Sawing a log. Which is the best choice?? Types of wood sawing What is a radial board
Building materials of hardwood and softwood have a wide range of applications, they are used for the construction and cladding of houses, paving paths, interior decoration of the building. The sawn timber on the market is further subdivided by the method of sawing, which may be tangential, radial, longitudinal, circular, or mixed. Depending on the presence of edges, boards are classified into edged, semi edged and unedged.
Types of log sawing
Sawing logs into boards is done in two main ways:
Additional methods are also possible:
Radial sawing is a type of sawing during which the cut axis goes through the heartwood of the log and as a result the annual rings form an angle of 76. 900. The sawn timber produced by such sawing has a homogeneous color and texture. Lumber shrinks during shrinkage and does not swell in moisture because the dimensions of the wood vary mostly along the rings (across the grain). Radial-cut lumber has annual rings running through its thickness. Such materials have the highest performance in comparison with other types of lumber.
Tangential saw-cutting is carried out tangentially to the lines of annual rings at a small distance from its core. The plates of the obtained boards are distinguished by their pronounced texture and pronounced wavy annual-ring pattern. Such lumber is characterized by higher rates of shrinkage and swelling from humidity than radial sawn boards. As a result, they tend to warp when exposed to moisture. These boards are in demand for use in dry conditions.
Rustic (semi-radial) and mixed types of saw cut have signs of two main types of saw cut simultaneously: radial and tangential. They therefore exhibit average shrinkage and swelling ratios. Rustic sawn boards are characterized by straight lines of the annual rings, which are in the angles of 46 to 75 degrees. to the strata. Mixed sawn timber is characterized by the fact that the lines change from straight at the edges (across the width) of the board, to arched towards the middle.
The center kerf is made right in the center of the trunk and contains the heartwood. Taking into account the fact that the trunk core is the wood with the lowest strength values, center sawn timber is characterized by a non-uniform strength structure.
To make the process quick and easy, such a tool as a plier is used. This is a template, which has a U-shaped form. In its side walls there are templates for slots. They have different angles of inclination.
There is another technique that allows you to evenly glue the ceiling plinth. It is possible to cut corners without a plane. But still the use of such a tool greatly facilitates the work.
First you need to mark the baseboard. If you want to create an outer corner, the length is measured by the ceiling, the inner one. by the wall. For the fillet apply the slope of the line in 45 and 90 degrees. Since this is a fairly small number of slotting options, it is quite possible to make the template yourself. It will only require a sheet of paper or cardboard.
video on the subject
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For joiners a board and a bar are the most widespread preparations of which in the further manufacturing of articles and articles made of wood is carried out. And the first thing the material is sawn into sections of the right length. In this case you should know how to cut a board exactly, because the wrong performance of this operation can spoil the workpiece or significantly affect the appearance, and not for the better.
What to do if you don’t have a chainsaw?
A chainsaw is the most effective tool for cutting down any tree.
If you do not have it, you can use an axe and a hacksaw or a two-handed saw.
To make a notch, a hacksaw cuts the trunk across the fibers by 1/3 of the diameter of the trunk.
It is advisable to use a hacksaw with the coarsest and sharpest teeth.
Then the axe is used to cut the wood at a 45-degree angle, hitting it 2-4 cm above the kerf. After that, cut the trunk on the other side for 3-5 cm higher (depends on the diameter. the thicker the trunk, the greater the difference).
If you don’t have a hacksaw or a two-handed saw, you perform all the operations with the axe: first, you strike the line of the cut, plunging the blade into the wood by 1-2 cm, then you cut at a 45-degree angle from above, making the undercut.
Some craftsmen do the opposite, first striking at an angle, then chopping perpendicularly. Both methods are equally effective, so you can do as is more convenient in any given situation.
Having finished with it, cut the wood on the other side in the same way, but the upper line for the trimmer cut should be higher than the lower by 10-15 cm, otherwise the tree may start to fall in the wrong direction.
If at least part of the work is performed with an axe, it is necessary to secure the trunk with at least a rope under tension, or better to use a winch and springs. If you do not do this, the tree may fall the other way.
