Safety measures when working with Borshshik
It is necessary to carry out work with Kosnovsky’s hogweed in a large area in special clothing: a waterproof suit with a hood, rubber gloves and boots, protective glasses, respirator.
Small areas can be drained using less stringent precautions:
use light and moisture-permeable means: mittens, clothes with long sleeves and a closed collar (preferably not absorbing moisture, synthetic), protective glasses;
It is advisable to work on cloudy days in order to avoid irradiation of the solar light of the body areas on which plant juice fell;
After working with the hogweed, you need to wash open areas of the body with water and soap, wipe them with cologne or alcohol;
It is necessary to avoid direct contacts with plants, especially during the hours when they have abundant dew on them.
In the case of contact with hogweed and the occurrence of burns:
Rinse the burnt area with a large amount of cool water;
Lubricate the burned surface with anti.inflammatory cream (Panthenol, Alazol, etc.);
apply a sterile bandage to areas, with extensive skin injuries at the site of the opened bubbles;
If necessary, go to the hospital.
All about the fight against hogweed
In nature, there are more than a dozen varieties of this weed. Not all of them are poisonous. For example, Siberian or Crimean are completely safe. But Borshchevik Sosnovsky, Manteggatsi, Wild is very dangerous. Outwardly, they are all very similar, but biologists have identified signs by which toxic varieties are distinguished.
Signs of a toxic plant
- Large and wide sheet plate with rough and torn edges.
- Height two or more meters.
- Fluff with lilac intersperses on the stem.
The people are a poisonous weed is called Heracles grass for its size and outstanding vitality. It is very difficult to destroy the plant, but it is possible if you study its weaknesses and strengths.
Why is horseman tenacious
- Preservation of germination for a long time. Seeds sprout after 5-8 years of rest.
- Self.pollination. Therefore, even the only copy will give numerous offspring. In umbrellas ripens from 20,000 to 70,000 seeds.
- Fast growth. The shoots increase by an average of 100 mm per day.
- Frost resistance. Easily tolerates the most severe winters.
- The ability of seeds to ripen on cut umbrellas.
- Deepening of the growth point. It is below the ground level by 40-100 mm. Cutting the stem above this point does not give any effect.
- Light spreading of seeds. Transfer is possible in different ways: the current of water, wind, animals, humans, t.P.
Heracles of grass and weaknesses have. So, for example, for the entire life cycle, and it can last from two to fifteen, the seeds form only once. The lack of vegetative propagation is also a plus for the gardener. if all sleeping buds are destroyed, the weed stops growing.
In addition, you need to know that he is photophilous. Does not like a shadow, cannot germinate from great depths and does not tolerate excessive moisture.
Variety of species
In biology, about 70 types of hogweed are known. over, most of them do not harm a person, but among them there are also varieties that can significantly harm health. In our country, poisonous plants prevail in large quantities that cause serious skin burns.
Among the most common, they highlight:
- A wild hogweed is a whole group of plants that grow mainly in the southern regions, the weed usually reaches 2 meters, a poisonous plant;
- Borshshik Sosnovsky-has large inflorescences of a whitish shade, which differs from other relatives, 3-meter height creates a dangerous obstacle to a person, is most common in the European part of the country;
- Borshnevik Mantegazzi is very high hollow stems, sometimes more than 6 meters, extremely dangerous for humans, burning booster causes serious damage.
Among the safe for humans, you can distinguish the marmage of the Siberian, shaggy and dissected. They do not grow too high and do not harm summer residents. They are used as fodder grass for livestock and in folk medicine for the preparation of drugs. Borshshik can also be eaten as a spice or spicy additive. All varieties are significantly different from each other.
In order not to harm themselves, it should be remembered that almost all dangerous varieties of hogweed grow very high, and also have large leaves with sharp torn edges.
Methods of eradication
It is impossible to withdraw the maryshroschevik from the site in a short time. The biological features of the plant indicate that even after a complex of protective measures, which includes folk (agricultural, mechanical) and chemical methods of leaving weeds, it is necessary to control the liberated area for at least three years.
All work on the destruction of the hogweed Sosnovsky should be carried out in special equipment: goggles, respirator, closed clothes with a hood, rubber gloves and boots.
