How to sharpen a knife on wood at home. step.by.step instructions
Wood hacksaw is a tool that every owner has. However, over time, the saw loses its acuteness, which affects its performance and the quality of the cut. Surrender with a hacksaw on wood at home is quite simple, without much effort.
Before conducting the process, it is necessary to know that hacksaws on wood from faint steel cannot be sharpened. You can distinguish the material in black with a characteristic blue tint.
It is important to remember that before sharpening the teeth must be diluted.
To sharpen a hacksaw on wood with your own hands, you need to decide on the necessary tool. Files are most often used as a sharpening device, less often. corner grinder.
The process of restoring the acuity of the cutting edge depends on the type of hacksaw. The processing of the transverse saw is carried out as follows:
- The canvas is clamped at an angle of 45 ° in relation to the table.
- The left edge of even incisors is sharpened.
- The blade turns over.
- The left edge of even teeth is pulled.
- Sharp cutting faces and sharp peaks of incisors are formed.
For processing, a triangular file with fine notch is used.
wiring; 2. chisel; 3. saw canvas; 4. bars; 5. wedge; 6. support; 7. trihedral file; 8. a square
To sharpen a universal or longitudinal saw, the canvas must be fixed in a vice at an angle of 90 °. For processing, you should use a rhombic file. The tool is held in their hands parallel to the desktop. The rest of the process of processing the cutting edge is similar to sharpening a hacksaw for a transverse saw.
After processing all the teeth on the faces, burrs may remain, the size of which depends on the thickness of the saw canvas. They are eliminated with a small file (with a “velvet” notch), or an abrasive bar of small granularity.
The quality of sharpening can be determined in 2 ways. When checking by the touch, the severity of the teeth, the absence of burrs should be felt. Either check the cutting edges in color: when lighting on them there should not be glare.
An additional test is carried out: during processing, the hacksaw should go smoothly, without the departure to the side; The cut surface should be smooth, without torn wood fibers.
You can sharpen the saw using an angular grinder. For this, the power tool is attached to the desktop. The saw is moved by hand.guide so that each cutter is fed to the sand disk in the same plane. In this case, it is necessary to set the sharpening depth limiter, which allows you to maintain the same height of the incisors. First, the faces of the odd row of teeth are processed, then. even. After processing, it is also required to remove the burrs with a file or a donkey.
A wood hacksaw is designed for sawing logs, boards, wood-based plate and other wood materials. In particular, this tool can be useful when laying a laminate, manufacturing various wooden structures, pruning branches, etc.D.
All wood saws are divided by the size of the teeth into three types:
|Type of teeth||Interdental distance, mm|
I must say that the smaller the cloves, the better the cut. Another important parameter is their shape. For example, with an even location, a hacksaw can be used for a transverse cut of logs, if the teeth are tilted, then the tool can be performed by a longitudinal sawing.
Therefore, it is advisable to have several hacksaws of different types, which will allow effectively perform various types of work. In addition, the price of this tool is quite affordable.
However, in any case, as mentioned above, any saw will be qualitatively and effectively sawing wood only if it is acute. Therefore, periodically must be sharpened hand hacksaw on wood.
Otherwise, the sawing will have to spend a lot of effort and time. over, the saw should be properly sharpened, otherwise it will be difficult to perform the cut at right angles with its help. as a result of constant care, the canvas will be clamped and jammed in the cut.
The process of sharpening
To sharpen the saw, you need to fix it hard, so that when exposed to it, it does not vibrate with a file. Otherwise, the quality of work will be low.
They fix the canvas of the hacksaw vertically, often in a vice, in homemade clamps, but if there is no other, then you can do without them.
Fixing method without special devices. “on the edge of the workbench”. The canvas of the hacksaw is laid so that only the teeth of the saw hangs from the edge of the table. However, the saw handles are always thicker than the canvas, and therefore the place next to it cannot be put tightly to the workbench. Therefore, you need to use the angle of the table, and then the handle of the saw will not interfere.