In addition, using an axe and a hacksaw or two-handed saw, you should not cut trees with a diameter greater than 10 cm. Their trunk is too heavy, so because of strong blows can go the wrong way and seriously injure. Also, the axe should not be used to cut rotten and decayed trees, the branches can break off and hit hard from the blows.
Sawing logs longitudinally
A log is a trunk of a tree from which all branches, limbs, and the top thin part of the crown are removed. The log can be used as an independent building material (poles, piles, masts), as well as a raw material for the production of lumber.
Logs can be sawed in several ways:
- Manually, with sawing tools
- Using a sawmill
- by means of woodworking machines or specialized lines.
For more rational use of available raw materials and proper sawing of a log, the woodworking industry applies special sawing schemes which allow to reduce the percentage of waste and, consequently, reduce the cost of the final product. For this reason, before starting the process of sawing logs with your own hands, it is worth to search for similar schemes on the Internet and study them in detail.
For sawing logs, such longitudinal sawing machines can be used:
- chainsaws and simple hand saws help make small amounts of lumber
- sawmill is a device in which it is possible to saw logs and beams, for which the sawmill has frame saws. On such devices it is possible to saw blanks with a diameter of 14 to 80 cm and a length of 3 to 7 meters
- circular saws. In such a machine, wood is cut with a circular saw. Machines with one saw are called single-saw machines, machines with two saws. multi-rip saws. Single-saw units are used in small shops and workshops. Multiblade circular saws are used at large plants for cutting of large logs. Manual feed of logs is forbidden at such facilities. Circular saw machines are dangerous due to the possibility of ejection of sawing material and cuts to the side opposite to the feed. That is why such machines have the control outside the area of possible material outreach. Circular saws are also equipped with wedge knives and special mechanisms that prevent the material from ejecting
- Band saws are used to cut logs with the band saw blade mounted on pulleys. They are suitable for longitudinal and mixed cuts in wood and various wooden materials. Such equipment is used in joiner’s workshops, workshops and is characterized by large outreach of the frame, considerable height of cut at small dimensions
- Sawing lines for logs give a high quality surface of the end product, precise lines as well as high productivity. They are used in large sawmills.
It is necessary to use good raw materials to produce a high quality product. If the right dimensions and the right timber sizes are used when sawing, we can make highquality materials from them.
The best materials are obtained from freshly cut wood. It is very difficult to make good lumber from a knotty and bent trunk. That’s why before sawing you have to sort the logs according to their quality features and only then use the sawing equipment.
There are no completely round logs, which is why it is assumed that a log has 4 sides, each consisting of a quarter of the circumference and the total length of the log. Neither of these faces meets the other. There is a “clear face”, the higher it is, the more valuable the timber. This facet does not have any flaws, such as cracks, scars, knots, chips, or rot.
At Russian sawmills for longitudinal sawing of logs sawmills use saw frames most often. Nevertheless, there is a worldwide trend towards the use of double and quadruple block band saw systems, which are characterized by high productivity.
Board yield when logs are sawn
|Diameter, cm||Output of higher grades, %|
|12. 16||first grade yield 40%|
|18. 22||on average 50%|
|24. 26||around 50%|
|28. 40||timber, which can be used as a raw material for timber production, about 70 %|
|42. 60||about 60. 70 %|
Longitudinal sawing of logs
A log is a trunk of a tree from which all branches, limbs, and the upper thin part of the crown are removed. Logs can be used as an independent building material (poles, piles, masts) as well as raw material for the production of lumber.
Logs can be sawn in several ways:
- Manually, with the sawing tool
- with a sawmill
- Using woodworking machines or specialized lines.
For a more rational use of available raw materials and proper sawing of logs, the woodworking industry applies special sawing schemes, which make it possible to reduce the percentage of waste and, therefore, reduce the cost of the final product. For this reason before starting the process of sawing logs with your own hands, it is worth to search similar schemes on the Internet and study them in detail.
