Masonry foam blocks with their own hands step by step instructions
Foam concrete blocks are becoming increasingly popular in recent years. Their use in construction is quite wide. from the construction of walls and partitions in multi-storey monolithic-frame houses, private buildings to the construction of garages, warehouses, stores and cafes.
Foamconcrete is used to make shelves and partitions in apartments. The popularity of this building material is due to its unique properties, which include:
high thermal insulation properties, excellent soundproofing; relatively low weight; easy to lay; ability to saw, cut, shape; overall dimensions, reducing construction time and mortar consumption; variety of sizes and shapes for different purposes; perfectly flat surface, requiring no additional leveling; reliability and durability; affordable price; safety: foam blocks almost do not decay over time, do not rot, do not burn, emit no toxic substances, have no detrimental effect on human health.
How to calculate the cost of laying foam blocks?
Before calculating you need to decide what brand of foam blocks you plan to use. Foam blocks come in different thicknesses and densities, different sizes.
It is necessary to calculate the area of future walls, taking into account the door and window openings, choose the necessary size foam blocks and calculate their quantity.
For interior walls and partitions, thinner foam blocks are usually used, consider the amount needed, subtracting the area of doorways from the area of the wall.
Next, it should be decided what will be laid foam blocks. on the cement or special glue. Cement, at first glance, is a cheaper option, but its consumption is several times higher than that of glue. Glue allows you to make the joints between the blocks very thin, minimizing cold bridges.
When building with foam concrete, every third-fourth row must be reinforced. Calculate the number of rows of foam concrete and, based on this. the amount of reinforcement or reinforced mesh, which we need.
If you are planning to use specialists for laying foam concrete, consider the cost of their labor. Careful calculation allows you to avoid buying an excessive amount of foam blocks and save on shipping.
The technology of laying foam blocks
The first row of blocks is laid on the cement-sand mortar, which should be applied in a layer not less than 3 cm to the waterproofing of the foundation. First of all the corner blocks are installed, the mooring cord is pulled and fixed, and the first row is laid according to it.
Check the quality of masonry level, and, if necessary, correct the position of the blocks with a rubber mallet.It is recommended to start laying the next row no sooner than after 3 hours. The laying can be carried out both with cement mortar, and with special adhesive. The thickness of the future joint should not exceed 3-5 mm.
For window openings, hollow U-shaped foam blocks are used, in which you need to insert the tied reinforcement and pour the concrete.Every 3-4 rows must be reinforced with rebar or wire mesh. Reinforcement is placed in special grooves, cut in the blocks with a hole saw or an angle grinder.Before installing the floor slabs it is necessary to make the concrete armor belt 20 cm high. If you intend to install wooden slabs or a wooden roof, you can not make a reinforcement belt, and be limited to special platforms for the beams.
What you need to know if you decide to build yourself?
- The cement mortar should be prepared in small portions. When using special glue for foam blocks, note that it must be used within 15 minutes after application.
- The optimum temperature for laying foam blocks. 5-25 degrees. At higher temperatures the foam blocks should be periodically moistened.
- Glue or cement is more convenient to apply with a special trowel or toothed comb. this will make the joints thinner and more even. Apply the adhesive to the horizontal and lateral surfaces of foam blocks.
- Installed on the cement or glue foam block carefully pressed. Then a level is set on it and aligned vertically and horizontally, tapping with a rubber mallet. Remove the excess of the mortar with a simple construction trowel.
- After laying each third row, you should check the deviation from the vertical with a level or plumb line, and the corners. with a leveling tool.
- Do not forget about reinforcing every 3-4 rows. Reinforcement is placed in the grooves on the mortar, mortar is applied on top and the next row of blocks is laid.
- Before laying each subsequent row, the surface of the foam blocks of the previous row is thoroughly cleaned of any irregularities with a construction chisel, the dust should be swept with a brush or cleaned with a vacuum cleaner.
- If the whole foam block does not fit, it can be sawed with an ordinary hacksaw or a special hacksaw for foamed concrete, and the cut should be cleaned of dust.
