How to cut tiles on the wall?
When working with ceramic tiles, you can not do without adjusting products. Sometimes they need to adjust to size, in another case, cut a circle or notch under the pipe. There are several ways to cut ceramic tiles. Each is good in its own case.
Ceramic cutting options
Each method has its advantages and is suitable for one application or another. How to cut ceramic tile? There are three basic ways to cut tiles evenly:
- Using an angle grinder with the proper wheel.
- Using electric, handheld tilikorozhe or special pliers.
- Hand tools for cutting ceramic tiles, such as the glass cutter, a well-sharpened nail or a drill bit.
To understand all the intricacies of the work, it is necessary to consider in detail each option.
Cutting ceramic tiles with an angle grinder
Cutting ceramic tiles at home is performed by means of an angle grinder. If you do not have a specialized tool on hand for ceramics, an angle grinder is always at hand. In addition, there are cases in which you need to make fine adjustments, cutting off just a thin strip of 0.5-2 cm. A tile grinder in this case will not help because of its widely spaced supporting legs.
Advice! Pass the angular grinder on the drawn line should not be in the center itself, but along the line, from the side of the trim part. Cutting the ceramic along a strictly planned line, the fragment will become smaller by a couple of millimeters.
How to cut ceramic tiles with an angle grinder? There are a few tips for this:
- It is better to perform the process on the weight, then the vibration from the tool will be compensated by your hands.
- Edges can be sloppy after trimming. Therefore, in the place of the first kerf a careful re-pass is made.
- Sandpaper will help to smooth out the irregularities.
- An angle grinder is a very dangerous tool. To protect yourself, you should wear gloves, wide goggles or a screen before cutting. You need tight clothes, and the shoes. leather.
Choosing the disc for cutting
It is important to know what kind of disc to cut ceramic tiles. Only diamond-powdered metal discs are suitable for this purpose. However, such products are sold in 3 types:
A disc for cutting ceramic tiles can be recognized by the missing holes on the tips. It is uniform and smooth. As for discs for concrete, they are made with slots. Using such discs, there will be a strong vibration when cutting. This is fraught with the destruction of the facing material and the appearance of chips on it.
Important! The splinters formed in the course of cutting, fly in all directions. The probability of getting injured increases.
Using a handheld tile cutter
It is this kind of tool is most often used when working with facing material, because that is why it was created. Machine for cutting ceramic tiles is used by both masters and amateurs. It is enough to buy it at the nearest hardware store. The price depends on the size. Minimal For an additional price we offer an improved version that allows you to cut ceramics at a 45° angle to the joint.
Please note! Do not buy the cheapest tile cutters. They can break the finishing material, due to improperly balanced elements.
How to cut ceramic tiles at home with a tile cutter? Instructions:
- Ceramic is installed in the tile trimmer. There is a special mark on the tool. The line for the trimmer on the tile, made as a reference point for cutting, must converge with the mark.
- The handle of the tile cutter is lowered, then in a smooth motion, with one speed and one pressure, the handle is carried along the tile from itself. It is necessary for the roller to cut through the coating (glaze) to a uniform depth. It is enough to make one wire. It is not recommended to make several passes. They will not improve the cut, but only make the situation worse. Microscopic divergences are created and the final break will be of poor quality.
- The tile cutter has special paws that can be used to break the cut product. The movement is sharp and strong.
There is a metal bump on the platform of the tile cutter. It is protected by soft pads that help the tile not to get damaged after breaking.
A tile cutter in the form of pliers
This is a cheap version of the ceramic tile cutter. It is reasonable to buy it only for home cutting, with a small volume. The tile material must be thin. Cutting technology is as follows:
- Ceramic tiles are marked, taking into account joints and gaps.
- You need to put a metal ruler on the tile along the line, and then you need to move the cutter along the ceramic tile one time. Pressure on the tile cutter should be medium to moderate to form a visible band. You should guide the tool from the edge towards yourself.
- Smooth pressure on the handle will help split the ceramic.
