For people who live in rural areas, harvesting grown potatoes is not an easy task. Of course, today, not many, who perform such work by hand, using a shovel. Most began to buy for this specialized mechanical devices: a single-axle tractor and potato digger to him. And some, who have “gold” hands, the so-called “hobbyists”, with their own hands invent and manufacture such devices for the garden and dacha themselves, thereby saving themselves from hard work.
On Yutub channel Yuri Leskov we saw an interesting model of self-made screen-type potato harvester.
Here is what he says and shows about it:
Potato weeder for the Neva power tiller: vibrating, homemade, hoeing
Potato harvester for power tiller Neva. attachment equipment, which allows you to quickly, efficiently and accurately collect the harvest from the land plots.
Until recently, mechanized harvesting was used only by large agricultural enterprises. Now even small farmers are trying to speed up and simplify the process. Having motor blocks or minitractors at their disposal, farmers think about buying additional mechanisms to them, which reduce physical labor and increase productivity. The modern market is represented by a large assortment of mounted agricultural equipment, such as:
In this review we will consider the main models of potato tillers for the “Neva” power tiller, their characteristics and principle of operation.
In most cases, motor blocks and motor cultivators are not used on large territories, they can not cope with a large amount of work on heavy soils. Such equipment is designed for small and medium-sized farms to work on light and medium soils.
The single-axle tractor “Neva” is considered the most popular unit among the owners of agricultural lands, it is characterized by high technical indicators, long service life.
The “Neva” power tillers are not very efficient on their own, but they can perform any agricultural work with the help of additional equipment:
- power tillers are suitable for dacha owners and farmers for tillage;
- planters in aggregation with a power tiller. for planting of vegetable crops on the plots of land
- mowers. for mowing grass mass;
- potatoes hoeing is made with hoeing tools;
- For mechanized harvesting of root crops is used potato.
Recently, farmers have been using modern agricultural technology to grow vegetable crops.
Planting potatoes with a NEVA power tiller helps to save time, cultivate large areas, and improve yields through soil loosening. At the same time, the process is carried out in 2 ways:
Potato planter for the “Neva” power tiller is used by owners of large plots of land. It is more efficient: it makes furrows in the ground in 1 pass, pours tubers from a special hopper and covers them with earth.
Harvesting process is carried out by “Neva” power tiller with potato digger. The tines of the mechanism are buried in the ground, pushing out the root crops and laying them on the surface for further collection by hand.
There are several models of shovels, aggregated with the motor-block “Neva”:
- Vibrating. Includes such well-known models among agrarians as:
- “Vibrating potato digger” model;
- Transporter or belt.
These models are considered the most popular and common.
Fan potato digger
This mechanism is called a simple, passive and universal potato digger. It looks like an ordinary heart-shaped shovel, the upper part of which has teeth. The sharp part lifts the soil. When the soil hits the tines together with the potatoes, the soil crumbles and the roots stay on the surface.
Advantages of the fan potato harvester for the power tiller:
- an easy attachment on a single-axle tractor
- aggregation with small power tillers;
- Root crops are dug at high speed;
- low price;
- The simplicity of design;
The disadvantages of the mechanism include such factors:
Small technological indicators. digging depth 15 cm, working width up to 20 cm;
The fan mechanism has several models, which are provided for work on light soil. The devices are designed for small power tillers, are perfect for “Neva MB” power tillers.
Potato digger KKM-1
Such a machine is called a vibrating potato digger for the “Neva” power tiller of the screen type with a more advanced design. The module consists of an active ploughshare and a screen/grid. Plowshaft undercuts the soil layer, which is fed to the screen mechanism. Then the layer is crumbled on the screen and sifted between the bars due to vibrations. Lumps of soil that didn’t make it through the grate, root crops and haulm are thrown to the surface along the machine’s trail.
Rumble diggers are designed to harvest potatoes at a row spacing of 60-70 cm.
With the help of a vibrating potato digger you can harvest onions, garlic, beets, carrots.
KKM-1 device has the following technical characteristics
- overall dimensions. 700x700x600 mm;
- machine weight. 40 kg
- productivity. 0,05-0,2 ha/h
- operating speed of the machine. 1.1-2.1 km / h;
- digging depth. 20 cm;
- working width is 39 cm;
- turning radius of the machine on the outermost point. 3 m.
- Possibility to work on heavy soils, with soil hardness up to 20 kg/cm², stones clogged soils up to 8-9 t/ha;
- large working width and digging depth;
- high efficiency of potatoes harvesting. 98%;
- Good cleaning of tubers at vibration;
- saving time;
- Usability on large areas;
- low fuel consumption.
Vibrating shovels are aggregated with power tillers “Salut”, “Kaskad”, “Favorit”, “Neva MB 2”, MT3.
Model Vibrating Potato Breaker
Single-row vibrating potato digger is designed for digging potatoes and other root crops, made specially for all Russian “Neva” (MB, MB2) power tillers. The mechanism of action is similar to the vibrating digger.
Technical characteristics of this model are as follows:
- overall dimensions. 710x680x730 mm;
- weight. 34 kg;
- working width. 36 cm;
- digging depth. 20 cm;
- speed. 2 km/h;
- productivity. 0,2 ha/h.
Homemade digger: components and tools
Only if you have your own garden plot, you should make a home-made device. For industrial needs, such a device is not suitable. it is better to take from the manufacturer.
Materials for making a vibrating potato harvester:
- Metal channel.
- Steel thickness of at least 5 mm. It is needed for the ploughshare. It is possible to use the steel of the circular saw blade.
- Metal angles.
- Steel or iron bars. Fittings are suitable.
Components of the construction:
- The base (frame). Start the construction with it.
- Hanging system.
- Adjustment rod.
- Moving elements. wheels and grousers.
Attention! These constructions can be made from whatever material is at hand, which is plentiful at home on the country site. In the absence of any components, you can buy the elements. This will not affect the final cost significantly. All the more reason not to compare it with the industrial models.
The most popular models of potato diggers
Today there are several of the most popular types of potato tillers: the usual KKM-1, the usual KKM-3, the usual Garden Scout, the vibrating Neva and vibrating Poltavchanka. Consider in more detail each of the models.
Simple potato digger for power tiller KKM-1
- Canopy includes a ploughshare and seeding grid;
- The device is well suited for soft and medium soils, with a moisture level of no more than 25%;
- Digging depth is 20 cm, and tillage area is about 35 cm;
- Productivity design ranges from 0.05 to 0.2 hectares per hour;
- KKM-1 weighs on average about 40 kg;
- The movement speed of the device is 1-2 km / h;
- The canopy is suitable for motor units such as Neva, Cascade, Salut, Favorit, etc.д.
Simple potato digger for power tiller KKM-3
The unit of the third generation is similar to KKM-1 in its characteristics, but has a number of improvements. For example, in comparison with KKM-1, KKM-3 has extended area of cultivation. 40 cm. The device is operated by one operator. Digging depth is adjustable by the support wheels.
This potato digger for mini-tractor is the best option because of its weight of 40 kg.
Garden Scout potato harvester for crawler Garden Scout
- It is a product of the Chinese factory;
- The width of the processing area is 40 cm, and the depth of cultivation. 28 cm;
- The design weighs 42 kg;
- The Garden Scout has a capacity of up to 0.2 ha per hour;
Vibrating potato harvester for Neva power tiller
- This compact vibratory potato digger is specially designed for the Neva;
- It has a comparatively low weight of 34 kg;
- The depth of cultivation is 20 cm, and the width of the ploughshare is 36 cm
- Productivity of the construction is from 0.15 to 0.2 hectares per hour;
- The movement speed of the device is 1-2 km/h;
- The design has a price advantage over competitors;
Vibrating potato harvester Poltavchanka
- The design is suitable for soils of medium severity, which can have a moisture level of up to 30%;
- The head has a weight of 34 kg;
- The depth of penetration into the soil is only 18 cm, the coverage area of the ploughshare is 39 cm;
- Movement speed of the device is 2-3 km/hour;
- The canopy is suitable for different types of power tillers and mini-tractors (Neva, Favorit, etc.).д.)
- The level of the wheels of the device can be adjusted;
In the design of this potato harvester, the main load is taken by the lancet cultivator foot without a stand. Razor legs are welded on each side. The spacing between the edges is adjusted so that the potato harvester can take up the whole row, and so that there is a slight overlap in width.To the legs razor bars are welded 450 mm long, like the standard razor bars. Before that, in their upper half are made holes 10 mm drill a few centimeters apart to be able to change the depth.Next, the fan is welded. To do this, the reinforcing bars are cut into 30 cm long pieces. It is enough to have 7 pieces. Then they are welded behind the spliced foot. One armature goes in the center, the others symmetrically on the sides with the same indentation, but not wider than the average potato. A fan is welded with a slight upward slope.
Then a traverse is made for fixing the legs of the foot. It can be welded as a U-shaped profile from 3 strips. Holes are drilled in the center of the crossbeam so that it can be fitted to the hanger instead of the coulter support. If your power tiller uses a different type of attachment, you need to upgrade the design for it.Pole mounts are welded along the edge of the crossbeam. These are welded from a strip. A hole is drilled through the fasteners on the side. When installing the props in them, you need to align the holes, and lock the foot with bolts and nuts.
It is important to carefully deburr the welds between the crossbeam and the shavers before using the digger. It is also advisable to remove any rust so that the potato harrow can slide better. Then it is mounted on the hanger.For ease of use, mow the potato stalks that have already dried out.
And start to pass in rows. Potato grater of this design goes straight, it is less likely to move sideways when meeting with large roots from weeds, and most importantly it does not get clogged.
But for it to work well, it is important not to dig the potatoes deeper when planting. It should be located in the ridge. In this case, the digger will not cut the tubers, and all of them will be shaken up.
Features of designs and types
Before you make a potato digger for a power tiller with your own hands, it is necessary to study the device, design features and prepare the tools and materials necessary for the work. The principle of operation for all models is the same: the teeth of the mechanism plunge into the ground and rake out the ground lump together with the root crops. The potato crop can either go into a bin or stay on the bed. It will depend on the design solution of the model. Potato diggers can be:
Experienced craftsmen show engineering ingenuity and create their own multifunctional units, which are used for planting root crops, and for dipping and harvesting.
Optimal metal thickness
The hinged structure is assembled from metal parts. The thickness of the sheet steel should be chosen according to the anticipated load: the more it will be, the thicker the material should be too. Experts recommend using sheets not less than 8 mm thick.
Wheels for the digger
The design is equipped with movable wheels. When making a digger in the home workshop, they can be borrowed from an old garden wheelbarrow. Wide tires will make it easier to move around the beds. The best option. equipped with an axle. The axle is attached to the legs, in which locking holes are made.
Alternatively, you can use metal ones. They will make the construction heavier, which will improve the performance of the frame on hard soils. Rubber ones will be less efficient on wet ground, but rubber ones with tractor tread are better in such a situation.
Ways of connecting
All elements of the unit are connected by contact welding (electric or gas), as well as with classic fasteners (bolts, nuts). And the advantage of the bolt connection is that the unit can be dismantled and reassembled if necessary.
Drawings, diagrams, dimensions of potato harvesters for power tillers Neva, Mole, Kaskad, MTZ-09H, Salut, Agat
The most popular among farmers and landowners is the single-axle tractor “Neva”. It has an easy-to-use design and powerful technical characteristics. The most suitable homemade potato digger for the “Neva” power tiller is a device of the screen type.
Because of the specifics of its work, the screen potato harvester for power tiller “Neva” got the second name. vibration
Universal option for all types of power tillers. potato digger model “Poltavchanka”. The parameters of such a device are 950×790×800 mm, the processing depth. 25 cm. These characteristics allow to use the unit in any conditions, regardless of soil and type of crops. “Poltavchanka” is appreciated for its high productivity with relatively small dimensions.
“Poltavchanka” is popular with owners of Mole and Agat power tillers
“Salut” and “MTZ-09H” have an original design, so the drawing of a potato digger for these devices has different features
A vibrating potato digger is also recommended for the “Cascade” motoblock, but due to the more massive wheels, the harvesting device may have different parameters from similar equipment.
Often in the manufacture of a vibrating digger for motor-block “Cascade” changes are made in the location of the plowshare and the size of the wheels
The process of making a potato digger
To make the mechanism work, you need to make an eccentric. To do this, the end of the shaft from the bearing housing must be bored out to the diameter of the existing sheave with an offset center. Also a hole is drilled in the end and a thread is cut. On the reverse side of the shaft, a counterbore is made in order to connect it to the splines of the power take-off shaft of the power take-off machine.
An adapter is pressed onto the flat end of the shaft and connected to the slotted bushing. The joints are fitted with pins to prevent rotation.
A coupling sleeve is welded from pipe to connect it to the universal joint shaft. You can simply cut off this part from the unnecessary attachment. The coupling is installed on a single-axle tractor, and the spline bushing with an eccentric is connected to it.
The remainder of the housing is assembled in accordance with the measurements obtained. For this it is convenient to use 2 pieces of channel. The body of the eccentric mechanism is bolted to it. Then the channels are welded to the coupling bars and brackets. On the side of the channels, bearings are bolted on from below and above for the vertical shaft.
Then you need to install the pulley on the eccentric, and connect it to the base of the vertical shaft with a pull rod. A knife is welded to the sole for pulling the tubers.
Next, a fan is welded onto the claw from a 12 mm bar. Adjustable stands are made on the sides of the channels, on which the wheels are attached.
The simplified potato harvester is ready for use. It works the same way as the more cumbersome and complex rattle, but is made faster, requires less material. It is desirable to make the wheels as far back as possible to make it easier to control the tiller, because because of the short wheelbase it tries to wiggle out of the row.