Agricultural and mechanical
In small areas with single copies, the following work is carried out:
- dig the root of the weed from the soil (from a depth of at least 10-15 cm), removing the growth point under the outlet of the leaves below the root neck;
- Plants are sprinkled annually during the growing season to prevent flowering and ripening of seeds, and cut inflorescences are burned;
- Draise the soil (in late May. early June) and plant substitutions (cereal herbs) or row (potatoes) culture. When the sprouts appear, they are blurted out;
- Mulch the soil with a black plastic film with a thickness of at least 100 μm, which blocks the access of light weed. In the spring, while the plants have not yet moved to growth, the plot is covered with a film and fixed with the help of ballast materials (bags with earth, bricks and other improvised means) at a distance of about 2 meters from each other. A month later, shoots die and do not grow, but retain the ability to germinate again in the spring of next year. Therefore, in the summer, when they burn out, the film is removed and dug in the ground;
- Cover the seedlings of the weed of geopoloite (geotextile material), pure clean soil (the height of the backfill layer) and the lawn grass is densely sown, for example, a mixture of cereal seeds. to a depth of 2 cm. By the end of the season, a delaying layer is formed, which prevents the settlement of hogweed.
In the country, lawn grass sown in the ground is geopolled on top of it, forms a dense detaining layer
The most effective way to get rid of hogweed on the site is to mash with subsequent double processing by glyphosate-based herbicides, with an interval of 3-4 weeks.
Glifosa.containing agents do not have a destructive effect on the seeds of hogweed, which are in the soil, therefore, one.time processing will destroy only one generation of population. For complete defeat, shoots are re.processed.
If the dosage of herbicide is exceeded, the ground part of the plant simply burns, and the drug itself does not fall into the root system, which leads to the appearance of young shoots from the kidneys sleeping underground. In order to successfully fight and get the desired result, a solution of chemicals must enter the roots along the vessels located in the leaves and stems.
When working with herbicides, it is necessary to strictly follow the instructions for use and comply with personal safety measures: use a respirator and gloves
The “State Catalog of Pesticides and Agro.Himitations”, allowed for use in the territory of the Russian Federation in 2018, includes Roundup in various forms and its analogues.
Along with Roundup, the following glyphosa.containing herbicides are experimentally tested:
The use of herbicides in the fight against Borshshik Sosnovsky does not give a quick result. You can evaluate the effectiveness of their action after 30 days.
Stages of mowing
The process of mowing grass, that is, the implementation of certain movements by the trimmer, is only a part of a more complex process, which includes:
Therefore, we recommend reading the articles in which these actions are highlighted, that is:
The choice of fishing line
For an effective haircut of the site, you need to choose the right cord in shape and size.
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The string of irregular shapes will also mow vegetation, but in terms of speed and quality will yield to the one that better corresponds to this particular vegetation.
When choosing a size (diameter or section), one has to take into account the following. the thicker the cord, the better it copes with its task, but the stronger the load on the tool.
Too thick string will break the gearbox and shaft bushings, and in particularly unsuccessful cases can greatly damage the trimmer for the grass. Detailed information on how the coil works and the instructions for choosing the cord you will find here (which line for the trimmer to choose).
To charge a fishing head with a fishing line, insert a cord of sufficient length into it and, leveling both sticking pieces, then tighten the button in the corresponding direction.
Remember, the direction of rotation of the shafts of trimmers with a straight and curved bar does not match, so different coils are installed on them. Be careful, a fishing line for a trimmer is drawn on the head of the head, indicating which way you need to twist the button.
To charge a semi.automatic head, act like this:
- Squeeze your fingers with fixers holding the lid, then remove it;
- Pull the spool;
- Remove the remains of the old fishing line;
- Wind a new string, the winding direction is indicated on the rogue, lid and coil body;
- insert the rogue into the housing;
- bring both ends of the fishing line outside;
- put the lid to the click so that the latches fix it.
The method of charging a mechanical coil depends on its type (in some cases, you will have to wrap the cord on the removed head, then put it on a benzo- or electrocos).
A detailed description of such trimmer heads and tips on winding the fishing line on them will be found in these articles:
Preparation of the site
The trimmer cord is made from various types of nylon, and this material does not differ in high strength or abrasion, so prepare the site before cutting.
To do this, go through its territory and remove all the garbage, from plastic bottles to large stones or pieces of reinforcement.
