How to make a doorway in a brick wall
What’s built can always be easily broken. But that doesn’t apply to our case. If your plans include a reconstruction or redevelopment, then to the task called “How to make a doorway in a brick wall,” you must approach carefully, because this type of work does not forgive mistakes, even the most minor. The labor intensity of the work requires a thorough study of all issues related to this “surgical” operation. Otherwise you can “earn” or a crack in the wall, or even jamming the door frame of the upper masonry.
The most important thing is to know the enemy in the face, so first you need to get acquainted with what you can expect in the future, it is from the peculiarities of the method of masonry will depend on the order of. An ordinary brick has three faces: the largest is called “bed”, the side long one is called “spoon”, and the short one is called “pike”.
There are 2 main types of walls: load-bearing and partition. The thicker the wall, the more difficult the task. But in the operation of knocking out the bricks of different masonry features do not exist, they will appear when you have to reinforce the masonry over the opening formed.
If you “look” spoon, then the work is not complicated, because in front of you the thinnest wall of all possible, it can not be more than 12 cm. When you see only pokes, then know that this partition is 25 cm thick.
The purpose of this device is to move the cuticle and shape the nail well with perfect accuracy.
- A beveled or flat spatula for tucking the cuticle and preparing the nails for extensions;
- Sharp cutter that removes burrs, chipped edges, dirt and other imperfections.
A good craftsman should have a whole set of pushers, because the width of the spatula depends on the width of the client’s nail plate.
All other selection criteria are the same:
- high-alloy steel;
- unscrewable sides;
- presence of threads or grooves on the handle;
- good balance when sharpening;
- thin, sharp, yet safe edge of the blade.
Squeeze the spatula with your fingers, if there is blood, it is better to give up on such a model. Next, you need to spend it on the palm. no unpleasant feelings, roughness, jagged edges should not be felt.
Punching an opening in the wall for a door is a great idea, complete with certain benefits:
- the possibility of getting into the room from a more convenient side, which is especially important, for example, if the apartment has adjoining rooms;
- As a result, you can get a more convenient layout;
- An extra door can be a security aid, which may allow you to quickly leave the room in an emergency.
From the disadvantages in such an idea can be distinguished only the need for its implementation. Therefore, let’s consider how to make an opening in the wall with your own hands, taking into account its material.
How to make a doorway in a concrete wall
Then this marking must be transferred to the other side. This can be done by drilling holes in the corners and along the lines of the future opening. Then, make holes all around the perimeter, every 3. 4 cm, with a drill 10. 12 mm in diameter.
Concrete walls are much stronger than brick walls, so without a diamond saw the work will be long and hard. After the passage is still pierced, you must make strapping from a metal channel or angle welded to each other.
In conclusion, we would like to remind you once again, any changes in the structural features of the apartment, especially this applies to apartment buildings, can be made only with a permit obtained in the state instances.
Erecting a partition with a straight opening
The first stage of work is marking. First mark on the ceiling the place where the start profile will be located. Then, using a plumb line, determine the points on the floor for fixing the lower element. Proceed to mark the place for the opening, then the posts. Their spacing is 600 mm.
Construction of the frame
Using metal scissors or an angle grinder cut the guiding profile. On the back side of all blanks glue the cushioning tape. Start the work with the top rail. In the ceiling through the profile perator drill holes for dowel nails, step. 400-500 mm. Fasteners are hammered in with a hammer. Then, once again checking the correctness of the marking with a plumb line, fix the bottom rail. Similarly, with the same pitch of fasteners, with a damping tape, install the vertical rails.
Formation of an opening
Proceed to “How to make a door opening”. Studs made of reinforced profiles are installed in the marked places. First measure the distance between the upper and lower elements of the frame. From the obtained value subtract 10 mm, cut two such strips. There are two options for reinforcement. You can connect the rack and guide profile, inserting them into each other, and then fasten every 150-200 mm. The alternative to the guide element is a bar of such a size that it fits into the mullion profile. Or a combination of both methods. The wood is also fastened to the metal with self-drilling screws.
