How to sharpen a wood saw: simple step-by-step instructions | (Photo Video)
Hello woodworking enthusiasts. The topic before this video was prompted to the author of the channel by a viewer who asked to talk about how to properly trim a hacksaw.
Here is the tool in front of you. A hacksaw, a circular saw and a carbide blade. Where do we start?? This topic is not so hot anymore. Its importance is slowly decreasing, because the first pobedite disks appeared a few decades ago. The samples are 30 years old. They cut chipboard. It does not need to be set due to the carbide plates. They last a long time.
A modern Italian carbide blade. It is made more accurately. To keep it from warping while working, kerfing is done. The width is 2.5 mm. The resistance of the material is very small. No need for sharpening for these discs. As for the hacksaw with a hardened tooth, there is no need to be diluted either. They are ready to use. But it is impossible to sharpen them with a file. Only on the electric grinder. The question about the tooth pitching is still relevant. Where to start? To properly deburr a hacksaw, you need to. After that, cut between the teeth of the mark with an angle grinder just a little bit, so that each tooth is the same height. After that, divide.
What to start from, how to work correctly? Measuring the thickness of the blade. We must take into account what kind of wood we’re going to saw. If it’s wet and loose or dry and hard, the tooth setting should be different. For unconsolidated, damp wood we need a big expansion. But not more than 2 thicknesses of the blade. If the blade is 0,8, the pitch must be 1,5 mm. width of the kerf. If the wood is dry it has to be properly cut, but not more than 1,5 of the thickness of the blade. Then the resistance of the material will be minimal. The hacksaw will not jam.
How the main mass is setting up. People have boasted and said they do it with an axe. It speaks for itself, that works support, i.e. rough. The teeth must deflect left and right at the same angle. If they dance, i.e. one more, the other less, that kind of sawing quality will be bad. The front will be heavy, it will cling. The teeth will be knocked out. The quality will be poor. See video from minute 5 for more.
A saw is often used to machine wooden workpieces, changing lengths and shapes. This tool is represented by a combination of the working part and the handle. In this case the working part is represented by a metal plate with cutting elements that are arranged in a certain sequence relative to each other. Only with the right maintenance is it possible to prevent the product from being worn out. An example of this is the tooth setting, which is done from time to time to ensure that the tool runs smoothly on the resulting cut.
Cutting part shapes and blade sharpening angle
Cutting elements of band saw blades can have various geometry, which directly depends on the material that is intended for sawing. Wood machines are most often equipped with special saws, with the help of which it is possible to carry out:
The sharpening angle is strictly defined by the tool manufacturer. The forward angle of sharpening will be as small as possible when using hard wood. Band saws for metal are equipped with different blade shapes, which directly depends on the metal used for sawing. If it is necessary to cut thin-walled metal and still have a thin chip, the front angle of the cut when sawing will be zero, then a standard cut is used. Cutting angle can be varied. It directly depends on the structure of the fixture.
Tooth that has a positive rake angle are those saws that are widely used for cutting metal with thick walls. The blade pitch with which thin metal is cut is small enough. In order to cut thick-walled metal, it is necessary to use fixtures that have a large number of blades. In some cases the equipment has a variable pitch to eliminate the effect of resonance. The variation in the spacing of the tines varies directly with the particular group.
Determining the right torque
Without experience, people often go from extreme to extreme and either sharpen their saw every few days or once a year. Determining the need for sharpening by time is the wrong approach.
There are a number of signs that indicate that the teeth are dull:
- The blade regularly gets stuck in the wood.
- When sawing, the sound changes; it becomes more “dull”.
- Tooth color changes.
- Material resistance increases significantly.
- Tooth tips become noticeably rounded.
- The blade is moving away from the cutting line.
Hardened teeth cannot be sharpened. It is easy to distinguish them: they are blackish with a slight bluish cast.
How to sharpen a hacksaw?
To do the sharpening with minimal loss of time and quality, you need to use such special devices and tools, such as:
- A locksmith’s vise;
- Sawtooth saws;
- sharpening block;
- A protractor and a caliper;
- a tool that can be used to clamp the hacksaw blade at an angle of 90 or 45 degrees is possible.