Using an electric tile cutter
If the object is large and you have to cut a lot of products, then it is rational to buy an electric tile cutter. With it, the work will be done quickly and efficiently. The tool has a cutting wheel and water system. The wheel is not a simple one, but a diamond-coated one. And water is needed to remove dust and cool the ceramic surface.
How to cut ceramic tiles with this tile cutter? The process is similar to that of an angle grinder.
Cutting with improvised tools
Not always a lot of work needs to be done. Why waste money if you need to cut several tiles. In this case, you can use the following tools:
Important! It is recommended to use a drill bit with a pobedite tip. It makes it possible to get a deeper scratch on the ceramic surface.
What tools are better not to use?
To cut a tile in normal conditions, when it has not yet been laid on the floor or glued to the wall, you can use the following tools:
- A glass cutter with pliers;
- With an angle grinder or angle grinder;
- tile cutter;
- Diamond wire;
- with sharp tweezers.
In the case where the installer is faced with difficulty and he needs to cut off the tiles already laid, you can not use all of the above devices (except device number 3) for the following reasons:
- The neighboring tiles can split in two and ruin all the work done with the flooring;
- The surrounding area of the coating will not stick completely and create voids, which will soon render the floor unusable;
- The tiles will crack and gradually come loose from the floor.
With what to make holes in the laid tile
If you don’t want a straight or curved cut, but a hole, an angle grinder or a hole cutter won’t help.
- “Shovels”, or ceramic and glass drill bits. Very fragile, often blunt, but they properly perform their task, namely, making holes of small diameter in glass or ceramic (glazed) tile. When working with such drills should not exceed the force, the tile can burst. In order to keep the drill longer in serviceable condition, it is better to drill a hole of larger diameter in the glaze, and continue drilling with other types of drills (smaller diameter).
- Diamond-edged drill bits. Can be sold as sets (as center drill bit attachments) or as separate items. There are special versions for drills (e.g. Metabo 627538000 and similar). Bits, as opposed to blades, allow you to make large holes in tiles, can also work with other materials, such as porcelain stoneware, gres, concrete, etc.п.
- “Ballerinas.”. This is a two piece system: a pilot drill bit and a rotating, adjustable cutting edge. The system can be equipped with a special shroud for proper support (it keeps the drill vertical throughout the entire drilling process, which is very important for these types of drills). Such drill bits can also cope with large diameter holes, and there is no need to buy a whole set of nozzles (bits), all cuts are made by one adjustable drill. But such drills break easily and require a special approach in work.
- Drilling rigs. Professional equipment with original drill bits and crowns. kits and sharpening supplies. very expensive, for domestic use are not suitable, only if you call the master at home with a fee per hole.
- Bits and drills with pobedite tips. Strange as it may seem, but pobedit is easily compatible with ceramic. True, it can be difficult to center the drill bit for the first time. When working with a peorator, you must necessarily turn off the drilling mode with a blow.
Using the electric plate cutter
It is an expensive professional tool that is equally fast, smooth and accurate for cutting any tile. With it, you can cut in straight and 45 degrees, drill holes and recesses, and make shaped cuts. Cut strips are less than 5 millimeters wide. The edges of the cut are smooth, slightly rounded.
Some models work with a tile submerged in water, others require only regular wetting along the cut. This method prevents the formation of dust.
The tool consists of a base, a knife and an electric motor, and the cutting process is as follows:
- Fill a tray with water, so that the cutting disc is lowered into it by 2 to 3 centimeters (for submersible models).
- The tile is clamped and moved slowly under the cutter according to the marking. The force must be uniform to avoid chipping and jamming of the motor.
- To cut a corner, repeat the procedure twice in sections with the desired angle.
Like any similar tool, the electric tile cutter requires compliance with safety requirements and the use of protective equipment.
Worn discs and water must be changed in time for quality work.
