How to install aerated concrete partitions yourself?
For zoning the premises an excellent option would be partition walls made of aerated concrete blocks. Aerated concrete is a lightweight concrete with a porous structure that has a lot of strong qualities, including the ability to absorb noise, resist minus temperatures, lightness, and much more. The technology of installation of aerated concrete blocks is not complicated, can be carried out with your own hands, but has some features and rules, from which you can not deviate.
Step-by-step instruction of masonry internal walls
In the arrangement of the foundation for partitions with aerated concrete, it is worth pointing out that the base is arranged in advance, before laying the main load-bearing walls. Depending on the type of soil, a strip or monolithic foundation is used. The first after the arrangement should be installed 6 months, and the second. 1 year.
After the erection of the main walls and floors wait 1 month, and only when they have gained strength and strength, begin making partitions. Lay the felt (1-2 layers) on the foundation base before erecting the main walls. So when planning to do the partition walls, waterproofing is most often already laid, which greatly facilitates the preparation for interior construction.
Step-by-step instructions, after preparing the foundation, tools and supplies, on the masonry technology, are as follows:
- Marked on the floor, walls and ceiling, set the cord on which to conduct masonry, prepared sand-cement mortar required only for the first layer of blocks (according to building regulations). Then it is more efficient to use glue or foam (the best option, with instant setting).
- The blocks are laid in staggered order, the excess parts are cut off with a hacksaw. Every 2-3 layers reinforce with metal rods or building anchor tape. If necessary, the surface of the blocks is grinded with a trowel or scraped with a planer.
- The joints formed are filled with foam or mastic. Anchor the seams with the flexible or rigid bonds. Between the last row of masonry and the ceiling, the resulting gap is filled with structural foam, be sure to arrange a damping joint.
Some experts believe that if from the second layer and up to the ceiling put on polyurethane foam for bonding, the blocks can not be reinforced at all. But, if the project near or on the partition is planned arrangement of heavy hinged structures, then reinforcing is necessary. 24 hours after laying, the interior walls can be used for finishing work.
After laying the first layer with a cement composition, it should be given time to cure. Usually it takes up to 12 hours, sometimes faster, especially in the warm season. Subsequent blocks are laid in a strict geometric tie on the seams, with settling on the surface using a rubber mallet.
Important! In the process of work it is not necessary to forget about the connection. flexible or rigid. Anchors and plates are repeated every 3 rows.
How to lay partition walls made of aerated concrete is shown in
Interior partitions made of aerated concrete
Usually interior walls and partitions are erected from blocks 100-150 mm thick, less often. 200 mm. Density brand D500. It is better not to use less dense aerated concrete, as it has worse soundproofing properties. With D500 blocks 100-200 mm thick one can build walls up to 3 m high and 7 m long (without openings) without additional reinforcement in the form of reinforcement.
If you need more oversized partitions (for example, in a cottage with a second light, with a large number of door openings, etc.), you can use a press.), you need to calculate the stability of the structure, according to the SP. And the reinforcement of the masonry may be necessary. There are standard solutions for this:
- Every third row of blocks reinforced with a steel or composite bar with a diameter of 8-10 mm. The rod is placed in the grommet with a cross section of 20×20 mm, made on the upper surface of the masonry, and then filled with adhesive solution. It is also possible to reinforce with perforated metal plates sunk into the adhesive joint.
- Fixing the wall to the upper slab. This method is also suitable when there is a risk of the wall toppling under load. Or when, for one reason or another, the masonry has not been reinforced. But it is possible to fix the aerated concrete wall only to the concrete slab (in the case of the slab on wooden beams, this technology is not feasible). There are two options for fixing:
- Metal corners. They are fixed to the slab with regular dowels, and to the blocks. with special fasteners for aerated concrete. Corners are installed one for each block, the standard step between them. 625 mm. In subsequent finishing, the corners are closed with plaster.
- Flexible ties. They are peorized bands of stainless steel, one end of which is placed in the vertical adhesive joint (usually nailed into the wall of the block), and another. attached to the ceiling with dowels. Consumption of ties is the same. 1 pc./ block.
Masonry: quick and easy!
As mentioned above, blocks are placed with thin-layer cement adhesive or polyurethane foam glue. Both options cost about the same amount, but foamcoat has a number of advantages:
- It is more convenient for repair in a multi-storey house or cottage where rough work has already been completed. Cement glue is dust, dirt, high humidity in the room. Foamlay avoids all of this.
- It is faster to lay the blocks on the foam than on the cement adhesive. Take a construction gun, insert a can of foam, apply one strip to the horizontal and vertical surfaces of the masonry. and fix the block. After 10 minutes the foam hardens, holding the block firmly. Quick and easy!