Put the prepared uprights into the rails: first into the floor rail and then into the ceiling rail. For this operation a gap of 10 mm was necessary. Check the verticality and then fix each piece with self-tapping screws. The second mullion is made in the same way. The other studs are installed in the same way, remembering to subtract 10 mm from the distance between the floor and ceiling rails when cutting. Start the work with any bearing wall. The step size of 600 mm must be exactly in the middle of the uprights: this point will be the junction point of the gypsum plasterboard sheets.
Install the horizontal lintel of the door opening. the upper beam. For this purpose, two elements are cut from the guide profile that are 200 mm longer than the opening. Measure off 100 mm from each edge, cut through the side flanges, and then bend these “extra” strips inside. The lintel is installed in the marked place, check the level of the element, fix it with screws. This beam can be reinforced in the same way as the posts of the opening. with a guide profile or timber. The large height of the room (over 3 meters) requires additional stiffeners. horizontal bars between the racks. They are made in a similar way, but they do not require any reinforcement.
After the framework is erected, the embedded elements, cut from a profile, bar or thick plywood, are mounted inside the framework. Their purpose is to serve as a base for fixing shelves, hanging cabinets, sconces or mirrors. Then the lines of communication are installed. Electric wiring must be installed in corrugated pipes
Warming and sheathing of the frame
To protect against noise and for heat insulation of gypsum plasterboard structures, the most popular types of insulation are chosen most often. This is either traditional mineral wool, or a novelty. basalt material. Usually buy mats or plates of the desired thickness: they are easy to cut, no less convenient to install. The first step of the thermal insulation operation is the sheathing of one side of the frame with plasterboard.
Start the work on the side, where the installation of the studs was started with a pitch of 600 mm. However, do not forget that drywall has the property to expand: at temperature jumps, at fluctuations in the level of humidity. If you do not take this point into account, then incorrect installation will lead to deformation of the material, the appearance of cracks. That is why the clearance (5-10 mm) at the joints of boards with the ceiling, floor and walls is a must.
Fix the plasterboard to the profile with self-drilling screws all around the perimeter. Step is 250-300 mm. Caps fasteners must be recessed into the sheets to a depth of 0.5 to 0.8 mm. The following sheets are cut to size. Fix them so that the seams are in the middle of the stud profile. Finished cladding one side of the frame, go to work with insulation.
Thermal insulation material is cut into pieces, leaving a small allowance to ensure installation. If there is a need, the holes for communications are cut in the thermal insulation. After laying the thermal insulation between the uprights and crossbars, move on to the other side of the partition.
In this case the cladding is assembled in a slightly different way: the assembly does not start from the wall but from the next pillar. Thus, the offset is 600 mm, it, by analogy with masonry, ensures greater strength of the structure. The edges (joints) of the plates at the door opening are reinforced with an angle profile.
Door opening installation technology
Consider the process of mounting a door opening in walls made of different materials.
Making a door opening in a brick wall
The peculiarity of this process is that the line for the trimmer top of the opening always coincides with the longitudinal seam of masonry in this place, because cutting bricks on the spoon is not allowed.
First make the contour of the opening on the wall according to the diagram. It is transferred to the design in full size with a long ruler-rule, a marker or a piece of chalk. At this stage it is important to maintain the verticality of the side lines of the opening. The desired height of the opening is determined by the number of rows of brickwork. If the top of the opening is in the middle of the bricks, it should be raised higher to the nearby joint.
After marking the contour in its two corners need to make through holes with a feather. A 12 mm diameter drill bit at least as long as the wall thickness will be needed for this. These holes are needed to mark the control points of the contour of the opening on the other side of the structure.
Then, above the upper line of the future opening, it is necessary to cut a special groove, that is, a cavity for laying the lintel, which will hold the section of wall above the opening, not allowing it to collapse after the cutting of the hole. The length of the cavity must be greater than the width of the opening by 1 m. This will ensure that the lintel is securely supported on the sides of the rectangular hole in the wall.
The lintel can be made of two channels. Before each one of them is mounted, matching holes must be made in the profiles in order to fix them in place. Hole spacing is 300 mm.
After that, one of the profiles must be fixed in the wall cavity with mortar, and through its holes drill through the partition. Then on the other side of the structure should be cut a similar hole, install it a second channel, and then both profiles through the holes to tighten the studs.