It is essential to use the following files:
Sharpening Hand Saw. Indian Mistry Arts. Carpentry Tools
Sharpening a hacksaw for wood, and use a simple vice, which is rather uncomfortable and long, as well as the vise multi-coordinate type, as their bed rotates and fixed at the necessary angles to ensure movement of the tool strictly in the horizontal plane. It is advisable to provide additional lighting of the work area with electric lights. Throughout the sharpening process the file / file file must move without jerking, a constant pressure must be applied, and the motion must not deviate from the constant angle. The sharpening process is done only with the file’s backward motion. The file/surface file must be returned through the air, without making contact with the hacksaw.
Hacksaws are used for different purposes. Wood is sawn lengthwise or crosswise. The teeth are also different accordingly.
Sharpening crosscut saw teeth
A fine triangular file is used for sharpening such teeth. The direction of tool movement is an angle of 60 degrees. Hacksaw is fixed in the device at an angle of 45-50 degrees to the workbench. The file/surface file must be led strictly horizontally (keeping the angle of 60-75 degrees to the hacksaw), starting from the first left tooth. You should start with “adjusting the movement of the hand with the tool,” for which he draws on each left edge of the odd row of far teeth, which will give the necessary automaticity of the movement of the hand. Then repeat the same process, sharpening the right sides of odd teeth to complete the sharpening of the cutting edge and sharpen the tips. Having finished sharpening the teeth of odd row, the hacksaw is turned over in the fixing device and repeats the same actions for the even row, which is the far row in this position.
Hacksaw for longitudinal sawing
Probably the angle of the teeth of a longitudinal saw is less than 60 degrees, so make use of files with big nicks or a fine crosscut file with rhombic cross section. It is categorically not recommended to use triangular files in this case. For sharpening the hacksaw is fixed vertically in the device. There are two methods of sharpening a hacksaw, which differ in giving different sharpening angles.
- Straight. A file should be filed filed at an angle of 90 degrees. It is given a direction parallel to the hacksaw, sharpening both the back and front cutting surfaces of each tooth. This is repeated for the entire back row of teeth. The hacksaw is then turned 180 degrees in the clamping device and the same operation is repeated for the other teeth that will make up the far row.
- Oblique. This way differs from the direct way only by the angle of movement of the tool to the plane of the blade. the sharpening angle decreases from direct to 80 degrees. The process is exactly the same, but the teeth after sharpening resemble the teeth of a bow saw.
Mixed type hacksaw
If necessary to restore the sharpness of the teeth are used nadpils notches of large size or small-section files diamond-shaped. For hacksaw blended type, there are the same two options as for longitudinal and cross hacksaws. They have slightly different sharpening angles (90 and 74-81 degrees respectively).
How the saw is set and what it is
Sharpening a hacksaw is an uncomplicated process that begins with the deburring of the teeth. This procedure is performed with one simple purpose. to provide free movement of the blade when working with the tool. Not sharpening files will cause the tool to get stuck in the thickness of the workpiece being sawed, making it inconvenient to work with.
Turning in the teeth of a hacksaw is a procedure that involves unbending the teeth in different directions. The main thing is that each tooth should be set at the same distance from the previous one. The more the degree of the tooth deflection from the plane of the blade, the wider the kerf is. The greater the kerf width, the higher the process of removing the chips from the kerf and thus the faster the useful work is done.
The width of the set toothing affects the possibility of the blade jamming. The wider the setting width, the less chance of the blade jamming inside the workpiece being sawn. Not many people know what the tooth pitch should be. But this parameter should be taken into account, because the quality of the tool depends on it. The degree of tooth setting depends primarily on the thickness of the blade steel. Usually between 0,5 and 2 mm. It also depends on the type of wood (dry or wet) you are planning to work with:
- For raw wood, the amount of bending should be within the range of 0.5 to 1 mm. The thicker the blade, the more the bend should be
- For dry wood the value of the rake is from 0,3 to 0,5 mm
To find the value of the camber, use a special device. a template that you can make yourself from a piece of wood. A photo of such a device in the image below.
20-Minute Saw Tune-up
The number 1 shows the template, and 2 is the tooth pitch, and 3 is the hacksaw blade.
When you know the value to which you need to dilute the teeth, you can get down to business. To implement the action, special devices are used. It is not necessary to use these devices, because a normal screwdriver with a wide sting will do. The disadvantage of a special device for deburring the teeth of a hacksaw is that the price of such a device in the form of pliers is quite high.
Instead of special pincers, you can use plates. The design of this tool includes a manual adjustment and a stop. The unbending process begins with securing the blade in the jaws of the vise, and then getting down to business. First go over one side, and then repeat the process on the other. And the teeth should not be bent by the cutter itself (base or sharp part), but from the middle.