If any obstacles could not be removed, then you will mark their perimeter in order to mow most carefully along it, otherwise, with the mowing of grass in this area, you will spend a fishing line for a trimmer much faster, and there is also the possibility of damage to the trimmer for the grass.
The choice of equipment
To understand what equipment is needed, it is necessary to disassemble the processes that occur in the process of mowing grass with fishing line.
Moving at high speed, the cord crashes into the stem or foliage of the grass and cuts them off, after which the upper part of the plant falls to the ground. Sometimes the falling fragment falls under the fishing line for the trimmer and cuts it again, maybe even several times.
Each blow of the cord on the fragments of the grass leads to spraying the juice and flying up small fragments of crushed vegetation, which fly out at different angles, so there is a high probability that such a drop or fragment will fall into the eye.
Given the speed of rotation of the fishing line, their blow can cause serious injury to the eye, and in the field to clear the surface of the eyeball from them is extremely difficult. Therefore, the main element of equipment is glasses or mask that protect the eyes from the opening of drops and crushed grass.
The remaining important elements of equipment are:
How To Trim A Hedge, Level
- protective headphones (relevant when working with motorcycles);
- a convenient suspension system (relevant for any trimmers with the upper location of the motor);
- Comfortable shoes with corrugated sole sole.
Preparation of a trimmer for grass
Any apparatus is suitable for working with flat mechanical coils. If you are going to mow grass with an automatic or semi.automatic head, then a higher protection is needed.
Devices originally designed to work with fishing line were equipped with a protective casing of increased heights, and part of the models, which included wheels or knives, were equipped with a casing with the so.called “beard”, that is, a removable lower part. This made it possible to change the height of the casing, adjusting it under the cutting tool.
But the devices, in the configuration of which there was no standard coil at all, was equipped with a low protective casing without a “beard”, therefore, either a “beard” or a casing of increased heights are needed to work with collapsible mechanical or any plastic coils.
In addition, when working with a knife, the protective casing often received damage, so for mowing grass the fishing line, it was required to replace it. The most effective was the choice of a universal casing with a “beard”, for example, such.
We also suggest you learn more about the principle of the electrimmer from this article.
Theoretically, mowing herbs with a motorcycle or electric shock is similar using a conventional braid braid, that is, turning the device to the left and right, gradually move forward.
At each passage, the fishing line for the trimmer will cut the vegetation strip with a width of 1-5 cm, and the mowed grass will either fall into the dangled area or fly apart.
However, in reality, a lot depends on:
Unlike a lawn mower, which collects beveled vegetation in a grass receiver, a trimmer for grass only cuts the grass and leaves it on the site.
If you choose the irregular trajectory of movement, then the mowed grass will fall under the cord again, which will have to be chopped, reducing the speed of movement.
Girls, as you are struggling with a hogweed, maybe someone has any successes, this year I have a starting at an inconceivable speed, karauuuul, what to do with it?
I sprayed the agricultural aller, t.to. Separate injections do not have enough for me for a large territory.For more than a year fighting.Adults poisoned Roundop, now the young ones transferred to another remedy.
here I don’t understand, everyone advises the rang and other rubbish, they say it is harmless. And no matter how I climb the Internet, I read that the rubbish is rare. it is very dangerous for people and animals and in general for all living things! After it, there is nothing from this land for 5 years, this muck is spreading from the cultivated territory by several tens of meters. Earth is poisoned, it is dangerous for humans. Here’s how to process them? ((((((to bite large territories, of course, but you need to mow everything that does not have a single zone of visibility, since the seeds retain germination for 11 years. That is, the seed can lie in the ground a year or two-three-five. and then take it and coup. over, mowing causes an active growth of green mass from the rhizome. in fact, it may turn out so that it will be even more after mowing. But it seems if mowing after flowering. In general, it is best to mow it or pick up the leaves as soon as you have ascended. constantly. twice a week. 3 months a year. 11 years. I know how to deal with single plants. to make vinegar injections: to dial vinegar in a syringe, a syringe carefully devastate into the stalk. just needs to dress properly, protect your eyes, skin from burns. A few days after the injection, it will endure and dry, burn both the plant and the root. I also have such a problem on the site. I dug young shoots with the root in April yet. In May, already grown.up pooked vinegar. Now where I see on the site. weak frails, I just cut the sheets with a shovel. It seems to me that the one is rising now no longer bloom. The one that has now grown up will be bloomed. My neighbors, alas, have everything in the hogweed. I don’t know how to fight with a neighbor. and the plot there is empty worth it (((I am upset. And if you do not delete it, then in a year it will only be worse. Where this year one grew and bloomed one, 5 will grow in the next. and after 2 years. 25, and after 3. a whole field. Sowing the lawn is also a good output. But for this, you must first dig a tractor ((((another option is to cover the place where it grows with a linolium with an old or black film (and this film is 280 r per square meter! easier linolium to buy 90 rubles per meter new.), for fidelity from above, it would be nice to sprinkle 10 cm of land and sow the grass. But this must also buy so many soils. And you need to close a minimum so that 2 meters would be closed from the hearth from each side, otherwise the horse will crawl. And it is so desirable to leave for 2-3 years at least. Then you can dig up, cut off pieces of linolium and plant something there to try.