If there is a clamp, then you can fix it like this.
And this is a method without a clamp, fixation is carried out only by the hand of the sharpener. It is quite convenient and safe.
A file or suprafille is taken in the right hand, and, clutching the sheath of the hacksaw with his left hand, proceed to sharpening.
Torture the teeth of the saw through one. The movements of the file with this method are spent downward. The file is applied to the pulled tooth and move down with an effort with an effort with an effort.
The file must be kept with a slope in two planes. In horizontal. this is about 30 degrees. In vertical. about 60 degrees. The angles of inclination are individual for each saw, because they can differ both in the shape of the tooth and its size.
This is what should turn out: to the right of the pointer pointer-processed teeth, on the left-no.
To the right of the pointer pointer-processed teeth, on the left-no
The tool used
Since the saws differ in shape and for its intended purpose, their teeth are different. And to sharpen a hacksaw efficiently, you need a different tool.
Triangular suprafil with one working side. The profile of this tool is not standard, if the usual triangular file is equal and the workers, then this file has one working side, and in shape it is an is an is an is an is an is an is an is an is an is an is an is an is an isolated triangle with a very large base.
It is convenient to process small or oblique teeth with such a triangular suction with one working side. When working, it acts only on the processed surface, on others it only slides. There is no risk of grinding a neighboring tooth.
Ordinary triangular suprafil. A compact tool that is convenient to sharpen most standard wood hacksaws.
Triangular file. Perfect for sharpening saws with a large tooth.
How to sharpen a hand hacksaw on wood and dilute the teeth
Sooner or later, any canvas of the cutting tool becomes unusable and is blurred. In this case, the whole tool is not necessary to change. It is enough to make proper sharpening. This can be done with the help of those devices that are already available in the house (most often). Of course, nothing will work out if you do not own the correct technology of performing all actions. In the article, the master plumber will tell you how to sharpen a hand hacksaw on wood and dilute the teeth.
To ensure high cut quality, you need to understand the mechanism of exposure to the edges of the teeth of the hacksaw on the processed material. Unlike steel and plastic wood, the material is heterogeneous, it is because of this quality that several types of saws were developed that differ in the profile of the teeth, the angle of their sharpening and the degree of divorce. All varieties of hacksaws for wood, their characteristics and technical data are indicated in GOST 26215–84.
The main types of teeth of the hacksaw for wood: 1. for transverse cutting type 1; 2. for transverse sawing type 2; 3. for longitudinal sawing type 1; 4. for longitudinal sawing type 2; 5. for universal sawing
There are three types of hacksaws: for transverse, longitudinal sawing, as well as universal. The main difference is in principle of cutting: when sawing wood across the fibers, fragments of different densities are found on the path of the tooth. On the one hand, this circumstance plays on hand: the formed chips have a smaller size and is easily removed from the contact zone, which allows sharpening on both sides of the tooth for sawing, both in the direct and in the opposite direction of filing. On the other hand, cutting across the fibers is partly on a blow, respectively, more stupid angles of the descent of the cutting edges are necessary.
Sawing wood along the fibers can be described as repeated microstalum cycles. The force exerted on the tooth, in this case is uniform, therefore the teeth have an asymmetric shape and are directed by the tip towards cutting. In this case, the edge formed at the top of the tooth is directed strictly perpendicular to the plane of the canvas. When sawing along the fibers, elongated chips are formed, the removal of which is difficult from the contact zone. Also, with longitudinal cutting, more moisture, tar and adhesive substances are noted, which, in combination with the first factor, does not allow sawing in both directions. Stick removal occurs with direct submission of the tool: the perpendicular direction of the edge helps to release sawdust towards sawing. With the reverse movement, the removal of the remains of the chips and the self.cleaning of the edges are ensured.
