatic”. When the rifle rod is operating, the connected metal does not experience large loads or deformations. A threaded sleeve is easy to connect a thin.walled metal or a profile of complex configuration. Such fasteners are widely used in the assembly of household appliances, in the combination of individual components of car facing, in the manufacture of various kinds of structures from corrugated board.

Exhaust rivets

The disadvantage of the threaded types of riveting is their high cost and a relatively low speed of the compounds. Therefore, for cases when the connected sheets of metal, profiles are required to be connected using several hundred or thousands of points, the exhaust type of rivet is used.

It can be steel, brass metizes, rivets made of aluminum, aluminum alloys and silicon. Unlike a threaded, in an exhaust scheme, the deformation of the sleeve is carried out using a rod with a thickening at the end, pressed into the body of the fastener. As in the previous case, in order to besiege the body of the rivets, its end is rested on the supporting surface of the rivet, after aligning the central rod is pulled out with an effort for several millimeters. As a result of the walls of the sleeve, they are deformed, forming a fairly strong unwritten connection. The shank of the rod is most often broken off or trimmed along the level of cutting of the sleeve.

Note ! The exhaust circuit provides a very good riveting speed of the metal.

Riveter

A pneumatic cloth is a pneumatic piston piston machine of shock action. The key characteristics of the cloth hammer are the force of the impacts (it depends on this, the maximum size of the riveting that this or that tool is capable of installing) and their frequency (speed). In turn, these values ​​are determined by the pressure of the supplied air, as well as the diameter of the piston and the length of the trunk of the instrument. The higher the pressure, the higher the frequency of the blow. Most cloth hammers work with a pressure of 6.2 bar (90 psi), however, for a more accurate setting of the frequency of shock, you can use the air supply regulator. Often it is already included in the tool supply kit. Having installed such a regulator directly at the input of compressed air into the tool, we get the opportunity to configure the frequency of hammer shock based on the requirements of our technical specifications. Later we will figure out why this is important.

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Most of the cloth hammers are launched by pressing the trigger. In almost all modern models, the trigger has a certain degree of sensitivity. This allows you to more subtly adjust the frequency of pneumatic pulmonary strokes by controlling the force with which the finger presses the trigger. In addition to air pressure, an important role is played by the diameter of the piston and the length of the trunk of the pneumatic young woman: the longer the trunk of the pneumatic cloth, the greater the work of the piston, respectively, the higher the force of the shock, but the lower frequency is lower than their frequency. The diameter of the piston is also important. The larger the diameter, the stronger the impulse of the shock force.

Most often, hammers are classified precisely by the length of the barrel. If you have already had to choose a cloth hammer, you probably paid attention to the fact that in the model or article of the hammer there is usually a symbol of “x” in front of which a certain figure is underway. This is nothing more than a designation of the length of the cloth of the riveter hammer in inches, for example, in the article of the hammer AirPro RH-9504XK, the designation “4x” suggests that the length of the hammer trunk is 4 “inches (approximately 102 mm). The most outstanding diameters of the piston cloths. 1/2 “inch (12.5 mm) and 3/4” inch (19 mm). Hams with a piston diameter of 1/2 “inch designed for working with small rivets (usually up to 3/16” or 5 mm). The piston with a diameter of 3/4 “inch is more suitable for working with rivets with a diameter of more than 5 mm.

In addition to the cloth of the cloth, to install full.bodied rivets will need equipment. shock mandrels and end springs.

Rivets with a secret head

Similar elements have other names. shock, clogging. Riveting with this part is carried out in several cases:

Rivets can be overlapping, in the way, as well as chain and chess method.

about rivets for a hammer, watch in the video below.

Rolling is one of the simplest types of fasteners to create non.incompatible compounds. In the general case, it is a rod or tubular part, which has at one end the supporting “embedded” head of a certain shape. It is installed in the connection, as the name implies, by the method of scruffy (as well as shrinkage, roller rollers, broach, explosion).

By the shape of the riveting, you can conditionally divide into several main types:

  • Rolling with a closing head (there are full.bodied, hollow and semi.empty)
  • Rivets with a length (also called. tear.off or exhaust)
  • Ribs rivets (also called. riveting nuts)

Closing a cloth

Historically, rivets with a closing head were historically invented. therefore, they were most widespread. Such rivets have a mortgage head on one side. The second head, called the closing, is formed using a roller or riveting tool: cloth hammer, ticks.

In the shape of the head of the riveting head with a closing head are divided into:

Also constructively, they differ in the presence of a hole inside the riveting:

  • Full.bodied rivets. the hole is missing
  • Hollow rivets. tubular. have a through hole
  • Semi.empty rivets. under the collapse. have a dull hole

Materials for rivets

Rolling with a closing head can be made of a variety of metals and alloys, which are well lended on plastic deformation.