Yes, if the abandoned area is very difficult nearby (((I look at this hogweed, my hands are lowered, my neighbors have been blooming for more than a year, I have to get through and cut down a blooming hogweed through such a wilds. then raspberries are in the meal with a young stiff of hogweed then there are some pit, it can fall under the feet (logs, pieces of iron) is a real disaster, which is incomprehensible to do it with it
I have 15 acres without a owner nearby. There is still a little, but the trouble is that it will probably never be sold, because there is no entry for the car ((((and 30 hundredths were bought as an investment of money, but there is just his forest, a person thinks that the earth is that the earth The price is growing, but in fact there is a nightmare already (((I myself am upset. I hate him, this hogweed ((((in it, as I understand it, the ticks also equally vastly ((((
Ticky karauul. I did not know this, and you have heard somewhere or from your own experience? Horrible. My neighboring plot will not be sold either, everything is very complicated there, a few owners of the house are not separated and no one is interested in anyone. One hostess tried to take him for a penny t.to. There the house was very bad, the rest was told to her “shared”. And now everything is completely abandoned there
I took off the child two this year (terribly horror. well, at least for the analysis, they set off for free, though only once a week only. br. когда общалась с врачами они сказали что борщевике они плодятся в том числе (((
How to remove last year’s grass?
Girls who have experience working with virgin? I now have a plot overgrown with grass, at least last year, and in some places I saw the umbrellas of the hoglings even. What to do with this “wealth”. I’m used to the cultivated soil. And how to remove the grass and what to do next, I won’t know the mind. I will attach photos with a piece of land now, maybe there are ideas?
If there is a construction site, then it finally does not do anything for a bump of bumps, what to look at them) everything is drowned with construction equipment, fresh weeds to mow if necessary.
Nothing to do nothing yet, if the task is not worth leaving the site to a perfectly flat plane and not to import good soil. The grass will climb now, start mowing with a lawn mower. At the same time, mowing all dry. Next, mow as often as possible, do not allow the formation of seeds on weeds (hogweed, nettles. ). The areas where you will plant something, dig with the help of a cultivator (manually digging it hard). You can, of course, be sowed with greenhouses, but it is very expensive for a large area.
I will add more after today’s incident, for nothing! Do not burn the grass. That’s what the neighbors had today. They also have such grass as yours, but even higher:
Dasa, her, I’m not extreme) I will mow. The option with a rake, by the way, did not come out, I rowed five meters all day and to no avail (
Well, mow and mow so far. Where the earth is needed, dig up separately and, as necessary, cultivate
It was worse for us at times, the weed around the neck, was shared once last year, and then the construction of the house went and did nothing at all, then to dig, then drainage, then pulled water from one corner to another, as a result, everything turned out to be dumb. the grass only for the first time was shared and all gathered in a heap. Then they leveled the tractor so that it was exactly and in the fall was planted by the lawn. So far nothing criminal is laid, last year’s lawn remained. But the hogweed would be deleted for good, but I don’t see it in the photo, in the photo all the norms are generally 🙂
Dasa, so I amware that everything will grow around my neck (I especially read that the hogweed grows up almost in a day), if I do not begin to mow in the near future in the near future. This site seems to be mowed at the end of the season with an aim for sale, but the grass is still long (dry). I saw a hogweed on the right side of the site, while I was making my borders to mark the borders with a tape, I saw several umbrellas and the neighbors opposite themselves said that there was a hogweed on our site.
Arina, then right now to remove it, they fall asleep with some kind of poison, well, you will fill it up, all the same this year you will not plant anything, as I understand it, not scary. And the fact that it is dry, well, if there is a desire, then you can walk with a rake and clean it, but you will still have to mow at least once, but now how to mow, if everything is dry, only the snow has passed. Now everything will only grow, it is already in fact to look that there will be high, then immediately and uproot.
The grass was stupidly raked with rakes, then burned. Then all this must be plowed and aligned (tractor). Then plant the lawn.
Cartoon-bullet, I do not plan the lawn yet, it will be killed during construction. and the technique for the plowed will slip.
Arina, if there are a lot of bumps there, then after the development you are tormented by aligning. Of course, there is no sense in such a lawn, but at least the earth is sown by normal grass and then restore the lawn will be much easier
V_zh_i_k, I am out of my experience. They did not plow, align, buildings, well, fence appeared. Now the tractor has nowhere to turn around, how to align is not clear. And the grass for 6 years mowing has not “fled”. Straight weeds (goldeneric) is growing anyway. And from the neighbors who first leveled and sowed, to watch any-road.
Cartoon-Pultik, I can’t plow, since the heavy technique will slip on only plowed, for example, a change house will bring clear requirements that the earth should not be plowed at the site of arrival/installation. Then the drill will make the holes for the fence, it is also heavy, to move everything that has fallen. Again, the hogweed should first be uprooted, otherwise I will only scatter him now with such plowing.
Arina, hogweed yes, a dangerous thing. We put a change house from the edge of the site, so they didn’t even call on it.
Cartoon-bullet, I also want from the edge, but the manipulator can only put in a meter (from a maximum of 2) from itself, it will outweigh the cabin, and we get more from the road, we need to do the arrival (
Cartoon-bullet, you have how many hundred parts there? Lot? In principle, no tractor could drive me. House, pine. The workers somehow leveled, sowed the lawn. And the repair began. As a result, no one was doing normally for the lawn, he turned on the line that, no one laid the paths correctly from the very beginning, in short, he was not done so. If a large site and strong differences, roll it out. This is considered wrong, you need to make tiers, if possible, retaining walls. And I slowly chose clods and weeds with my hands. This site is fine now. Everyone has their own experience.
V_zh_i_k, 25 acres, strong differences and pits, a small natural slope towards the road only, there are no trees either.
Mow horseshide on their site.
Many regulatory acts enshrine the obligation of private and legal entities, mow horsepower on their site. This is due to the program to combat harmful and dangerous plants, which includes many points. Borshshik is a real danger to farmers, it spreads uncontrollably and suppresses any useful vegetation, destroying it is extremely problematic. If you do not mow the hogweed, then it can take the entire site in one season and spreads to the neighbors, its seeds are easily spread, in addition, its roots can give new shoots.
You need to deal with this plant comprehensively and everyone at once. If someone in the village (cottage, summer cottage or any other) will ignore the requirement and leave the hogweed on the site, then all neighbors will appear again very soon. Kit it should be mowed regularly, since single processing gives the result only for a while. It is necessary to suppress plant activity and not bring its condition to flowering and the formation of fruits. Of course, it is best to uproot all the roots and process the site several times, but this procedure in some cases is impossible and then the repeated mowing becomes the only way out.
Until a certain point, the hogweed has soft and juicy shoots, fighting them is quite simple, you only need to observe safety precautions to protect the skin from dangerous juice. Mowing hogweed in this state can be much more technical means. This, of course, is not ordinary lawnmands, but professional equipment, but in any case, there is no need to add a caterpillar bulldozer. What exactly to mow horsesholic bearer while he is small, the manager in the store will tell, who will offer several options ideal for individual conditions.
Paying special attention to the specifics of the plant, do not forget about standard criteria, in the form of terrain, the presence of third.party obstacles, the size of the site and many other indicators. To mow hogweed on a lawn lawn, where he accidentally got one task, and cleanse a large pasture from an annoying plant, a completely different story. When choosing a technique, it is also worth paying special attention to the temporary framework of the struggle with hogweed, because it will most likely be regular. Enough and strong equipment will always come in handy on the household, so even when the enemy is defeated, the mower will find its application.
Mow hogweed to save the site.
Today there are a lot of chemical products that can fight weeds without braids for grass and other technical means. However, they can not always be used, because cultural plants can grow nearby, which will surely suffer from aggressive chemistry. In addition, getting into the soil, herbicides can accumulate and fall into the composition of vegetables and fruits, and further into a person’s food. Therefore, it is necessary to mow hogweed, if only in order to keep the site healthy, for yourself and future generations.
On his site, a person is free to do everything that will please, but only until it is prohibited by law. Weed seeds from one site easily move to the neighbors, are carried by the wind over a long distance and lead to the spread of various crops over enormous distances. Mow horsesholic or leave everything as it is, solve only the owner of the site, sometimes even serious penalties do not become an incentive to perform actions. Here is the whole thing in civil consciousness, but we are ready to help and solve the technical side of the problem for our part.
Management from afar
High.quality protective workwear complete with the necessary set of PPE costs money, sometimes considerable. And working in it in the sun is not easy. But here you can save you if you choose a “drone” mower. Remote control allows the operator to be at a safe distance from the spraying and evaporation of caustic juice of a chopped hogger and allows you to use clothes that are practically not different from the usual everyday.
The German company AS-Motor is a well-known European manufacturer of high-class lawn mowers with a 60-year history. Among the many AS-Motor models there are specially designed for use by borshchevik and powerful weeds in large territories-for commercial companies, utilities of municipalities, road services. First of all, these are models with AS 751 RC and AS 940 Sherpa 4WD RC remote control, designed to work on impassable terrain and steep slopes. Actually, RC symbols in the names mean Remote Control!
AS 751 RC is a rotary mower on remote control with a caterpillar chassis for extreme slopes. The device already inspires faith in the seriousness of intentions and readiness for many years of immense service with its appearance. than three centers of weight, almost two meters of length! The heart of this monster is a 13.horsepower 4.stroke Briggsstratton motor loaded on a hydraulic pump, which is connected by hoses with hydraulic models that rotate the leading stars of caterpillars. This highly effective method of transmitting torque without circuits, belts and shafts used in professional road construction technique allows the mowing to advance through the thickets of hogweed at a speed of up to 6 km/h. Unlike bulldozers, excavators and other equipment, where caterpillars are actually firmly strengthened on the frame, AS 751 RC used a transverse-mowing pendulum suspension. The caterpillars mowers are mobile prophesy the optimal contact and stability on the slopes with a slope of more than 45 degrees! The height of the cutting unit 75 cm wide can be configured in the range from 40 to 120 mm. AS 751 RC steel knives (and there are 32 of them) are not afraid of collisions with obstacles and garbage. Management from the remote control allows the operator to be already in three hundred meters from the car! On a sunny day, such a range is usually not required, but under the pouring rain, which the mower is not at all afraid, it is much more comfortable to steer from the cabin of a cargo van, attaching hot tea from a thermos. And most importantly. no need to climb into the thickets of hogweed yourself.
An even more thorough and powerful model from AS-Motor-AS 940 Sherpa 4WD RC-mowing and with a seat for the operator, and with the possibility of remote remote control. An even more powerful engine (4.stroke Briggsstratton with a maximum power of 27 liters. with.) also transfers torque through a hydrostatic transmission, but the chassis here is wheeled, with 16.inch tires in front and 18.inch. from behind. Wheels with an aggressive agricultural protector and differential blocking give an all.wheel drive “Sherpa” magnificent cross.country ability for a complex relief. The car copes even with a wooden shoots up to one and a half meters high. The width of the mowing decree is almost a meter; Moving height adjustment is stepped in a range of 50–135 mm. The remote control is hidden in a special compartment. it can be used in the destruction of a hogger spraying with poison, with mowing in the rain or when working on dangerous slopes. Like the younger model, the Sherpa design has a lot of technical solutions laid down in it to lower the center of gravity plus automation in a mower will drown out a motor if, due to removal, the operator does not notice the excess of the permissible roll on the slope or rise.
Yes, the cost of such a mowing “combine” is comparable to the price of a brand new crossover type Nissan Qashqai or Kia Sportage, but it is also designed for many years of intensive operation, like any high.quality professional working tool.
And most importantly, these machines are capable of working in such conditions where the only alternative is a large number of people with benzokos And we said everything before about the shortcomings of this approach.