Installing rivets on metal
A variety of attachments are used to fasten sheet metal, from bolts and nuts to modern split clips. But rivets were the first to be used for such tasks. and they are still in use today.
Naturally, the modern rivet is quite different from its predecessor. That is why it is worth to understand what kind of rivets are used in the manufacture of steel structures, and how such connections are mounted.
For riveting with the tube: Insert the reamer into one end of the tube. Strike the expander lightly with a chisel hammer. Turn over the joined pieces, insert the reamer into the other end of the tube and lightly tap it again with a hammer. Repeat the entire sequence, as you did for wire riveting, until you see that the tube can no longer be removed from the holes
Then gently strike the tube a few times straight on with the round beater of the chasing hammer. The rivet is ready!
Connecting rings, made of wire, fasten the individual elements of the jewelry. They become part of the design at the same time, as in a bracelet such as the Play of Colors. In the Bell Necklace, the shiny copper connecting rings, in addition to their functional role, provide an interesting contrast of material and color.
On sale you can find ready-made connecting rings, but you can easily make them yourself from wire of any thickness. These rings can be opened and closed again with pliers, which allows them to be used as connecting elements.
Wrappers and boxes of chocolates. 5.4 x 4.4 x 4.4 cm each
Paper, silver, amethyst, pearls. 5.5 x 45 x 2.5 cm
|Fig. 2, rivet tool (a), rivet tool (b), rivet tool (c), rivet tool (d), rivet tool (e).) and the way of forming of a recess in a crimp (b): 1 ≈ crimp: 2 ≈ blank of a rivet; 3 ≈ plate; 4 ≈ table plate; 5 ≈ steel ball.|
Rivets under the hammer can be made of different materials. The most popular varieties to consider.
This type of construction parts is also often referred to as drawn. Their production is regulated by several domestic standards:
The size grid is quite diverse: diameter. from 1 to 10 millimeters, length. from 5 to 45 millimeters. And these figures may vary depending on the type of rivets (under the hammer, drawn, threaded).
It is also important to note the fact that such aluminum parts can be made of several grades of material. Thus, the most popular starting material is aluminum of the brands D18, B65, AMZ, D19P, AMG 5P. They can also be dural.
Stainless steel rivets have a special place among all hammer fasteners. These elements are produced not only in Russia, but also abroad.
Steel rivets are most often made without any additional coating, and their dimensions may vary. So, for example, the diameter of the cap can be from 1.8 to 55 mm, height of the cap. from 0.6 to 24 mm, the height of the element. from 2 to 180 mm.
Due to such a variety of indicators, these parts can be used to connect sheets made of metal, to attach facade plates to substructures, as well as to connect metal structures with parts made of other materials.
Construction parts made of this material are characterized by several distinctive features:
- due to their antimagnetic properties, they are widely used in the radio industry;
- thanks to the fact that copper does not rust, rivets made of it are in demand in almost all areas (especially in cases where the materials fastened with them are often in contact with water and air);
- copper elements are used for the assembly of apparatuses and tools for the chemical industry, as they are quite resistant to the action of various man-made substances.
Most manufacturers make copper rivets in standard sizes ranging from 2 to 8 mm in diameter.
The length of brass rivets reaches 4-70 mm, and the diameter is 2-8 mm.
In order to choose the right crimp (mandrel) for brass parts with a semi-circular head, you should choose such crimps, which have:
How to install accessories on clothing
Accessories for clothing is an additional, sometimes even the main decoration of clothing, accessories.
Especially decorate various blocks, buttons, eyelets leather products. However, it is not always possible to properly and reliably install fittings with your own hands. Often you have to mess up more than one block or button before you install it. To make the job easier for you, use our tips designed specifically for installing blocks, a variety of buttons, denim buttons at home.
It should be noted at once that if you have the opportunity, then do not “save” on the installation of blocks by hand. Entrust this work to a craftsman who has not only experience, but also a special press, various devices and a set of tools. Well, if you do not have such a possibility, then let’s figure out how to install the fittings for the clothes yourself with the help of simple devices.
The principle of operation
How to use a rivet is perhaps the most important question that the master is interested in. In order to create a reliable connection, it is necessary to adhere to the following algorithm of actions during its implementation:
The first step is to align the surfaces well, so you can ensure the tightest possible contact between the parts.
When drilling holes, make sure that the holes are perfectly in line with each other. For the proper performance of this operation it is recommended to place the surface on a flat plane, such as a wooden workpiece, to which they should be fixed. After that move on to marking the locations of the future holes. Then the holes are drilled, making sure that on each piece they are positioned exactly in the marked places.
An important task is to make sure that the size of the hole corresponds to the required parameters. For this purpose it is recommended to use a drill bit with a slightly larger diameter. For example, if you are making a 3.8 mm hole, you should use a 4 mm drill bit.