This is interesting!Once the teeth are set at the same distance, you still need to perform the procedure of aligning the height of the cutting parts. To find out which teeth are higher in height than the others, press the blade with the cutting part against a sheet of paper. A sheet of paper will show a print that is easy to identify which teeth need shortening. To shorten them, you can use a flat file.
Pliers for setting teeth are good tools. It is very convenient to use, the saw’s tooth movement to the side will be as it is needed.
Hacksaw set. Also a good thing and not expensive. average The design is elementary: a few slots and adjustable angle. The tooth is inserted into a suitable-sized slot and the handle is pressed to deburr. A set gauge ensures that the setting is even.
I have neither at home and do not want to run to the store? Then you can use the old-fashioned way, which has been used since the beginning of time. You just need an axe and some skill not to spoil your hands (people who do not own the tools this method should not use. it is traumatic)!).
The technique is simple: place the blade between the two teeth and twist the axe to bend the teeth to the sides.
The saw’s adjustable arm can also be made with a self-drilling screw. It is safer. For this method you need a long screw. to make it easier to hold. It needs a little extra work before you do it. You need to grind its head a little on one side to make it flat. This is to ensure that when it will be applied to the tooth, it will not slip and deform the latter.
The hacksaw should be laid flat on the soft wood (pine, spruce). Holding the self-drilling screw by its shank, lay the head against the tooth and hit it with a hammer. Tooth bending. The operation is carried out through the tooth. Afterwards the saw blade is turned over, and the operation is repeated in the same way.
How to sharpen a wood hacksaw with a file
To sharpen the hand saw blade should be clamped between the plates of the jigsaw so that the teeth are elevated above them by one and a half to two centimeters. For different types of blades sharpening wood saw blades in own way.
To properly sharpen a cross hacksaw, the blade should be set at 45°, the file should be selected with a triangular cross-section profile.To ensure the proper quality of sharpening, the following sequence of actions must be followed:
- sharpen the left edges of the even (farthest from the master) teeth;
- turn the blade upside down;
- sharpen the left edges of the even teeth;
- form sharp cutting edges and sharpened tooth tips
To sharpen a longitudinal or universal hacksaw, it must be clamped at a 90° angle. A file with a diamond-shaped cross-section is needed here. The file moves in the plane of the work table. The sequence for sharpening the teeth is the same as for crosscut hacksaws.Depending on the thickness of the hacksaw blade, larger or smaller burrs usually occur on rough edges that are not sharpened. They should be smoothed with a “velvet” file or an abrasive stone of minimum grit. The quality of sharpening can be checked in two ways:
- To the touch. Sharpness and burrs should be avoided.
- Color. No glare on a properly sharpened edge in the light.
The quality is also checked by a test cut. The hacksaw should not run to the side, the cut surface should be smooth, without any soaked wood fibers.
How to properly sharpen a band saw
Immediately note that if you do not have experience and skills to perform such works, it is better to entrust the sharpening of saws to professionals. Inconsistent cutting edge geometry, scale on the metal, or improperly set teeth greatly reduce blade life.
Deciding to sharpen band saws with your own hands, it is worthwhile to get acquainted in advance with the key definitions, knowledge of which may be required in the course of work. So, in order to form the cutting edge properly, you will need:
- Set is the deflection of teeth from the plane of the main saw blade;
- tooth height. the distance between the top point and the base;
- pitch. the distance between the teeth, usually ranging from 19-25 mm.
- sharpening angle. depends on the intended purpose of the tool; for example, the recommended sharpening angle for carpenter saws is 35°, dividing. 18-22, intended for sawing beams. no more than 15°.
Angle of sharpening is defined by the manufacturer, so it is recommended to adhere to these parameters when dressing the saw yourself.
Here is a detailed instruction on how to correctly sharpen a closed circular saw without going through an expert.
Deburring band saws in wood is the first step in restoring the cutting edge profile. During operation, the position of the teeth may change, so there is no point in sharpening the saw blade until the geometry is correct.
- classical. the teeth are alternately deflected to the right and left side;
- Stripping. 1st and 2nd teeth are deflected to different sides, the third stays straight. This profile is created for sawing hard materials;
- wavy. the most complex version, resembling a wave shape. Here each tooth is shaped individually and this kind of resharpening is usually done only in specialized workshops.
note that during setting, not the whole tooth is bent, but about 2/3 of the upper part. The procedure is performed on a special band saw blade setting machine. The cost of such a tool is quite high, that’s why it is bought if several tools need to be adjusted. It can be the basis of a sharpening business.