- Laying of foam blocks is carried out with the binding. Each successive row should be shifted with respect to the previous one by at least 10 cm, and ideally. by half the length of the block.
Errors in laying foam blocks
- Poor quality of laying of the first row. Mistakes made during masonry foam blocks in the first row, can add considerable problems in laying the following and lead to the fact that the walls of the future building will have deviations from the vertical.
- The laying of foam blocks in the rain or high humidity, in temperatures below 10 degrees of frost.
- Careless spreading of mortar, poor quality of filling joints. When laying foam blocks they partially absorb water from the mortar, thus ensuring the strong adhesion of the blocks. Deficiencies in the application of adhesive and cement mortar can affect the strength of masonry and thermal insulating properties of the walls.
- Neglecting the dedusting of blocks. Dust prevents proper connection of the blocks, and later cracks may appear in these areas.
- Neglecting the reinforcement leads to a general weakening of the construction. If the ground shrinks, cracks may appear in the walls. Remember that door and window openings must be reinforced!
- Laying of floor slabs directly on the foam blocks creates a point load that can exceed the strength limit of the foam blocks and lead to their destruction.
This saw is used in the construction of small objects (summer cottages, outbuildings, garages, etc.).), where it is not necessary to saw a large amount of foam blocks.
However, it is worth thinking about what to saw, if the density of foam blocks is high, it is better, of course, to use an electric tool.
Do not be afraid of the hand saw, if you work carefully and carefully, you can cut without irregularities and chips, and you can saw shaped elements.
However, you must remember that foam blocks. a special building material, it is necessary to work with it carefully. it tends to crumble when sawing! There is no need to put pressure on the tool! Only completely dry material should be sawn with a hand saw.
It is usually better and easier to saw through pre-made marks. The position of the saw should be at an angle of 45 degrees. The saw must be long, so that the finish straight sawing residue that was not completed did not break off and did not fall off, spoiling the sawing.
Foamblocks: what and how to cut cellular concrete products
Electric saber saw for cutting cellular materials
Active use of aerated concrete in construction raises quite a few questions for those who have chosen them for building a house. Porous products are easy to handle, they are simply sawed with hand or mechanical tools. If you have chosen foam concrete blocks as a building material. what and how to cut it is necessary to know in more detail.
How to cut aerated concrete
When calculating foam blocks for the house, you can try to size them so that you can lay the products without cutting. But this method is very time consuming, and most likely it is unlikely to succeed.
Another option would be to vary the thickness of the vertical joints. But this is not so easy to do either. The large width of gaps between the blocks can seriously compromise the thermal characteristics of masonry.
In addition, without the use of non-standard sized elements can not do without when performing door and window openings or some complex architectural forms of the building.
This material is very easy to work with: it can be sawed at any angle, given a variety of shapes. Therefore, it will be easier to understand how and what to cut foam blocks.
For such work, you can use manual or mechanical tools:
- Wood hacksaw;
- A hand saw for sawing cellular materials;
- angle grinder (angle grinder) with diamond discs;
- Rope equipment;
- Electric saw of saber type;
- Band saw for blocks.
Tip: Do not use electric chainsaws. They give a wide kerf, an uneven cut, and wear out quickly.
For cutting concrete also use laser equipment.
The easiest and cheapest would be to use a hand tool. But they are only good for small jobs.
It is easy enough to saw elements by hand to fit door and window openings, the device corners of walls. Sawing foam blocks with a hand tool is characterized by maneuverability of operations, ease of execution.
Hand tools will also be needed for greater precision:
The following tools will be suitable for this purpose:
- Wood hacksaw will help if cutting requires more than one block. If you do a lot of work, you need to sharpen your tool often, which is quite time-consuming. In addition, it is difficult to work with such a tool.
- A special hand saw for cutting porous materials has a thicker metal, which makes it less likely to bend than a regular hacksaw. It also has a special hardfacing or carbide tip on the coarse teeth. Tools are made with one or two handles. Blade available in various lengths.
A mechanized tool would be a more efficient option.
Electric tool is much more powerful than hand tool. If the amount of work performed is quite large, it will be more efficient to use mechanized cutting.
- The electric sabre saw is well suited for small jobs. Similar in principle to a conventional electric sabre saw. it works on electric socket.
- A band saw is a band with steel teeth attached to one side. It cuts much faster and more accurately than hand tools.
- angle grinder with diamond discs. angle grinder (angle grinder), when cutting foam blocks creates a lot of dust and noise. This leads to the need for constant cleaning of the tool, so it does not overheat. over, personal protective equipment is required when working with it.
On a side note: But the use of an angle grinder is possible when sawing niches, increasing window and door openings in finished walls. The discs with a diameter of 30 cm are used for this purpose. Better to collect dust with an industrial vacuum cleaner.
- Rope or string equipment for cutting lightweight concrete also requires the ability to connect to the power grid. It requires running water. Strings for cutting foam blocks are metal cables with the inclusion of diamond elements. perlin.
The price for such equipment is quite high. Therefore, its use should be economically justified.
Until recently, such a tool could only be used in industrial settings. New technology has made it possible to create equipment that is mobile enough.
Delivery and connection of the equipment takes little time.
The advantages of this method of processing foam concrete quite a lot:
- The cut is very precise and straight.
- The surface of foam blocks does not require additional sanding.
- Only a small area of the element is heated.
- The wall structure is not subject to deformation.
- You can do a lot of work.
- It is not difficult to make cutouts of complex shapes.
- It is possible to set the cutting modes.
The price of laser cutting is quite significant
There is no noise when working with a laser tool. But such equipment has a high cost. For this reason it is not widespread.
How to cut porous blocks
If you have to work with a hand tool, then the question. how to cut foam blocks, is solved quite simply:
- The foam block is placed on a level, horizontal surface.
- Mark the sawing points.
- The block is placed on the supports. you can use other blocks.
- Holding the element with your hand, smooth movements saw off the desired part.
Foam concrete hacksaw: rules of choice
One of the significant advantages of foam concrete over other types of building materials is its easy processing. However, for fast and accurate work, only a good foam concrete hacksaw is needed.
Should it be manual or electric, specially made for foam concrete or universal? Let’s consider what tools there are for cutting foam concrete blocks and how to choose them correctly, based on the specific conditions of the construction site.
Varieties of cutting tools for foam blocks
The range of cutting tools for foam concrete blocks on today’s construction market is quite large. Anyone who wants to, depending on financial capabilities, the specifics of the object under construction and personal preferences, can buy different kinds of devices for sawing foam concrete.
The most common cutting of foam concrete is carried out with the following types of cutting tools:
- Hacksaw (hand saw).
- Sabre electric saw.
- Band saw.
- Cutting complex for foam concrete.
- Stitch cutter.
So that everyone who has just begun to look closely and compare the available options for cutting foam concrete blocks, there is no doubt in the choice, let’s consider the characteristics, features, advantages and disadvantages of all possible options.
Note! Hacksaws for foam concrete have larger teeth than similar tools for cutting wood and, moreover, metal. The thickness of the blade is also more. The teeth themselves may have a special tungsten carbide facing to reduce the loss of their sharpness from contact with the concrete.
Penoblock cutting tools and their characteristics:
- The thickness of the blade (the greater this parameter, the more accurate the cut will be).
- Blade length (chosen according to the size of the blocks).
- Brazed with a special alloy on the teeth.
In addition, as a rule, a band saw is not expensive, and its purchase is justified, even if it will be used for only one project.
Sabre saws can be corded and cordless. The advantage of the latter is obvious when mobility is required, or when the construction site is not yet connected to the power grid.
When choosing a saber electric saw for processing foam concrete, you need to pay attention to:
To work the saw requires a power source, which may not always be available at the construction site.
Unlike all the options described above, the band saw has a stationary position during operation: the operator needs to control the block by moving it on the guide rollers, not the device itself.
Although there are also manual modifications of the band saw.
A stationary device with a long working length of the cutting belt has an advantage on large construction jobs.
The device requires periodic maintenance and tensioning and replacement of the cutting belt.
If the tensioning function of the band is violated, the accuracy and quality of the cut can be significantly impaired.
High-capacity band saws used on large construction sites produce a lot of dust and waste.
The main purpose of the tool is to create grooves for laying communications (cables, wiring, pipes) and reinforcing walls of foam blocks.
With an electric stubbing cutter you can quickly and accurately enough to make a slot for communications of any complexity inside the building.
Its performance is lower than the electric model.
Which cutting attachment should be used??
What cutting tool is better to handle foam concrete than to cut it to minimize the maintenance costs of the device?
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To answer these questions, you need to decide on the following parameters of the construction project:
- The total volume of processed foam blocks.
- Dimensions of foam concrete blocks.
- Electrifying the construction site.
- The budget of the project.
- Professional skills of builders.
Low-rise private construction
In the construction of a private one-story house of average area, for example, in the country house, as a rule, you use no more than 10-12 cubic meters of foam concrete. If there are no time constraints on the project and the budget is not limited, the ideal option would be an electric sabre saw.
However, if there is no power source at the site or the possibility to use a battery-powered saw model, as well as a limited budget, a hand saw will do.
It can be, for example, saw for foam concrete Zubr. Its resource is quite enough to complete the construction of the house by one. two builders.
Tools for a house with several stories
What to cut foam concrete blocks in the construction of a two or three story cottage, house or non-residential premises? For the construction of such a structure will require a large number of cutting operations, and in different conditions.
Masters know this jigsaw as a sabre saw. This saw is used in the construction of medium and large objects.
It is possible to change blades on the jigsaw (put discs with different sizes of teeth, change blunt or damaged discs; the shape of the teeth on the discs can also be different. large and small teeth).
As a rule, for the convenience of builders, many models of saws are produced with interchangeable batteries, so as not to be tied to a power source.
When working with this type of tool, you must remember that sawing wet material is not allowed, it can lead to injury. The saw will “jam” the crumb and could injure the builder.
It is better to try on the tool before you start working with it. Playback the movements of the saw without the power on.
It is necessary to saw with the middle part of the saw, the length of the cutting surface should be about 25 centimeters.
To avoid injury, you should hold the saw firmly in your hands.
Alligator saw is particularly rugged and wear-resistant. The teeth of such a saw have special pads of pobedite that make the teeth more durable. Such tool is used in the construction of large objects (apartment buildings, offices with a large area).
The advantage of this tool is that it does not need to constantly sharpen or change blades, as, for example, in an electric jigsaw.
When buying such a saw it is better to choose the variant with a thick-walled blade, as only sawing with such a blade will give a smooth cut without chips and roughness.
It is often written that it is necessary to lubricate the surface with special grease before starting to work with such a saw, but practice tells the opposite. Lubricant mixes with dust and can cause the saw to stop working.
Although the instructions to most of the tools of this type prescribed the use of lubrication. Lack of lubricant increases the productivity of work many times over.
The machines are designed for cutting different materials through a closed band made of metals with high-frequency alloys. The advantage of the band saw for aerated concrete is its adjustable height and good productivity. Cutting of aerated concrete blocks is carried out with a band blade, this technique allows you to make longitudinal and curved cuts.
Chain saws are used for creating U-blocks from standard products. According to builders’ reviews, it is recommended to clean chain saws from oil and grease mixtures. Because of them the mechanism adheres to the dust from aerated concrete, which provokes accelerated wear of moving elements.
A frequently asked question. can a chainsaw cut aerated concrete? According to the reviews of masters, when working there is a strong abrasion, and the tool quickly gets dirty and fails. That is why it is better to use an electric aerated concrete saw with a filter on the brush side.
How to saw foam block with his hands?
Foam blocks are used in construction very often. They resist heat well, are lightweight, bulky, and very easy to handle.
They can be not only sawn, beveled, drilled, and processed even with a planer, chisel, and other tools.
Here are the basic tools that can be used to saw foam blocks:
What to saw foam blocks with
This kind of cellular block is used in construction very often. They resist heat well, are lightweight, bulky, and very easy to handle.
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They can be not only sawn, beveled, drilled, and processed even with a planer, chisel, and other tools.
We allocate the basic tools with which you can saw foam blocks:
What to saw a gas silicate block?
When sawing it tends to crumble! There is no need to apply pressure to the tool! Only completely dry material should be cut with a hand saw.
It is usually better and easier to saw through the pre-made marks. The position of the saw should be at an angle of 45 degrees. The saw should be long, so that the not finished rest did not splinter off and fell off, spoiling the sawing.
What to saw aerated concrete blocks with
One of the most popular materials among builders these days is aerated concrete. It is produced not for the first decade, and it has proved itself as a reliable and high-quality wall material.
Modern technologies make it possible to reach the geometric precision and strength, fire resistance and environmental friendliness, as well as heat and sound insulation functions.
Due to the porous structure, it is easy to handle, which will facilitate the process of exterior and interior decoration.
During the construction process, we must decide on the following question: how and with what to cut aerated concrete blocks? You can use special equipment, mechanical or hand tools, the abundance of tools allows. But how effective they are?
Manual hacksaw or saw on wood, requires additional refinement, setting teeth, made with an angle grinder.
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And even then, such a homemade tool will not be able to last long. Saw a saber, electric or band saw should make accurate and even cuts, and the performance is more.
But problems can arise when the saw blade can “run sideways” by several millimeters, in which case geometric accuracy is out of the question. And the high cost of such tools does not justify expectations, it is another matter if you need them for other purposes.
Special tools for processing and laying the gas blocks will simplify and greatly speed up the work process. A hacksaw for aerated concrete is the answer to the question: what to cut aerated concrete. This tool allows you to easily cut the block right at the construction site, maintaining clear lines.
Gas concrete is a strong material, but with the right tools, it can be processed. It can be given any shape and angle, length and width of the block. Strobus cutter will make even grooves for laying rebar and recesses for wiring.
Hacksaw for foam block (aerated concrete) INTERTOOL HT-3132 is a hand tool for quickly cutting blocks in the construction of the walls of the building. Its main advantage is the fully Teflon coating of the blade. This feature reduces mechanical friction, thereby increasing work speed and reducing tooth wear.
How to saw aerated concrete blocks?
If the design of the building is not expected to be complex shapes, then the purchase of expensive power tools will not be advisable. The most economical solution would be a hacksaw for cutting aerated concrete, used for work in a small volume.
The quality of the cut affects the strength of the block, the technique, the condition / density of the material, the humidity of the air. For cutting aerated concrete to be even, you will need a pencil and a square, with which you need to draw a marking on all four edges. Then the cuts are made with a depth of 2-3 cm on three sides (two long and one between them). How long the blade will be depends on whether you can reach the end of the cut or not. The tool should be guided gently, without pressure, which prevents the saw from slipping to the side. It is also not uncommon to cut aerated concrete blocks with a power saw.
Electric circular saw
This tool copes with aerated concrete blocks quickly, but in the process of sawing generates a lot of dust, protection for the eyes is necessary. At the same time, this tool is cheaper than a saber saw. from 2.5 thousand.
Tips for working with aerated concrete
- It is better to lay the blocks of aerated concrete on the glue. For this purpose, it is worth using a proprietary trowel, which will provide you with a seam between the blocks of 1.5-2 mm.
We choose the trowel depending on used block (width 375 or 365 mm). Using a wide toothed trowel increases the consumption of glue, resulting in a thicker joint, and the laying process is greatly delayed.
The joint thickness of the mortar is too thick when using a toothed trowel
- To cut joints in aerated concrete, it is advisable to use an angle grinder with a diamond wheel for dry cutting. Then we quickly and easily take out the joints with the jointing cutter.
Aerated concrete is better to cut, using a disc “multimaterial
- To accelerate the process of building a house as lintels over door and window openings, as well as for the arrangement of the reinforcement belt, it is easier to use ready-made U-blocks. But if you want to save money, then such an element can be made by yourself from a whole block.
The process of making a homemade U-block
- The speed of construction of the house depends directly on the quality of laying the first row of aerated concrete. If it is laid perfectly level, then the laying of subsequent rows is faster and easier.
To adjust the first row you can use a grinder
- It is not necessary to conduct the laying of a row from two corners towards each other. This will make it difficult to join the rows and adjust the last piece to fit.
- To perform the laying of the last block in the row, you need to lay the last two gas blocks without glue, trim the last element, taking into account the thickness of the joints. Then on the glue we lay first the cut aerated concrete block, and then the whole element.
- Binding of blocks in rows is done as follows. First put the last gas block perpendicular to the row on the other wall. Thus, it becomes the first in the next row. Then we measure the distance and saw off an element to the right size. After that we fulfill masonry with glue.
- Variants of sawing the gas block:
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Sawing aerated concrete blocks, trying to give them an even surface, but it does not always work. Deal with this task will be able to planer, which will level the surface of aerated concrete and make it perfectly smooth. The planer consists of a wooden base with embedded fine teeth, which are located at an angle.
An electric chainsaw
Using an electric chain saw for sawing aerated concrete has advantages, but there are more disadvantages. Yes, it cuts fast, it helps to cut U-configurations, it is convenient for cutting at an angle. But in the process of cutting an electric chainsaw blunts quickly, you need a chain with pobedite tips, which costs considerably more than usual. In addition, the chain heats up in the process, the tool needs a break.
It turns out that an electric chainsaw is more convenient to use than a saber chain saw, but it becomes useless quicker, and replacing the chain will lead to additional costs.
For small amounts of work use a hand saw. With its help, finish the openings of windows and doors, and without it you can not cope when installing the initial tiers of walls. To ensure that the device, which cuts the products, performed its function well, use auxiliary tools:
- Metal angle with which to control the correct angle of cut.
- A ruler, a marker or a pencil, which are needed to determine the place of the cut.
- A planer for aerated concrete products, which levels the surface layer of the masonry.
Aerated concrete is one of the hard materials, which means that the choice of cutting tools, should be based on the quality of the cutting blade. Sawing with a hand hacksaw, which is designed for material made of wood, aerated concrete slabs is wrong. It takes a lot of time and effort. The cutting element of a hand hacksaw should consist of carbide components with larger teeth. The hand saw is available with one handle and with two handles. The cost of a cutting tool is influenced by the distinctive properties of the tool and the manufacturer.
Sawing by hand
A common misconception that sawing aerated concrete by hand is a long and thankless task with poor results (uneven cut, torn edges, tedious and unproductive).
But for the individual builder to cut blocks manually can and need, as with a fairly thick blade will always cut evenly, and the porosity of the material does not make a big load on the hands. It’s all about cutting technique, material and grade of foam block.
If you are going to saw an air brick or foam brick of B class 2.0 and density (grade) D 400 with a hand saw, you will like the result. But the block of class B 3,5 D grade 600 will make you think about the acquisition of electric cutting tools.
The right hand saw can make several thousand cuts, and these can be complex mowing line in the form of a trapezoid or a hemisphere. The conclusion suggests itself: in addition to the brand of foam block, it is important to develop the right technique of the process:
- You can not put too much pressure on the saw to prevent the blade from swaying to the sides. Aerated concrete should not be cut as boards or laths. the material is not cut, and crumbles, so the pressure is not needed here in principle.
- Before sawing aerated concrete blocks, make sure they are well dried. wet chips will stick in the kerf and complicate the cutting process.
- A smooth cut will be obtained if the block is pre-marked on three sides. Shallow cuts of 20-30 mm are made on the marks.
- The blade must follow the kerf so there is no deflection in the planes. Hold the saw at a 45° angle and do not apply pressure to the blade. To keep a block of wood from falling off with jagged edges at the end of sawing, it should rest on the table with its whole body.
- The saw must be long enough so that the blade overlaps the brick completely and with a reserve in length.
- To make the work easier, you can make a tuslo from boards or plywood.