The teeth of all types of hacksaws have wiring, they are alternately tilted in different directions from the longitudinal axis of the canvas. Due to this, in the longitudinal profile of a number of teeth of the hacksaw, a certain semblance of a swallow tail is formed. two sets of cutting wedges formed by the acorns of the cutting edges of the teeth. Accordingly, at the bottom of the cut, the hacksaw forms two grooves, which ensures uniform stepped and effective chips.
Qualified experts know the following signs indicating the imminent failure of the saw:
- When cutting wood, the hacksaw begins to sound differently;
- It is visually noticeable that the ends of the teeth twisted, lost their severity;
- The color of the teeth changes;
- The force increases during sawing;
- The direction of the saw is poorly aged;
- Frequent jamming jamming in the wood occur.
Teeth profile and sharpening angles
In addition to the standard paintings of wood hacksaws, there are other, determined by the standards of other countries. However, despite all the diversity, there is a single tendency in determining the angle of attack of the tooth, the angle of sharpening of the cutting edges, and sometimes in the methods of finalizing the peaks.
The teeth of the first.type hacksaws have the shape of an isosceles triangle with an angle at the top (aka angle of attack) 40-50 ° for the first performance and 50–60 ° for the second. The second.type hacksaws are characterized by more acute teeth profiles (less than 40 °) and their inclined position in the direction of the cut (performance 1), or a rectangular profile with a gentle tank. The third type of hacksaw also has an inclined position of the tooth, but the angle at the top is 35–45 °. This information is exclusively reference in nature: when sharpening, the tooth profile does not change, but the ability to understand the types of paintings will help determine the correct technique of turning.
The most popular non.standard types of paintings include dagger and “wolf tooth”. Khfevka with a dagger tooth are very similar to the first type of second type of second.line paintings, their characteristic feature is a different height of the teeth and a large thickness of the canvas, due to which an increase in pressure is ensured for removing larger chips. The “wolf tooth” profile consists of several pairs of teeth of the second type, alternating with the teeth of the first type, paired in m-shaped tails. The main difficulty of sharpening such saws is to individually select the angles of pointing edges for teeth of each type.
Sharpening of a hacksaw with your own hands
When sharpening a certain type of hacksaw on wood, you should pay attention to some features of this procedure. Let’s figure out how to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree of each variety.
To sharpen the teeth of transverse scabbard, a trihedral file is used with a rather small notch and an angle is close to 60 degrees. To sharpen the teeth, click the hacksaw into a special device that allows its canvas to install at an angle of 45-50 degrees to the surface of the desktop. Drive the file at an angle of 60-75 degrees to the canvas parallel to the desktop and in this way pull the left line in the first tooth.
The teeth of saws sharpen in several receptions. First, go on a file on the left faces of the odd teeth, which are in the far row, setting up your hands on the same movements. Further, they go on the right faces of the same odd teeth, thereby completing the sharpening of the cutting edges with sharp peaks.
After the odd teeth of the canvas of your saw have been imprisoned, we turn the canvas of the hacksaw for sharpening even teeth in the latest row in the wound device. When sharpening the teeth of transverse saws, it is necessary to carefully monitor that in each tooth there are sharp cutting edges with an angle of 60-75 degrees, that is, an acute peak and a short cutting edge.
To sharpen the teeth of longitudinal saws with an angle of less than 60 degrees, we use supofilles with a rude or rombic files with a fine notch, and trihedral files with an angle of 60 degrees at the top are not suitable for sharpening. To sharpen the teeth of the web of a longitudinal hacksaw, it is installed in the clamping device vertically, after which the device is fixed on the desktop. Next, we will tell you about two ways to sharpen the teeth of the longitudinal saw, which differ among themselves the size of the angle of sharpening.
The first way is a straight line when a file or a file at an angle of 90 degrees is directed horizontally to the canvas and at the same time remove a small layer of metal from the back and anterior faces of the tooth, to focus the cutting edge. In this way, all the teeth located in the far row are hidden. After that, in the clamping device, the canvas is turned over and the teeth of the other row are in the far row of the teeth. Many modern joiners and amateurs use this way to sharpen the teeth of such longitudinal hacksaws.