Requirements for substrate preparation
Consider a tutorial on proper wall preparation before tiling for beginners. Most often overlooked is the fact that tiles, as a rule, have a regular geometric shape with right angles. That is, along the vertical boundaries all deviations from the level will appear. Thus it is worth first of all devoting time and attention to the alignment of the walls.
The second error is an attempt to smooth out irregularities in the base with tile adhesive. Here are two things that are missing at once. Plastering, even with a T-shaped profile beacon most often turns out to be a more economical solution. Second. not all adhesives are allowed to apply a large layer. For wall tiles, depending on its thickness, the mortar is applied in a layer of 5-8 mm. For this purpose can be used most of the mixes offered by the manufacturers. For greater thicknesses the adhesive is more expensive.
As a result. firstly the walls should be leveled with plaster. The order of work here is as follows:
- Remove old decorative trim and weak areas;
- Removal of fungus, rust, oil stains;
- repair of the base with preventive treatment with anticorrosive and antifungal agents;
- Fixing reinforcing mesh (recommended before tiling work, regardless of the layer of smoothing especially before you glue a large tile on the wall);
- installation of plaster or metal screeds using a rule and a vertical level;
- rough leveling of walls by throwing mortar to fill the large differences;
- Finishing alignment of walls with removal of excess plaster using a rule.
It is worth noting a few important points:
- Before plastering, be sure to treat the surface with a primer, which is relevant to the climatic conditions in a particular room;
- the second layer of mortar can be applied only after the first one has completely hardened;
- Dry the roving is important when observing the conditions that are prescribed in the instructions on the package (eg, you need to ventilate the room without drafts to remove moisture, inadmissible use of heaters, especially guns);
- smoothing the surface is not necessary, as roughness and small defects only improve the adhesion of tile adhesive with such a base;
- many masters recommend that metal or wooden screeds be removed after the plaster has initially set, and the grooves formed are simply filled with the same compound.
The next step. the protection of the work site. Gluing tiles is most often carried out indoors with variable or high humidity. That is, the entire surface for facing must be impregnated with moisture-resistant primer with antiseptic additives. If we are talking about the bathroom or the apron in the area of the sink, the areas near the water supply systems, then it is necessary to apply a layer of coating-type waterproofing on the base. On top of the mastic after drying is better to prime the walls with compositions with m quartz.
Cutting of ceramic products
To cut tiles with an angle grinder, you need to master the three directions of cutting.
Mastering it is not difficult, at the same time the line for the trimmer cut is clean and without chipping. When carrying out the work, the tiles are securely fixed on a flat surface, marked with a pencil or marker. The part to be cut should hang down freely from the table. The cutting tool is at a right angle to the workpiece. Carefully, without jerking, slowly guide the angle grinder along the marked line. The tool should be moved toward you in such a way that the marked line for the trimmer is visible.
At an angle of 450
It is often necessary to make a joint, and this involves cutting the material at an angle of forty-five degrees. You can only get this angle with a lot of practice. But you can use this method: first cut the workpiece in a straight line, and then carefully work the edge at the desired angle with a disc, emery or sharpening stone.
A shaped cutout
It is often necessary to cut a round hole in the tile. Do the job properly with an angle grinder can be done with some skill. To do this, mark out a hole on the workpiece and trace the line for the trimmer with a felt-tip pen, marking the center of the circle. Begin to cut at a slight angle, slowly, on the inside of the line, gradually passing over the entire circumference. Then cut through the sectors, take them out one by one, undercutting the ceramic if necessary. Finish processing the edges with a file, obtaining an even circle. Such processing is called dry-cutting.
Such holes are usually cut for drains or vents.
Rectangular cutouts are the easiest way to make a shaped workpiece. To obtain straight, splinter-free cuts, the cutting wheel must be changed regularly. If you use segmented discs, the cut line is sure to be chipped.
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Tools and cutting methods to be used
Not everyone in the household has the necessary tools that may be needed for cutting ceramic or glazed tiles. Therefore, it is often necessary to cope with improvised tools. In this section, we suggest familiarizing ourselves with the details and methods that will come in handy in each individual case.