The following materials are most widely used:

  • Steel. mainly plastic high.boiled steel 03kp, 05kp, 08kp, 10 kp, 15kp, 20kp
  • Stainless steels. austenitic steel 12x18N9, 08x18N10, 03x18N11, 12x18N10T
  • Aluminum alloys are the most applicable alloys of blood pressure, AD1, aluminum-magnesium alloys AMG2, AMG5, AMG5P, AMG6, alloys of AMC, B94, B65, also use duralumin alloys D1, D16, D16T, D18, D18P, D19p
  • Brass alloys. mainly the alloy L63
  • Copper. brands MT, m3

Marking of rivets based on materials

Rolls can be marked on the head. for subsequent identification. Marking can be convex or concave (branding).

The following is a table with the marking of the main materials in the form of points or strokes.

Hand tools

Before stinging the rivet correctly, you will have to figure out the entire assortment proposed. Most often, on the shelves, rivets are found in two types: manual and exhaust. The principle of action is not the same for them:

  • Exhaust. The basis is traction, due to which fixation occurs. To do this, the element is in the device, with simple compression and clamps there is a rivet. The fastener itself has a special ball, which is flattened. Without it, there will be no fixation even with manual exposure.
  • What gives a lever mechanism? The principle of operation is simple, so this manual unit has a low price. The process of action is similar, but the ball is fixed in the tube when the handle is moving. It is used infrequently (to things that are too thin). The customer makes the choice, evaluating the complexity of the work, the activity of use.
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Types of rivets

If we talk about the method of connecting the sheets, then the rivet seams are overlapped (one sheet is superimposed on the other) and the same. The docking seams can be with one or two overlays. With overlays more reliable, are used in responsible and loaded places.

Types of rivets: overlap and a joint with overlays

They can be located opposite each other or in a checkerboard pattern. The seams can be strong, dense (sealed) or firm-tight. Dense are performed using elastic gaskets laid between the connected details. Supported are used mainly in boilers. Now they will be replaced more often by welding.

Hidden hats

An interesting option is to create rivets with hidden hats, they have a concave shape and are sometimes used for special purposes, when you need to leave a flat surface without a protruding part of a riveting.

It is clear that the simple method of tapping here is not solved, but difficulties are also not observed here. You just need to make a small machine.

It is made of simple metal plates, in which you need to drill a hole into the diameter of the wire and, accordingly, rivets and choose the desired length.

Further from above, where the hole itself is located in front of the cavity, it is slightly unveiled by a drill of a slightly larger diameter in size of the hat. Thus, a small cavity is made, which will allow you to form a hidden hat.

Four Methods Of Flush Riveting (1942)

It remains only to install the workpiece of the desired length (slightly larger with a margin on the hat) and stand up.

To do this, it is possible to use for example Kerno of the desired diameter or other rod, after the workpiece is simply knocked out of the machine.

Types of riveting joints

According to the criterion “Method of connecting the plates”, rivets are customary to divide the 2.type:

an overlap. another is applied to one metal plate;

rivets, hammer, rivet

VSTOK. the sheets are located so that their side faces are in contact. And their connection is carried out by one or two flat linings.

Another criterion is applied. the location of the rivets. According to him, the compounds formed through these fasteners are one-, two- and multi-row parts. Rivets can be located in a checkerboard pattern. Another widespread option is one opposite the other. Depending on the sphere of purpose, rivets are divided into:

durable. They are implemented during riveting of supports that perform the supporting function. in other words, columns, elements of bridge structures, metal beams of a hard frame, etc.D.;

Farrous. Along with strength, they ensure the tightness of fastening. It is widely used for riveting boilers and pipeline highways, functioning under the influence of increased pressure of working substances located in a gaseous or liquid aggregate state;

dense. Realized when the critical connection parameter is only the strength of the seam. They are found in such types of equipment such as tanks, tanks and slightly loaded, characterized by varying degrees of complexity, pipelines.

Manual rivet

With manual riveting, they use locksmith hammers with a square brisk, support, squeezing, stretching and mints. A hammer Choose depending on the diameter of the rivet:

Support (rice. fourteen.5) serves as a support when riveting the rivet rod and should be 3-5 times more massive than the hammer. The shape of the working surface of the support depends on the design of the cloudy parts, the diameter of the rod and the shape of the embedded rivet head, as well as the riveting method.

Rice. fourteen.5. Application of support and crimping for riveting: a.straight; b– reverse; one. compression; 2. support

Swage (rice. fourteen.5) serves to give the required shape of the closing head of the rivet after precipitation. At the working end of the compression, there should be a deepening in the shape of a rivet head.