When the holes are ready, be sure to “try on” the prepared fasteners. If everything is done correctly, the rivet head will be tight against the surface in the area of the edge of the hole and completely cover it.
The final step is to install the rivets, adhering to the following order:
- First place the cylindrical body of the rivet into the hole made in the elements to be joined.
- Using a rivet gun, you need to grasp the rod passing through the entire body, and it must be secured by the lips or riveting head of the tool directly at the base of the cylinder head.
- Apply the required force to the rod and pull it out through the body of the rivet, simultaneously expanding its cap and deforming the end of the cylinder. You should end up with the back wide part of the rivet on the inside of the elements being joined.
- After selecting the required force for the riveting tool, the parts are securely joined, after which you only have to break off the protruding parts of the pulled out rod.
In most cases when using a hand-held riveting tool, you have to pull the lever several times to get the desired result. After joining the elements, on one side of it will be the head of the rivet body, and on the other side will be the flattened end of the cylinder, looking like a group of petals.
How to make a rivet with your own hands out of wire
Fixing something with rivets is quite common. Make a rivet with their own hands is not difficult, but with the help of such a simple fastener you can easily repair kitchen utensils, pots, kettles, etc. д.
It is difficult for motorists, especially the owners of VAZ cars, to do without rivets. Now you need to rivet the interior trim, now you need to attach something.
In general, rivet is such a useful gizmo, which will always come to the aid of domestic handyman, when you need to seal a hole in the pot or attach something.
About how to make their own rivets will be discussed in this article.
How to make a rivet with your own hands?
In order to make a rivet out of aluminum wire with your own hands, first of all, you need the wire itself. As for the diameter of aluminum wire for rivets, it should be about 10 millimeters.
Also, in order to make a rivet, you will need a vice, an electric drill and drill bits on metal. It is worth saying about the fact that, of course, at the present time there are ready-made tools for manufacturing rivets.
However, there are different situations when there is a dire need to do riveting by hand at home. Then, of course, the following instructions for making a rivet out of aluminum wire will come in handy.
Instructions for making a rivet
Several strips, about 30-50 centimeters in size, are cut from thick metal that is at least one centimeter thick. On the wide side, the strips of metal cut out are joined by welding with a hinge so that they can later be put together.
On the other side, a piece of 6 mm thick metal wire (rod) is welded along the entire length to the plates. The wire is needed as a lever, which could be clamped in the vise when making rivets.
After the wire is welded to the plates, you should clamp them in a vice and make a small hole at the junction of the strips using an electric drill. The depth of the finished hole should not be more than 15 mm, and a diameter of 4 millimeters.
Then a drill with a diameter of 7 mm is taken, and with it, the resulting hole is countersinked to a depth of no more than 2 millimeters. In this way, a conical hole is made in the metal strip to form the head of the aluminum rivet.
To make a rivet with this handmade device it is enough to take a small piece of aluminum wire and put one end of it down to the bottom of the drilled hole.
Then using wire cutters, the wire is bitten off over the edge of the metal strip with a reserve of at least 3-4 millimeters. Using a hammer, a piece of wire inserted into the hole is gently tapped until the wire is finally seated in the hole.
At this point making a homemade rivet out of aluminum is almost done. The only thing left is to unclench the vice and take out the rivet.
As you can see, it is not too difficult to make a rivet with your own hands, and you will need a few materials for this. Nevertheless, knowing the home rivet making process, you don’t have to worry about not having a rivet on hand when you’re in dire need.
Riveting of metal
The process of riveting metals consists of two steps: the preparatory and actual installation of hardware. Preparation. drilling holes, countersinking if necessary. Note that countersunk heads can be on one (any) side or two.
- insert the rivet;
- Tighten the parts to be joined;
- form a riveting head with the tool
- Check and deburr the joint.
With a good tool, work can be done quickly. For private use and one-off jobs, hand-held riveting tools are usually used. And even with them, the process itself (without drilling holes) takes seconds. If we talk about installing corrugated sheet metal or metal shingles, it is recommended to paint each made hole. to prevent corrosion. It is these processes. drilling and painting. that take a lot of time.
In general, there are two ways to install the rivets: cold and hot. When making hot riveting, the connection area is preheated to a certain temperature (determined by the metal and the thickness of the parts). In practice it is used when mounting rivets of large diameter. 12mm and more.
Rivets are placed in rows. The minimum distance between the adjacent. 4 diameters, from the edge of the sheet to the center of the rivet. at least 1.5 rivet diameter. When fixing the profiled sheet, put it in a recess, not in a wave.
When making riveting by hand, one uses metal hammers with a square beater, supports, crimps, tensioners and chasers. Hammer choose according to the diameter of the rivet:
Support (Fig. 14.5) serves as a support for riveting the rivet rod and should be 3-5 times more massive than the hammer. The shape of the working surface depends on the construction of the riveted parts, the diameter of the bar and the shape of the rivet head and the riveting method.