- Foamlay joints have small elasticity and therefore prevent the appearance of cracks in the deflection of the floor.
A few words about the technology of laying blocks. The first row is necessarily mounted on the usual cement-sand mortar to ensure the rigidity of the entire wall. If work is carried out on the first floor of the cottage, then between the masonry and the lower floor provide cut-off waterproofing of rolled or enveloped bituminous materials. It is a protection against capillary penetration of moisture.
Between the wall and the upper floor is left a gap of 30-50 mm, which is filled with foam or other elastic material. The fact that the floor slab can slightly deflect during settlement of the building. For aerated concrete walls are not critical, but the finish can be damaged. To avoid this, provide a gap.
To the load-bearing walls of aerated concrete non-bearing are fixed with flexible ties. metal peorized bands: one for every third row. These ties compensate for uneven settlement of the exterior and interior structures of the house. One end of the tape is mounted in the load-bearing wall, the other end in the adhesive joint of the partition. In addition, a small gap is left between the partition wall and the exterior wall and filled with polyethylene foam or foam damping tape. This is to prevent the plaster in the corners of the room from cracking when the building vibrates, caused by strong winds, for example. The damping strip also improves the soundproofing of the wall.
Jumbo large-sized boards
To speed up installation, the partition walls can be made of Jumbo large-format aerated concrete slabs from YTONG. Their length and width. 750 x 625 mm, thickness. 75 or 100 mm. Jumbo slabs have many advantages over standard aerated concrete blocks:
The partition walls can be built in half the time.
Consumption of foaming adhesive or thin-bed masonry adhesive. halved.
The plates are easy to install thanks to their low weight. up to 32 kg.
Vertical slotting in aerated concrete walls with a thickness of 100 mm or more is quite acceptable, but horizontally. no, because slotting reduces their stability. European standards allow you to penetrate horizontally into the walls with a thickness greater than 175 mm, but there are a number of reservations. Dowels can be no more than 125 cm long and no more than 25 mm deep. Height from floor. 40 cm. Distance to the nearest opening. at least 49 cm.
If you want to lay electrical cables horizontally, lay them in a rough finish layer, such as plaster.
Heavy cement plaster can flake off, because it and the wall have different elasticity and degree of settlement. Hence the recommendation: use light plasters. plaster, cement-lime plaster. Maximum density. 1300 kg / m3.
How to attach heavy objects to the wall?
To hang heavy objects (boiler, kitchen furniture, heating radiators, etc.) on an aerated concrete partition.), it is not necessary to pre-install the embedding elements. Although the blocks are not very strong when stretched, they are quite capable of supporting a large load when using special fasteners. Its most common variants:
- Nylon dowels for aerated concrete combined with metal screws. Depending on the manufacturer and model (shape, size) dowels can support a weight of 50 to 700 kg. If you intend to hang particularly heavy objects on the dowel, do not forget that the wall itself must have sufficient stability. It may be necessary to secure it to the ceiling to prevent it from toppling.
- Chemical anchors: metal studs combined with plastic adhesive. The main element of such an anchor is the adhesive, which penetrates deeply into the pores of the aerated concrete and holds the stud securely after curing. Chemical anchors are designed for a significant load (up to 1.5 tons), but they are more difficult to install and much more expensive than conventional mechanical fasteners. If you intend to use such an anchor to fix something very heavy to a wall, it makes sense to fix the wall to the floor beforehand.
Most often there are two types of chemical anchors:
- Ampoule, designed for a certain depth and diameter of the hole. It is necessary to know in advance what kind of holes will be needed.
- Large-volume cartridge: The adhesive is dispensed from the cartridge by means of a special gun.
Detailed information about building a house with aerated concrete is available at YTONG course on building with YTONG
SP 15.13330.2012 Stone and reinforced concrete structures
STO NAAG 3.1-2013 Autoclaved Aerated Concrete in Structural Engineering. Design and Construction Rules, Appendix B3.
Interior partition walls made of aerated concrete blocks
Internal walls create comfort by dividing the house into functional areas. Partitions made of aerated concrete absorb noise from adjacent rooms, lightweight, regular shape. They have several advantages over other building materials. Knowing the techniques of working with porous concrete, you can quickly erect partitions with your own hands.
The production of aerated concrete is based on the technology of creating air bubbles by foaming the mortar using a chemical reaction of aluminum oxidation. it generates gas, and the mixture of cement and sand increases in volume. the autoclaves produce a porous mass. After cooling and hardening, it is cut into rectangular pieces of given dimensions. Obtain aerated concrete block, artificial stone for the erection of walls and partitions. Porous material has the following advantages over conventional bricks:
- low thermal conductivity. it retains heat
- low specific weight;
- good soundproofing;
- does not burn;
- Gas block masonry has an even surface;
- can be easily cut with a hacksaw;
- thin joints.
The aerated concrete block partition is mounted on a solid base of reinforced concrete slabs. The outer wall can only be laid on a strip foundation, which rules out deflection. Under the ceiling, a frame of supporting brick columns and rigid beams is built. At the slightest misalignment the construction is covered with a grid of cracks. To fix the blocks the special glue is used. Joint thickness up to 3 mm.
Dangerous to use aerated concrete in areas of high seismic activity.
For aerated concrete walls requires a flat surface and a pad of cement-sand mixture, laid on a layer of waterproofing. Partition walls of aerated concrete in the apartment are mounted on polymer mortars with a perfect flatness of the floor. The bottom row is laid on felt strips and glue. Above the masonry blocks, under the ceiling, the expansion joint is made against the deflection of the floor. Leave a 2 cm gap and fill it with elastic assembly foam.
The maximum permissible height depends on the size of the gas block: masonry width of 100 mm are erected at 3 m, if necessary to have interior and other partitions up to 5 m, block thickness of 200 mm is used. Do not build above the porous material masonry. At the joint with the wall it is fixed every meter with anchors of galvanized strip or round profile. A recess is cut out of the bar for the fasteners and filled with adhesive.
Partition walls in apartments are built of insulating aerated concrete. It is lightweight, additives of gypsum and lime give it a milky whiteness and after cutting the surface becomes glossy.
Aerated concrete absorbs moisture from the air. To preserve its performance properties, the surfaces are coated with a primer of deep penetration and topped with wallpaper or decorative plaster.
For rooms that require silence, aerated concrete is laid with a thickness of 40 cm or more. The coefficient of sound insulation of such a layer is about 51 dB, which corresponds to the standards. If the apartment is small, then a thin layer of mineral wool is applied to the wall surface under the mesh and plaster. The required soundproofing of gas concrete walls can be achieved if you mount the gas block in two layers of 10 cm with mineral wool between them. The thickness of the wall is reduced to 22 cm, the room is saved useful space and noise from adjacent rooms does not penetrate.
If the apartment in the redevelopment requires saving living space, the aerated concrete block is laid on the side. The minimum thickness is 5 cm and it is not possible to install a switch and hang a mirror, for example. Can be covered with primer, putty and put a tile. The wall is suitable for creating in it the doorways to the household rooms, bathrooms, hallways with good protection against moisture. Soundproofing is weak.
Thickness of partition walls
This parameter is selected taking into account certain factors, while calculating the load-bearing capacity and taking into account the height of the partition.
When choosing blocks for such walls, you should pay close attention to the value of the height:
- if it does not exceed the three-meter mark, the optimal thickness of the walls. 10 cm;
- If the height is increased up to five meters, it is recommended to use blocks with a thickness of 20 cm.
If there is a need to get accurate information without making calculations, you can use the standard values that take into account the conjugations to the upper floors and the lengths of the walls to be built. Particular attention is paid to the following tips:
- In determining the operating load on the inner wall, you can choose the best materials;
- for the partition walls it is recommended to use D 500 or D 600 blocks, the length of which reaches 62.5 cm, width. varying from 7.5 to 20 cm;
- The construction of conventional partitions involves the use of blocks with a density of D 350. 400, which can improve the standard parameters of sound insulation;
- Sound proofing index fully depends on the thickness and density of the block. The higher it is, the better soundproofing properties the material has.
If the length of the partition is eight meters or more, and its height is four meters or more, in order to increase the strength of the entire structure, the frame base is reinforced with a reinforced concrete reinforcement belt. In addition, the desired strength of the partition wall can be achieved with the glue composition with which the masonry is.
Features of gas concrete partitions
The term partition itself can be understood in different ways. In most cases, the partition are internal walls, which are designed to divide the internal space of the building into rooms. This follows from the meaning of the word “partition” itself. What distinguishes partitions from walls is that they are not load-bearing, i.e.е. do not hold the slabs.
In some cases, under partitions we understand any internal walls, in which case the term “load-bearing partition” is used. It is not possible to build a load-bearing partition of aerated concrete with your own hands. All load-bearing walls must be decided at the design stage, so we will talk about non-bearing partitions.
The partition must meet a number of requirements, on the basis of which a choice is made in favor of a particular material.
- Thickness. the partition wall should not be thick, as extra thickness reduces the usable area of the room, and high load-bearing characteristics are not so important for a partition wall.
- Fire safety. the partition wall must slow down the spread of fire, not speed it up. Since the structure is not load-bearing, the preservation of structural strength when exposed to fire is of secondary importance.
- Thermal insulation is important if the partition wall separates a heated room from a non-heated one.
- Sound insulation. the most important characteristic of a partition wall, especially if the wall divides several apartments.
Now consider the peculiarities of cellular autoclaved concrete (aerated concrete) as a material for partition walls.
- Low thermal conductivity. low-density grades are superior to wood in this respect. D300 in the dry state has a coefficient of thermal conductivity of 0.07, wood of different species. 0.09. 0.2.
Low thermal conductivity ensures low transfer of thermal energy, so more heat will be retained in the room.
- Sound insulation of the partition depends on the thickness and brand of aerated concrete. The characteristic is calculated. Gypsum board sheet 12.5 mm provides insulation from the air noise comparable to the partition wall made of aerated concrete D300 thickness of 100 mm.
- Water absorption. aerated concrete is a porous material, it easily absorbs water, so waterproofing is needed when using it in wet rooms. Another feature of aerated concrete is that from the production it comes quite wet (up to 50%). It also saturates with moisture from the masonry mortar. This must be taken into account when choosing certain finishes.
- Durability. aerated concrete partitions are superior to gypsum board and gypsum fiberboard.
Partitions made of aerated concrete blocks with their own hands
Homeowners often face the problem of dividing a large room into several rooms. There are many materials for this purpose, for example, you can make partitions of aerated concrete blocks, cinder blocks, bricks, plasterboard or wood. But the first material is in wide demand because of its long service life, reliability and ease. Making walls requires following simple rules to help with the task.
The base under the partition should not contain coatings that make adhesion difficult. If the partition is placed on the flooring, it should be free of buildup, dust, dirt, debris, and ice.
Also, the surface must not have serious differences. Measures for leveling are similar to the recommendations for the foundation. If the difference does not exceed 2 mm, then the first joint of the mortar can actually be a levelling layer.
If the room is already filled with screed, the first joint will be minimal.
Heat-welded roll material is used for waterproofing roofs. It does not need bituminous mastic for its application. The side that is clad on the substrate is heated with a torch and then rolled out.
In the process of laying the blocks, horizontal and vertical planes should be checked with bubble level. General level of the wall may be checked with a hydraulic or laser level. The presence of a laser level distinguishes a responsible craftsman.
Apply the adhesive to the blocks both on horizontal and vertical planes. It is necessary to join the aerated concrete by lapping the stones to each other. When joining vertical planes and horizontal joints of subsequent rows remove excess mortar with comb.
Autoclaved Aerated Concrete. Block Installation. Part 1
When the gas block is placed on the mortar, it is tapped with a mallet with a rubber thumb to bring it to one plane with the other blocks. The planes are checked with a bubble level.
Before laying the products it is recommended to brush or broom over the planes to improve the adhesion of the adhesive. If the planes of blocks have irregularities that prevent paving in one level, they are removed with grater.
To further work not to cause too much trouble, the first row must be made as well as possible. If there are significant differences, they will be transferred to all succeeding rows.
Each subsequent row must be offset by half a block. This will ensure orderly dressing.
The foam will isolate the joint, and at the same time will compensate for the deformation of the floor, the load from which will wrinkle the foam, but not the gas blocks themselves.
Connecting the partition walls to the walls should be done with the help of flexible couplings. Rigid fastening of the partition to the load-bearing walls is not allowed due to the difference in loads. The shrinkage deformations of the wall will lead to cracks.
The flexible ties can be initially set in the masonry of the bearing walls. If this was not done, they are installed on the anchors. The lacing elements themselves are flexible plates that are wound into the joints of the masonry partition.
Arrangement of openings
In partition walls, the lintel in the opening is not subjected to pressure from the weight of the ceiling, it is subjected to load only from the upper masonry, so you do not need to use concrete. The lintel can be made of two blocks that align in the middle of the opening.
As a support to the vertical sides can be nailed to a wooden frame, which will hold the lintel while the glue dries. You can reinforce the lintel with additional rebar to make it stronger. For long openings, the lintel can be made with a channel.
Aerated concrete as the basic building material
Aerated concrete has long been used in the construction of various buildings for any purpose, because it is easily further processed. You can screw a screw into it, hammer a nail into it, plan with an ordinary chisel and even cut with a wood saw.
But over time, production technology has undergone some changes. Blocks of steel of perfect geometric dimensions, identical to each other, in the same range are available with grooves and ridges to facilitate and strengthen their assembly.
If earlier the installation of gas concrete walls was limited to planing the side surfaces, plastering with a layer of plaster up to 5 cm, today the wall of gas concrete is almost ready for puttying and wallpapering after its erection.