For sawing logs, such longitudinal sawing machines can be used:
- A chainsaw and a simple hand saw help produce small amounts of lumber
- A sawmill is a device in which logs and logs can be sawn, for which the sawmill has frame saws. On such devices it is possible to cut workpieces with a diameter of 14 to 80 cm and a length of 3 to 7 meters
- circular saws. In this machine wood is sawn with the help of a circular saw. Machines with one saw are called single-saw machines, machines with two saws. Multi-rip saws. Single-saw machines are used in small workshops and factories. Large plants use multi-rip saws to cut large amounts of material. No manual feed of the workpiece is allowed on these machines. Circular sawing machines have the danger of the material being sawn off and the saw cutting in the opposite direction to the feed. That is why there is no possibility of material flying out on such machines. Besides this, circular saw machines have wedge knives and special mechanisms that are designed to keep the material from ejecting
- Band saws are used for cutting logs with the band saw blade set on pulleys. They are suitable for making longitudinal and mixed cuts in wood as well as in different wood materials. Such equipment is used in woodworking shops, workshops and is characterized by the big reach of the frame, considerable height of the cut at small dimensions
- Log sawing lines allow for high surface quality of the final product, precise lines as well as high productivity. They are used in large factories.
It is necessary to use good raw materials to obtain a high quality product. If the right logs with the right dimensions are used for sawing, it is possible to produce high quality materials.
The best materials are obtained from freshly cut wood. It is very difficult to make good sawn timber from knotty and bent trunks. That is why it is absolutely necessary to sort the logs according to their qualitative features before sawing and only then to use the sawing equipment.
Absolutely round logs do not exist, for this reason it is assumed that a log has 4 faces, each of which consists of a quarter circle and occupies its full length. None of the edges meet the other. There is a concept of “clean edge”, the higher it is, the more valuable the timber. This edge does not have any imperfections, such as cracks, scars, knots, chips, rot.
Russian sawmills generally use sawmill frames for longitudinal sawing of logs. Nevertheless, there is a tendency in the world practice to use dual and quadruple band saw machines which are characterized by high productivity.
Boards yield when sawing round wood
|Diameter, cm||Output of higher grades, %|
|12. 16||40% first grade yield|
|18. 22||50% on average|
|24. 26||around 50 %|
|28. 40||For sawn timber, you can achieve values of around 70% in timber production|
|42. 60||approximately 60. 70%|
Sawing technology with chainsaws
Before splitting a log into boards at home, it is necessary to cut it competently in order to get the maximum amount of quality boards with minimal waste. Productive use of raw materials is made possible by using specific cutting patterns. The wood is marked according to the intended use and the type of timber to be sawn.
Before starting work, it is necessary to carefully secure the workpiece to achieve a high quality surface of the boards. Logs are usually sawn horizontally. The advantage of cutting horizontally is that less effort is needed to hold the saw in the air. You can make a longitudinal cut with a wooden block. a home-made saw unit. to cut a log longitudinally along the chain saw.
When using the longitudinal-cutting attachment it is necessary to fix it carefully on the body of the chainsaw. Before you start, take care to create a base surface parallel to where the chainsaw will cut.
You need to put chocks in the longitudinal saw to prevent the saw blade from being clamped by the sawn-off edge of the board. The saw must move smoothly, do not forcefully push it. It is better to saw a log with two people, as additional hands are needed for moving and securing the workpiece, to insert the wedges into the saw.
Knowing all these subtleties and peculiarities, it is not difficult to saw a log or a log into boards yourself.
Safety rules for the work
Before you start sawing with your chainsaw, first make sure you are safe to work with:
- Make sure the attachment is securely mounted on the chainsaw as shown in the accompanying diagram;
- Be sure to know the types of malfunctions of the chainsaw and how to fix them;
- Carefully prepare the workplace and secure the workpiece;
- When working, always wear overalls, goggles to protect the eyes from small sawdust, headphones to protect against noise, and a respirator to protect the respiratory system;
- The chainsaw is started on the ground, the chain brake must be released just before starting work;
- Be sure to have a first aid kit on hand for first aid;
Knowledge and precise observance of safety rules will allow for sawing billets with a chainsaw without harm to health and obtain high-quality lumber.