Fig. 14.5. Using support and crimping when riveting: а.straight; б– reverse; 1. crimp; 2. support
crimping (fig. 14.5) is used to shape the rivet closing head after upsetting. The working end of the crimp should have a depression in the shape of the rivet head.
Stretch (fig. 14.6, а) is a rod with a hole at the end and a diameter of 0.2 mm larger than the diameter of the rivet rod. The tension is used to compress the sheets.
Embossing. This is a locksmith’s chisel with a flat working part. It is used to create a tight riveting seam, achieved by undercutting the closing head and the edge of the sheets.
Fig. 14.6. Hand riveting techniques: a, b. straight; в. back;
1. tension; 2. Support; 3. crimping
Hand riveting is performed on workbenches, plates, or special devices. The process of manual riveting consists of the following basic operations:
- 1) preparing the surfaces of the parts for riveting;
- 2) Marking of holes for future rivets;
- 3) drilling rivet holes in the riveted parts;
- 4) countersinking of rivet head socket;
- 5) riveting into the holes of the parts;
6) shaping of the rivet closing head, t.е. riveting proper.
The riveted parts are cleaned of dirt, rust, scale, and fit. If necessary the mating surfaces and edges are machined. The surfaces are prepared for riveting by marking with a scribe and then the future rivet holes are drilled. The distance from the center of the rivet to the edge of the sheets to be riveted must be 1.5a! rivets. Required number of holes for rivets is determined by calculation. Then the marked parts are aligned, clamped together by a hand vice or clamps and the holes are drilled according to the marking simultaneously in two parts. The diameter of the hole should be larger than the diameter of the rivet:
Diameter с1 The thickness of the rivet pins depends on the thickness of the sheets to be riveted, according to the formula withI = 72?
For countersunk rivets (Fig. 14.7, а) the rivet head sockets must be countersunk to a depth of 0.8 x the diameter of the rivet shank, with 1.0 x 1.5 mm chamfering on the piece where the semicircular rivet heads are to be fitted. 1.0 to 1.5 mm.
The length of the rivet rod is selected according to the thickness of the plates to be riveted and the shape of the closing head.
Fig. 14.7. Elements of the rivet joint: а. countersunk head; б. with a semi-circular head; 1. A locking head; 2. shank; 3. embedding head
For a countersunk rivet I of the shank is determined by the formula
For a rivet with a semi-circular closing head (fig. 14.7, б) the rod length is determined by the formula
A distinction is made between two types of riveting: with a two-way approach, where there is free access to both the closing head and the riveting head, and with a one-way approach, when access to the closing head is not possible. riveting is therefore divided into forward and reverse riveting.
Straight (open) rivet (see “The head of the riveted sheets”); 2 4. figure. 14.5, а) is performed in the following order:
- 1) the rivet is set from bottom to top with the rod in the hole of the parts to be joined;
- 2) under the riveting head place a solid support; 2) under the riveting head place a solid support 2 (Ref. fig. 14.6, a) (flat supports are used for countersunk rivets);
- 3) settle (tighten) the parts at the riveting point by means of tensioning 1, which is mounted on the protruding end of the rod;
- 4) eliminate the gap between the riveted sheets by blows of a hammer on the top of the tension;
- 5) the shank of the outermost rivet is put on (riveted) by the hammer (see fig. 3.a); (fig. 4) the rivet shank is put on (riveted) by the hammer. Fig. 14.6, б) (first, by several blows of the hammer besiege the rod, and then by lateral blows of the hammer give the necessary shape to the obtained head);
- 6) finally form the closing head by crimping 3 (see. figure. 14.6, b, c).
The other edge rivet is riveted in the same way. To avoid irregularities and other defects, riveting is not done in a row, but two or three holes, starting from the outer holes towards the center, after which the rest of the holes are riveted.
At back (closed) rivet (cf. Fig. 14.5, б) the hammer blows are applied to the riveting head through a mandrel with a spherical inner surface (see Fig. Fig. 14.6, в). The rivet rod is inserted from above, the support with the required shape of the working surface is brought under the rivet rod and the closing head is formed. This method is used only when it is difficult to insert the rivet from below and there is no access to the riveting head.
Reverse riveting can be replaced by riveting with explosive rivets. To form a joint, a rivet is placed in a hole in the part in a cold state, and then the rivet head is heated with an electric heater 4 (fig. 14.8, а) for 1. 3 s to 130 °C, which causes the explosive filling in the rivet to explode. The riveting head becomes barrel-shaped and the expanded part of the riveting head pulls the riveted sheets tightly together. This method is characterized by high productivity and good riveting quality.
Fig. 14.8. Riveting in hard-to-reach places: а. explosive rivet (1. explosive substance; 2. rivet rod; 3. riveted sheets; 4. electric heater); б. With a slit rivet (1. rod; 2. the bottom end of the rivet)