Using the glass cutter
The glass cutter is a simple tool at hand. It tends to be used exclusively when it is necessary to cut thin tiles. It is only used for straight cuts, especially for those who are not skilled in this kind of work. To make the right cut, follow the step-by-step instructions:
- Take a metal thin bar will do (also a long ruler will do), put it at the intended line of the cut.
- Use the glass cutter to scratch through the glaze of the tile, making sure to apply the same amount of pressure along the entire length of the line.
- Be sure to pay attention to the beginning and end of the scratch. They should not be too pronounced, as there is a risk of the cut being off to the side along the edges.
After drawing a fine line of marking, you can begin to divide the building material into fragments. There are a few simple options for this purpose:
- Using an even, sharp angle. Ideally, if it is a vertical or horizontal metal corner or wooden bar of sufficient rigidity. Before striking, take the tile by two opposite parts from the cut line. Aim so that the impact is as close as possible to the line on the back side. Then tap once with sufficient force. Choose a corner so that it is elevated above the surface by 10-15 cm, this will prevent the hand from hitting the surface, from which a beveled cut is possible;
- using a solid rod. In its role can be a solid pencil, reinforced rod, the diameter of which is at least 8-15 mm. Also be long enough so that the full length can be cut at one time. Place the tile backside down on the bar and strike both sides of the cut line with both hands at the same time;
- Putting them between the fasteners. Fix the tile between the two clamps at the breaking point. For example, you can use as clamps two bars or small pieces of strong plywood. Ensure perfectly straight and thin edges along the cut line. On one side, fasten the two planks with self-tapping screws, and then place the tile between them with a force. After additional clamping of the construction under the pressure of their own weight and perform a sharp blow on the protruding area.
All of the above options for breaks and notches with the glass cutter are only applicable to tile wall tile. For the fragmentation of floor porcelain tiles, the first method will be unrealizable, as the finishing material is thicker and does not lend itself to this method of division.
Cutting with an angle grinder
Angle grinder has long been considered a universal tool, so it is also often used for cutting tiles. In order to make a cut of tile or porcelain stoneware you need a whole algorithm. It consists of several of the following points:
- Prepare for work. To do this, wear personal protective equipment. gloves, mounting goggles, respirator.
- Then, in the chosen area of the tile, make a marking where you want to make the cut. To do this, use a glass cutter, a sharp drill from a diamond or pobedite alloy. It is possible to draw a line for a trimmer with a marker. But this option of marking is unreliable, because when cleaning the contamination, the drawn stripe is wiped out.
- Lay the tile on a flat surface so that some of it is on the edge. Cut the top layer of the tile by 2-3 mm, then repeat the procedure until the material is divided into the required number of pieces. You can make a deep cut right away, but in that case it should be made gradually 2.5-3 cm along the line. The help of an assistant or an independent reliable fixation of tiled raw materials is obligatory.
Important! When cutting tiles, be sure to put an old piece of plywood or any other sheet that is not sorry. It will help save the table and any other surface when making too deep cuts.
But before you start cutting tiles with an angle grinder, you should choose a suitable method for yourself. It can be any of the following:
- multiple recesses. up to three millimeters until the tiles are completely separated;
- Cutting at once to the full thickness when making small sections. 2 cm each;
- With a marking on both sides and a cut on the back side. This option will prevent damage to the glazed layer at the front of the tile, if any.
for this kind of work, only new or perfectly sharpened discs should be chosen. Otherwise, the fragmentation of the tile can turn out with breaks.
Briefly about the main thing
For cutting tiles at home they use tools with carbide cutters, rollers or removable discs.
The glass cutter is practically not used for cutting porcelain tiles. Handheld tile cutters are used.
With a replaceable diamond discs it is acceptable to use an angle grinder, circular saw, electric tile cutter.
Artistic cutting can be performed with a hand jigsaw with a diamond wire or a more advanced waterjet.
Circle-shaped holes are formed with drills, bits or ballerinas. For large diameter is resorted to the angle grinder or jigsaw.