The second way is a scythe and it differs from the first direction of the tool itself in relation to the hacksaw. sharpening angle within 80 degrees. The rear and front faces of the teeth are also pulled, for the beginning of one row, and then the other. With this method of sharpening teeth, you will receive side edges that are used to sharpen a beam saw.
If you decide to buy a hacksaw on a wooden saw, you should find out how to sharpen it correctly. To restore the quality of cutting teeth, they are pulled by using a rough notch or rhombic files with a fine notch. As well as when sharpening a longitudinal saw, two ways are known. oblique and straight and they differ among themselves the size of the angle of sharpening (90 and 75-80 degrees).
Purpose and device saw
Hand hacksaw for wood is used to saw out various wood materials. It is a canvas with teeth in the lower part. On the one hand, the tool is equipped with a handle, with which the master holds it during sawing work. The convenience and comfort of working with the saw depends on the quality of the handle.
The number of wood hacksaw manufacturers is quite large, but they all differ not only by names, but also by quality. All of them are intended for sawing wood, wood-bruise, logs, laminate, as well as tree trunks. Casewalks are divided into such species as: classic, outfit, beam, as well as with a school and award. An important role in choosing a tool is played by the thickness of the canvas. After all, a thin canvas during sawing wood may break, and it is quite difficult to work with fat.
Important! Knife habits on wood should be periodically tightened. The hidden saws include such canvases that did not go through the hardening stage. If the links of the canvas are hardened, then it is impossible to sharpen them.
In this case, the quality, ease of operation and the durability of the tool affects:
When choosing a hacksaw on wood, pay attention to its main characteristics:
When choosing, use the rule. the length of the canvas on the tree should be 2 times the size of the largest workpiece. Otherwise, it will be very inconvenient to work with her.
Flexible canvas, minimal teeth wear.
A distinctive feature. the color of the teeth is darker than that of the canvas.
- A small tooth gives the cut cleaner and more precisely, but at the same time slow speed;
- with a large. the cut is rude, but the speed is higher, fatigue occurs much later.
Indicated. “tpi” (number of teeth by 1 ″). The higher the TPI value, the cleaner it will be possible to perform the cut.
For wood-fiber slab and wood-based plate, it is better when it is higher than 7, then the edges on the material will not be “torn”. For trimming trees and work in a summer cottage, 3-4 TPIs are recommended, between the teeth a distance of 4-8 mm.
The classic shape of the tooth is a triangle, it can be sharpened.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on a wood with a file
What to look for when choosing a tool
There are two types. carpentry and carpentry, the latter cut more precisely, cleaner and it is usually used for dry wood.
In this case, speed is not the main component when choosing.
- Length. depends on the diameter or section of the material.
- Teeth. for not frequent work, it is better to give preference to a tool with bellies. The service life of such a hacksaw is quite large, and not everyone can properly sharpen and dilute them. For seasonal work in the garden. a hacksaw with hot teeth The most optimal tool.
- The quality of the canvas. you can check it right in the store. Take the tool and evaluate its evenness, bent carefully the canvas to the resistance and release. The deviation at the place of the bend should not be more than 2 mm.
How to Sharpen a Woodworking Handsaw | Paul Sellers
Tip: No need to try to bend the canvas of the hacksaw with all your strength, it is enough to do it slightly, otherwise there is a risk of breaking it.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on wood with a corner grinder at home
- Number of teeth or tpi. They are intended not only for cutting wood, but also for the removal of sawdust. Therefore, the smaller there are inch lengths, the faster it will be possible to work, and less the workpiece will be clogged with sawdust.
If the number of teeth is up to 7. the performance is high, the efforts are spent minimal, but the accuracy of the saw. We recommend that you find a middle ground for your work, given that the workpiece of the minimum thickness should exceed the step 3 of the teeth.