Stretch (rice. fourteen.6, a) It is a rod with a hole at the end and diameter, 0.2 mm with a large diameter of the rivet rod. The stretch is used to compress sheets.

Chekan. This is a locksmith chisel with a flat working part. It is used to create the tightness of the rivet seam, achieved by the capture of the closing head and the edge of the sheets.

Rice. fourteen.6. Manual riveting techniques: a, b. straight; in. reverse;

one. stretch; 2. support; 3. Zimka

rivets, hammer, rivet

Manual riveting is performed on workbench, plates or special devices. The process of manual riveting consists of the following main operations:

  • 1) preparation of surfaces of parts for riveting;
  • 2) marking holes for future rivets;
  • 3) drilling in the cloudy details of holes for rivets;
  • 4) zenching the nest under the heads of rivets;
  • 5) installation of rivets in the holes of parts;
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6) the formation of a closing head of the rivet, t.e. Actually rivet.

The clouched parts are cleaned of dirt, rust, warden and drunk. If necessary, treated with conjugated surfaces and edges. The surfaces prepared for riveting are marked with a devil, and then tap the future holes for rivets. The distance from the center of the rivet to the edge of the crossed sheets should be 1.5a! rivets. The required number of rivets for rivets is determined by calculation. Then the marked parts are combined, compressed together with a manual vice or clamps and perform the drilling of the marking holes at the same time in two details. The diameter of the hole should be larger than the diameter of the rivet:

Diameter C1 Rivet rods are selected depending on the thickness in the package of clutched sheets according to the formula CI = 72?

For rivets with secret heads (rice. fourteen.7, a) The nests are placed under the heads of rivets to a depth equal to 0.8 diameter of the rivet rod; On the details where the semicircular heads will be located, it is necessary to remove the chairs of 1.0. 1.5 mm.

Basic Solid Riveting. Shop Project

The length of the rod rods are selected depending on the thickness of the cluttered sheets and the shape of the closing head.

Rice. fourteen.7. Elements of the rivet connection: a. with a secret head; b. with a semicircle head; one. closing head; 2. rod; 3. The mortgage head

For a secret rivet length I The rod is determined by the formula

For riveting with a closing semicircular head (rice. fourteen.7, b) The length of the rod is determined by the formula

There are two types of rivets: With a bilateral approach, when there is free access to both the closing head, and to the mortgage, and With a one.sided approach, when access to a closing head is impossible. In this regard, the riveting is divided into direct and reverse.

Straight (Open) rivet (cm. rice. fourteen.5, a) It is performed in the following order:

  • 1) the rivet is put up from the bottom up the rod into the hole of the connected parts;
  • 2) Mrinkle support is installed under the mortgage head 2 (cm. rice. fourteen.6, a) (for rivets with secret heads, flat support is used);
  • 3) Parts are besieged (compacted) in the place of rivets with a stretch one, which is installed on the protruding end of the rod;
  • 4) the hammer with the hammer at the top of the stretch eliminate the gap between the clutched sheets;
  • 5) the rod of the extreme rivets is besieged (rumble) by the boy of the hammer (see. rice. fourteen.6, b) (at first with a few beats of the hammer, the rod is besieged, and then with the side strikes of the hammer give the resulting shape the resulting form);
  • 6) finally draw up a closing head with a snack 3 (cm. rice. fourteen.6, B, c).

In the same way they rumble another extreme rivet. In order to avoid the formation of irregularities and other types of marriage, the rivet is performed not in a row, but after two or three holes, starting from the extreme-to the center, after which they riveted the rest of the holes.

At reverse (closed) Klepka (cm. rice. fourteen.5, b) A hammer hit on a mortgage head through a mandrel with an internal spherical surface (see. rice. fourteen.6, in). The rods of rivets are introduced from above, support with the desired shape of the working surface is brought under the rod of rivets and a closing head is formed. This method is used only with difficult to enter rivets from below and the absence of access to the closing head.

Reverse riveting can be replaced by riveting with explosive rivets. To form the connection of the rivet in the cold state, put in the hole of the part, and then the mortgage head is heated by an electric heater 4 (rice. fourteen.eight, a) within 1. 3 s to a temperature of 130 ° C, which leads to an explosion filling the rivet of an explosive. At the same time, the closing head acquires a barrel.shaped shape, and its dilated part tightly pulls off the closed sheets. This method is distinguished by high performance and good riveting quality.

Rice. fourteen.eight. Riveting in hard.to.reach places: a. An explosive rivet (one. explosive; 2. rivet rod; 3. patched sheets; 4. electric heater); b. A split rivet (one. rod; 2. The lower end of the rivet)

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