Of course, it may not be possible to do everything right the first time, even on the adjustable machine, so at least the profile geometry must remain the same as before the start of the work.
This is the main straightening stage of the cutting edge and can be done in two ways.
Full profile saw sharpening is done with an CBN grinding wheel set up in a special sharpening machine.
It is a fully automatic operation, used by professionals. The wood band saw sharpener is controlled electronically and the sharpening wheel processes the complete band in one pass. The disadvantage of this method is that the CBN wheel is matched individually to the profile of the saw, so for straightening different tools the sharpening element must be present in the assortment.
Tooth sharpening is performed manually or on specialized equipment.
Please note! This is the method used for resharpening band saws by yourself. Here you can use an ordinary emery wheel or emery board.
In the first case, you can restore the sharpness of teeth in the shortest time, but the work requires certain skills. In the second case, painstaking work: 4-5 movements on the edge of each tooth.
For automatic sharpening, diamond, CBN and corundum grinding wheels are used. It’s important to realize that this procedure only sharpens the teeth; the geometry created after setting the blade must remain unchanged.
First you need to prepare the equipment necessary for the job:
To make the sharpening better, you can prepare additional tools:
Before you sharpen the saw, you need to adjust the teeth, that is, set them apart. Setting is the setting of the cutting teeth at a certain angle relative to the blade and to each other. If you look at the saw when it is bent, you can see that they, alternately, deflect to the right and to the left of the blade plate itself. This configuration gives the hacksaw freedom in the deep kerf. It doesn’t get stuck because it doesn’t touch the walls with its whole plane.
The distance between bent teeth should be 1.5 or 2 times the thickness of the hacksaw. They are made not thicker than 1,5-2 millimeters, consequently, it is necessary to expose cutting ledges on 0,25-0,5 mm for sawing dry and hard wood; for wet or soft wood it is necessary to bend on 0,5-1 mm.
In order to “by eye” to set the right angle to each tooth, you need a solid experience, which not every carpenter has. It comes after many dozens of sharpened saws. For less experienced carpenters there is a tool called a setting tool. The most primitive version is a flat steel plate with a slit. The hacksaw is inserted into this gap with a minimal gap, in tension.
The process of setting looks like this:
- Clamp the hacksaw in a vice like this. Make sure that the teeth protrude 2 cm over the jaws.
- The prongs are clamped in the groove and then bent in the middle.
- First bend all the even teeth to one side, then bend the odd teeth in the opposite direction.
- At the end you can spread the jaws of the vice to the calculated width of the set and try to guide the saw between them.
- A tooth that is too bent will catch in the vise. Use pliers to bend it a little harder.
Adjusting the height of the teeth
All blades must be the same size so that the cutting performance is not impaired. Longer teeth are more stressed and wear out faster, while shorter teeth don’t even touch the wood.
The pulling of the blade becomes twitchy, uneven, and more force is expended. Deteriorates the accuracy of the cut, and the surface of the cut becomes rougher.
Trim before you start sharpening. To make sure that none of the teeth protrude, hold the blade against a piece of paper placed on the table.
The tops of the teeth will be imprinted on the sheet, and by the gaps in this pattern you can adjust their height. To do this, clamp the saw in a bench vice and file away excessively long prongs with a file.
The sharpening stone used for sharpening kitchen knives is not good enough to bring the teeth back to their former sharpness. A special tool is needed: a file with a triangular cross section or a file. It’s a good idea to have a few files with different cross sections and notches to work each tooth perfectly.
- Hold the file by the handle with one hand and place the other hand on the end of the tool.
- Decide on the sharpening angle. It is usually 15-30°. You can find it by eye, with a protractor, or by a simple technique. Shape the wooden bar into an isosceles triangle with angles of 90, 60, and 30 degrees, then use it as a yardstick.
- Sharpen the left cutting edges of the even (farthest from you) teeth. Each requires an equal number of file runs to remove the same amount of shavings. The pressure on the tool must be the same.
- Turn the hacksaw the other way, then sharpen the left edges of the even teeth again.
- Sharpen the tips of the teeth.
- Do not forget to control the sharpening angle with the bar.
The process seems very simple, albeit monotonous, but there are a number of nuances: