Wall drilling for wiring: the main thing. rules, requirements, tools
Often one of the stages of the overhaul is the replacement of old communications with new. The owners face great problems when there is a need to arrange concealed electrical wiring. At first glance it seems that this operation is not so difficult, because you only need to make grooves, chinks, in which cables and wires are placed, but in fact it turns out that shrovelling the walls for wiring is not so easy process. The master will be quite time-consuming work, it requires not only the presence of special tools, but also certain skills, knowledge of basic rules of installation, the characteristics of different materials of the working surface. Saves from mistakes only thorough training. the study of the topic.
For beginners “ditchers” shrovdolevaniya walls for wiring always begins with a detailed study of the process, otherwise incorrect wiring plan made without regard to all the requirements set forth in the regulations (SNiP 3.05.06-85), will have to redo. Their main points are as follows:
- Slots must be vertical or horizontal. Any oblique recesses are prohibited. The only exception. the walls with a slope: for example, in the attic. In this case, the wiring must run parallel to it. Any intersections of grooves are prohibited.
- Compliance with the dimensions of the cavity and the lengths of the routing are imperative. The maximum depth of the groove is 26 mm, width. 30 mm, but the latter parameter depends more on the number of conductors. The length from the junction box to the point cannot exceed 3 meters.
- You can turn the groove, located between two electrical points, only once, because any bending of the cable leads to the fact that it will be in this place heats up more. Such a condition is a potential hazard.
- Spacing is a must. From the floor and ceiling must be spaced 100 mm (in exceptional cases allowed to make the minimum indentation. 50 mm) from the doorway. 100 mm from the gas pipes, radiators. 400 mm (more. better).
- Routing for wiring internal load-bearing partitions is prohibited. If necessary, such an operation must be approved by the municipality. On the first floors of multi-storey buildings, grooving requires extreme caution. Reasons. considerable loads.
- When making out the ceiling (this operation is undesirable) determine the shortest path to the lighting fixture. Floor slab is also not recommended to touch. Possible solution. arrangement of grooves in the concrete screed. It is poured, leaving room for wiring.
- The metal frame (armature), located in the wall, must not be disturbed. But since it is at a depth of 40-50 mm it usually can not be reached even when laying large cables. Driving through in panel houses always requires permission of the control authorities.
- Especially dangerous to severely deepen the horizontal stroe, the reasons are clear. in this case decreases the load-bearing capacity of the wall. Such sections are recommended to do without strokes. behind stretching or suspended ceilings, and to lower the communications through vertical grooves.
- When bringing to the switch or socket is allowed a slight violation of the rules. increase the depth of the hole for easier entry into the wiring box, but the restrictions on the frame must be respected in these cases, too.
Only correct drawing and drilling out taking into account all the rules guarantees smooth, safe work of the hidden electrical wiring.
Driving through walls of aerated concrete and brick
Aerated concrete is very strong, so using a chisel and hammer to work with them is difficult to call a wise decision. To the question. what to stitch through a concrete wall. we can answer: Best of all stroborezom. It will cut a groove in the wall for wiring without dust, with minimal time and labor costs. But if you, like most ordinary owners, do not have such an opportunity, use a peorator or angle grinder.
Brick is the most convenient material for this work. The mixture of cement and sand, which is used to connect the elements of the brick wall, can easily be knocked out even with a chisel and hammer, so the arrangement of the horizontal joint does not take much time. And here piercing a vertical groove will be more difficult, because in this case you will have to work directly with the bricks.
What will be required:
To do this at the height of the installation is necessary to draw a level. Then the marks of the centers of the subroutine block are put on it. According to them the holes are drilled, the rest of the aerated concrete is broken out of the wall with a screwdriver.
From mounting holes for electrical outlets on the wall is drawn vertically to the ceiling. This is done on a level. Along this line to the wall screwed on a pair of screws rail.
Then, against it, you must choose a milling cutter 8 mm, clamped to the chuck drill. After drilling, the batten is removed.
The resulting hole allows you to lay cable VVG 2.5 kv. mm for 2 or 3 wires. It will fit snugly, you won’t even have to dowel anything with a herringbone dowel for wiring.
Preparing and marking the surface
First of all it is necessary to check up presence of the latent conducting on a prospective route of a jamb. To do this, use a special device that will point to the existing electrical wiring. It is important to protect yourself from cases where you get wires energized while piercing.
On the surface of the wall is marked on the route of the furrows from the junction box to the place of installation of socket, switch or terminal wires for lighting.
Immediately before carrying out works on piercing walls drape doorways with a dampened cloth to prevent dust from spreading in the apartment or tightly close with building tape.
How to drill for laying pipes?
Pipes have a diameter larger than cables, so the groove for laying a pipe is different than the one for cables. First of all, the groove is not one, but two. A wide bridge is created between the two. It is removed with a spatula of the desired width in the impact mode without rotation. The bottom of the groove is carefully scraped so that the pipe does not protrude above the surface of the wall. Scrubbing is done with a spatula and a grooved nozzle. If the hole for laying cables allows small deviations from a straight line, then for the pipe such liberties are inadmissible. The lateral pressure on the pipe creates additional stress, which can later lead to damage to the pipe.
Laying of cables and pipes reliably protects them from external influences and mechanical damage. Subsequent caulking stubbing with plaster excludes the movement of communications, increases the reliability of their connections. Placing pipes and cables inside the wall saves space in the room. This, of course, is a significant advantage in favor of the joints, but this method of laying utilities is not without disadvantages.
The most significant disadvantage of hidden laying pipes is the impossibility of easy access for their maintenance. Inspection and repair is impossible without damaging the wall surface.
On sale you can find a variety of nozzles for stucco machines. Using them according to their direct (and not quite direct) purpose, you can perform various types of work with the pen. At first glance, the peorator is not designed for stitching, but a skilled craftsman can easily cope with such a task.
Cutting through bearing walls
And a few words about the impossibility of drilling through the load-bearing walls. Basically these restrictions apply to urban apartments. And especially those that are located in a multi-storey building, assembled of reinforced concrete slabs. The fact that the armature is the framework of the wall plates is located at a depth of 2-2.5 cm. That is, any gutting will expose the reinforcement frame, reducing the thickness of the wall, increasing the risk of deformation and collapse. Which, of course, should not be allowed.
With private houses everything is much easier. Especially if they are made of bricks, blocks of different types. The thickness of the wall and its load-bearing capacity are taken into account here. For example, if the wall is assembled in a brick and a half, then you can do it without problems.
There are, however, other options:
- To do plastering, and already in the applied layer to make stroe;
- To cover the walls with plasterboard, plywood, particle board or OSB, and to lay electrical wires under them;
- Install wiring in special plinths, such as are present in the building materials market today.
Punching: the main ways, pros and cons
Strobus cutter. a tool specifically designed for making out walls
The way of routing the walls directly depends on the tool that will be used in the work. Let’s consider in detail, what devices can be used for making grooves in the thickness of the walls:
- A peorator is used quite often for cutting through walls. It allows you to do the work quickly, but when using such a tool grooves are obtained uneven. The tool also beats out excess concrete or brick, so you have to spend more mortar and time to fill in the hole. Also, the tool is noisy and requires a power connection. However, using such a device generates relatively little dust, and the process itself does not take much time.
- Make furrows in the walls can also be done with the help of an angle grinder. It is good in that it allows you to cut even grooves in those places that have been pre-marked on the surface. Between these edge lines you will need to make a groove for wires, which means that together with the angle grinder you will need to use other tools, for example, a chisel or the same rotary sander. Another disadvantage of angle grinder is that you need diamond saws for slotting, which cost a lot of money. But the end result is quite accurate.
- Subdot cutter is a tool designed specifically for making fissures in walls. The tool is equipped with two saws, which make two even parallel grooves in the wall while using. The stitch cutter works quickly and accurately, but it is quite expensive. However, if you need such a device for a short time, you can rent it and save money.
- Chisel and hammer. tools for making outlining chinks by hand. This method has a lot of disadvantages. First, working with a chisel and hammer is long, difficult, and physically demanding. Secondly, the quality of the result does not always meet expectations, as it is not easy to make a smooth slot manually. Among the advantages of this method are the availability and low cost. Manual countersinking with a hammer and chisel is appropriate to use when you want to make a small groove in the wall.
- In some cases, you can create countersinking in the walls with a percussion drill. This method is not very simple and labor-intensive, so it is rarely used. To make a groove percussion drill in the wall first drill holes equidistant from each other, and then work with a drill as a hammer, beating out a slot in the concrete on the planned indentations.
The bath in the two floors
A two-story bathhouse is more of a dwelling than a recreational building, since the second floor and most of the first floor are almost always allocated for vital rooms, which are needed even without a bathhouse in the household. Very rarely both floors are given just for the premises of the bath and everything that can be associated with it.
The second floor can be built as a separate full floor, as an attic or as a living loft. In this project it is an attic, where the guests will relax. That is to say, the second floor of the bath serves as a guest cottage. The number of interior partitions determines what kind of rooms you will plan.
The first floor. this is a standard set of premises, necessary for the full functioning of the bath: the steam room, washing room, rest room with a dining area, and a bathroom. Naturally, there is also a large vestibule, which houses the storage for firewood and changing room.