- Hand saws on wood can be:
- the longitudinal cut. the teeth are directed “from themselves”, so they cut in one side alone. Length. up to 500 mm, the cut angle is sharp;
- The transverse is the vast majority of models that you can find in the market or in the retail network. Their teeth are sharpened on both sides. Therefore, the work will be carried out both when the saw moves forward and when it returned.
- The price of the tool is one of the main selection criteria. It is not a secret to anyone that products under leading brands will cost customers more than brands of Asian manufacturers, mainly China. However, thereby you guarantee yourself the durable operation of the tool, for example, with hot teeth. this is generally its entire service life, since it is not renovated. It so happened that it is much tougher to control the leading industries, so it is very difficult to buy a poor.quality product.
Tip: do not rush to buy the first tool that came across, remember that the quality of the cut will depend on it, the speed of work and the number of efforts spent at the same time.
How to properly sharpen a hacksaw on a tree yourself
First you need to prepare equipment necessary for work:
To make sharpening better, you can prepare additional tools:
Before returning the sharpness of the saw, you need to configure the teeth, that is, dilute them. Wiring is the installation of cutting teeth at a certain angle relative to the canvas and each other. If you look at the diluted saw, it is clear that they, alternating, deviate to the right and left of the plate plate itself. Such a configuration gives a hacksaw freedom in a deep cut. She does not get stuck, because it does not apply to the walls with the entire plane.
The distance between the diluted teeth should be one and a half or twice higher than the thickness of the hacksaw. They are made no thicker than 1.5-2 millimeters, therefore, cutting protrusions are required to be exposed at 0.25-0.5 mm for sawing dry and solid wood; For wet or soft wood, you need to bend 0.5-1 mm.
In order to “by eye” to set the right corner for every teeth, you need a solid experience that not every carpenter has. He comes after many dozens of sharpened saws. For less experienced carpenters, there is a tool called wiring. Its most primitive option is a flat steel plate with a slot. In this slot with a minimum clearance, a hacksaw is inserted into a stretch.
The wiring process looks like this:
- Fix a hacksaw in a vice so. It is necessary to ensure that the teeth of 2 cm protruding over the lips.
- The teeth are clamped in the groove, after which they are bent in the middle.
- First, you need to bend in one direction all the clock teeth, then in the opposite direction to bend the odd.
- In the end, you can dilute the sponges of the width of the calculated width and try to draw a saw between them.
- Excessively bent tooth will touch the vice. Bend it with pliers a little stronger.
Toer fit in height
All cutting protrusions should be the same in size so that the performance of sawing does not deteriorate. Longer teeth experience heavy loads and are erased faster, while short do not even touch wood.
The canvas becomes a jerk, uneven, is spent more effort. The accuracy of the cut is deteriorated, the cut surface becomes more rough.
Fitting is carried out before the start of sharpening. Make sure that none of the teeth protrudes, you can like this: press the canvas to a sheet of paper laid on the table.
The tops of the teeth are printed on the sheet, and by gaps in this pattern it will be possible to adjust their height. To do this, in a locksmith grip, click the saw and stream too long teeth.
To return tooths of former severity, a bar with which the kitchen knives is sharpened is not suitable. We need a special tool: a file with a triangular cross.section or a file. It is very good if there are several files with a different cross.section and pitch of the notch: this will perfectly process each tooth.
- With one hand, take the file by the handle, and put the other on the end of the tool.
- Decide on the sharpening angle. Usually it is 15-30 °. You can determine it by eye, a transporter or use a simple technique. Give a wooden bar the shape of an isosceles triangle with angles of 90, 60 and 30 degrees, then use it as a measure.
- Studge the left cutting faces of the chasing (distant from you) teeth. For each it is required to take an equal number of files of the file to remove the same amount of shavings. The pressure on the tool should be the same strength.
- Turn the hacksaw with the other side, then again focus on the left edges of the clock teeth.
- Point the tops of the teeth.
- Do not forget to control the angle of sharpening using the bar.
Filer Guide for Hand-Saws, How to make
The process seems very simple, albeit monotonous, but there are a number of nuances: