Sawing techniques with and without a circular saw, what you can cut, and how to use it correctly
To work with a manual circular saw, no special qualifications are required. It is enough to try for the first time, then for a few cuts the user will understand the capabilities of the tool: how quickly it saws, how much pressure not to “choke” the engine, how an electric saw behaves when starting, how the cord is stretched not to get under the saw. This refers to simple sawing, for example, firewood.
It is a little bit more difficult to make even cuts and achieve precise joinery cut (plus/minus 1 mm or degree). Greater accuracy is difficult to achieve with such a tool, although in principle it is possible. But such tolerances in most cases are acceptable, given that the wood is capable of drying and swelling, changing the volume and size with a large amplitude (up to 10%). Other tools are used for jewel-like precision, including fine-toothed hand hacksaws.
Sawing technique along
Longitudinal sawing is quite often used, and therefore it is better to say a few words about the correct work technique. Since this method is used to obtain boards used in the construction of important buildings, it is necessary that they be almost perfect. In order to achieve the same dimensions, it is necessary to use a guide during the work. The role of this auxiliary element can perform iron rail or other board, but very strong and perfectly flat.
Features of sawing with a homemade tool
Saw a log into boards can be easily cut with a self-made tool. To make it is not difficult. To do this, you need to do the following steps:
- As a support, you need to use the frame from the school desk or a tube with a cross section in the form of a square, its optimal size is 20×20, it is allowed and more.
- It is necessary to construct two clamps, on one end to mount a crosspiece with two holes for the tie bolts, in the middle to make an overhang for the bar.
- To saw a log longitudinally into boards, you need to make a support frame, its width should be less than the length by seven to eight centimeters.
- Then, two parts ten centimeters long are welded to both sides, holes are made for bolts, a handle is attached in the middle for convenient operation.
- Then you need to insert the clamps into the grooves, install the bar, everything must be carefully secured.
Working with a homemade tool is not difficult, you will need a trestle, they will serve as a support. In addition, you need to prepare a metal rail or board to use it as a guide element. A log is laid underneath, and the required height for the work is set.
How To Split A Log
Sawing methods and technologies
There are several ways of obtaining products, which depends on the quality of lumber and areas of construction, where boards can be used.
- Radial, the cutting trimmer line runs along the radius of the annual rings. Boards are the most resistant to fracture, but to carry out such a cut at home is problematic, because you will need several times to turn and fix the workpiece.
- Tangential sawing is carried out tangentially to the annual rings. Obtained boards have a pronounced pattern, but during drying often lose their regular shape, roll on the axis. In operation do not withstand heavy loads.
- Parallel-forming is carried out along the fibers, the method is most often used in self-sawing, as it is the least labor-intensive.
There are several sawing techniques depending on the equipment used:
- in the camber. the log is sawn several times along the entire length, each new cut is parallel to the previous one;
- To get a block from the log we saw off a slab and boards from 4 sides in turn; besides, this method allows to get a block from the middle part;
- segmental, from the sides sawed off parts of the log, such a size to get a bar, then the cut segments are dissolved into narrow boards;
- the sector method is similar to the segment method, but first the segments are separated from the log.
The specific technology and sequence of sawing is chosen depending on the structure of the logs.
HOW TO MILL YOUR OWN LUMBER BY HAND // Finally Successful!
Variants of cutting with a chainsaw
To dissolve a log into boards with a chainsaw, you must purchase factory-made nozzles or make them yourself.
In general, the construction consists of three parts:
- A guide frame, it rests on the surface along which the sawing is to be carried out;
- A vertical stand, needed to hold the chainsaw and a mechanism for adjusting the thickness of the boards;
- kerf thickness adjustment mechanism with screws and locking nuts.
Sawing work begins with cutting and marking. By the shape of the cross-section you can tell which side faces which part of the world. The log is thicker on the south side. Experience shows that the strongest boards are those if the saw bar runs parallel to the “west” and “east” side, this is taken into account when initially securing the workpiece.
A few rules must be observed:
- the wood must be firmly supported, excluding the slightest fluctuation, a violation can lead to damage to the tool, jamming the chain, dangerous injuries;
- It is desirable to use chains for longitudinal sawing, they differ smaller sharpening angle (5-10 °), compared with cross (25-35 °);
- for sawing at home choose logs of small diameter;
- It is imperative that safety precautions are strictly adhered to and that serviceable tools and personal protective equipment are used.
Algorithm of longitudinal cutting:
- Free the log from the bark and limbs, even small obstacles in the movement of the chain saw cause a shift of the cutting plane and reduce the quality of the boards.
- Examine the year-ring structure of the log, determine the preferred method of sawing to minimize waste.
- Clamp the log onto the frame, positioning it so that the upper part of the log is cut horizontally.
- Prepare support for the guide frame, the support is useful for the first cut, then the frame will be based on the log. Two parallel nailed beams are used.
- Adjust the position of the guide bar with the adjustment screws.
- After starting up the chainsaw, sliding the device, start sawing the log into boards. As you move away from the edge of the log, wedges are hammered into the log, helping to avoid jamming the chain.
- After the upper slab is cut, the procedure is repeated, removing the support from the bars.
If necessary, the log is rotated along its axis.
Before use in construction boards must be dried to 22% humidity. The process occurs naturally or in drying chambers. Planks are laid on a flat surface, shifting each layer by supports, located at a distance of 1 meter along the entire length.
Sawing on a mini-rip saw
A sawmill is a stationary device to produce boards from logs.
There are two varieties. In the first case, the workpiece is fixed on the frame (frame, platform), and the saw tool moves. Low-capacity design.
In the second, the saws are fixed on a rigid frame and the log is transported to the sawing area on a movable carriage.
In mini saws the sawing element can be:
- circular saws;
- Chain saws, driven by gasoline or electric motors;
- band saws rotated by electric motors.
The highest quality products with the least amount of sawdust are obtained when using a band saw.
Before starting work, carry out a visual inspection of the machine, lubricate the rubbing and rotating joints. Check the quality of the saw blade, defective or worn out elements must be replaced. If machine is equipped with a saw chain, check quality of teeth sharpening.
Setting the position of the circular saw blade
After installing and fixing the fixture on the ruler, the position of the circular saw blade must be adjusted. Any board that is equal in width to the thickness of the wood to be split can be used. The top edge of the saw blade must be higher than the middle of the board that is being used as a template.
The board cannot be split in two if the saw blade is in this position
Make cuts in the board used as a template for the test cut. If the saw blade is below the required level, there will be an uncut part in the middle of the board. And it’s too bad if you can’t raise the disc higher. This means that it is not possible to cut such a thick board.
The saw blade must be raised as high as possible
Working tool types
When sawing logs with a chainsaw, various attachments are used.
- Nozzle for longitudinal sawing. Used for sawing logs longitudinally, in a horizontal position. After the work is done, the sawmaker gets the same thickness of the product. The finished material is dried and then used in construction. In appearance, the device is a frame of small dimensions, it is attached to the bar on each side.
- The drum debarker. With such a nozzle it is easy to dissolve the log, it works due to the V-belt transmission. Attached to the belts on both sides, special pulleys are used for this. The speed of the shaft depends on the size of the pulleys, so the performance of the nozzle is not difficult to change. This technology forces the master to closely monitor each stage of the process, some specialists use an assistant during this sawing. But this variant requires increased safety precautions.
- Sawing with a light nozzle. The method is not characterized by high productivity, but is used quite often. Fixing the element is made on one side, but the workpieces are obtained a little uneven. Such materials are needed for building barns or fences.
The design of the gasoline cutter nozzle
The device of such a nozzle looks like a bearing unit with a rotating shaft and pulley. The unit is driven by a belt drive. At the end of the knot there is a special mechanism for attaching the wheels. The chainsaw can be easily turned into a multi-tool by using this accessory and the discs intended for cutting stone, metal and wood.
Another successful attachment on the chainsaw, is a debarker. The nozzle allows not only to improve the efficiency of sawing logs with a chainsaw, but also to remove bark from them, cut grooves and do many other things.
Chainsaw debarkers come in drum and disc types. They all differ in their functionality and capabilities.
The circular to help you!
One of the most commonly used tools for this task is a circular saw! Just need to know a few basic rules. First, you need to ensure the longitudinal movement of the tree.
It is clear that it is almost impossible to do this on an ordinary horizontal table, because it will be during the sawing move from place to place, which is very uncomfortable and can cause injury! Which we most certainly would not want to do.
But what to do, you ask?? There is a trick that is known to all professionals under the code name “fin”.
A fin is a fixture whose thickness corresponds to the width of the cut. But it is necessary to install this thing so that it would be possible to correct, to correct its position. This is very important!
The log is sawed into planks by two people, as follows: first, it is sawn lengthwise, i.e. the work is performed according to the usual method. Then, when the fin is fully in, a spacer is inserted, which must be slightly larger than the width of the cut. Install the clamp-handle, which will perform two functions at once, one of which will hold it in place, and the other will be needed to pull it comfortably.
The file. spacer at this moment will not allow the board to deflect somewhere, which is very convenient! Next, you will need to act as follows: the first worker will pull the object by the clamp, while the other will press it to the ruler, which is used in this case to determine the width of the board!
The work is thus in the hands of the craftsman! Business is booming! And the speed of the action surprises them!
Raw material selection
Logging round timber
Not only the trunks go into processing, but also large branches. Logs of round timber are sorted by size and bark. The trunks that have not been sorted are further used for rough work (scaffolding, etc.).). When getting the raw material from the supplier not only the cubature is checked, but also the presence of damage, rot, knots. such materials do not meet the technical conditions. Bark marks reduce the percentage of finished product, and knots can cause damage to equipment.
Before sawing, trunks are often debarked (removal of bark on a special machine). this process is not necessary, but it is considered economical:
- due to the absence of jammed stones and sand in the bark, the saw is saved from premature wear and tear;
- the quality of the chip material is improved;
- some companies do not accept for processing lumber from unbarked logs;
- Error in timber sorting results is reduced by electronic control.
Plan for debarking the barrels