When the lintel is in place, the doorway can be cut out. The best way to do this is to use a diamond cutter with an industrial vacuum cleaner. The work can be done from one side of the wall only, as the diameter of its blade is enough to make deep cuts.
After weakening the wall excess material inside the contour of the opening must be knocked out with a sledgehammer and then the trash must be bagged. When dismantling masonry there will certainly be some bricks left intact. They should not be thrown away. after cleaning from the mortar, they can be useful in the economy.
Making an opening for a door in a concrete panel
This process has less restrictions on marking the lines of the opening and has a similar work algorithm: drawing the contour, mounting the lintel, cutting the opening, removing excess material from it.
Unlike a brick wall, where an unnecessary part of the masonry can be smashed with a sledgehammer, the concrete structure is not as malleable. So here we have to divide the opening contour into squares and remove unnecessary wall fragments piece by piece with the help of a cutting tool and a torch. Work on the installation of the door opening must be carried out along the lines of the markings inside its contour. Some parts will be easily removed, others will require cutting the reinforcement of the wall.
After you cut an opening in a concrete or brick wall, you need to reinforce it. Lintel rods should be joined by welding, using metal strips in the process. Such fastening is carried out every 200 mm along the length of the lintel.
The sides of the opening must be strengthened with metal brackets. Their upper ends are connected by welding to the profiles of the horizontal part of the opening. In addition, the corners framing the corners of the hole, in pairs, are bound with plates and tightened with studs on the pre-prepared holes. If the wall is load-bearing, the opening in it is additionally reinforced by the bottom lintel, which must be welded to the side posts.
Materials for work
For sealing wood panels, laminate, veneer, fiberboard, plasterboard, plastic and other materials are used. It is necessary to prepare:
Plastering is the most common way. It is used to eliminate defects after the installation of the door. It will be necessary to set the guiding beams, mix the mortar. The foam joint of the door block is vapor-insulated to avoid future moisture on the inner linings. This will also help prevent the appearance of fungus, mold.
For exterior and interior work, use a special waterproofing and vapor barrier sealant, which can be purchased at any construction store (Stiz A, B, etc.).). Caulk the openings with a plaster mix (sand-cement mortar), carefully smooth out. Sometimes a tile adhesive is also used for basic sealant.
Plastering work begins when both adjoining walls have been plastered and the opening has been coated with primer. If you can hear sounds from the stairwell, the gaps are filled with soundproofing materials beforehand. Cut off the surplus of plaster mortar with a half-track or a regular lath. When the material dries, you need to make the grout.
This video shows the plastering work of the doorway:
Finishing with plasterboard, which is installed in the doorway, leads to an ideal result. The surface of the sheets is treated with putty.
The drywall sheets are mounted:
For doorways, it’s better to use glue. The option is preferred for interior doors, and for entrance doors it is better to use another way of finishing. After treatment, the plasterboard can be plastered, painted or covered with wallpaper or ceramic tile.
This video shows how to finish the doorway with plasterboard:
Gluing finishing panels of different materials can also be a way to solve the problem:
- First of all, lay the slats on the edge of the opening, then put the platband from the outer side of the slope and measure the distance.
- Jigsaw blanks for the slopes are cut, and then decorative angle is glued on the top and sides of the opening.
- On the frame fix the upper rung of the panel, then proceed to finish the sides of the slopes, while the protruding parts will need to cut off.
- Putty small cracks.
- Fix the frame side rebate with glue or small nails.
Note For fastening of the panels small nails without nails heads are used most often, and corners are closed with platbands, decorative corners made of wood-fiber board.
The photo shows several options:
This video shows how to formalize the doorway:
Finishing with plastic
Defects can also be sealed with plastic overlays. It is a lightweight water-resistant material that is easy to glue, long life:
- PVC panels are trimmed after the alignment of wooden beams and flush installation of purlins.
- Then mount the casing on top and fasten it with a stapler to the wooden rail.
- Insert the plastic in the starting panel, lay a layer of wool for insulation.
Mount the side panels with an overlap (cut off the excess with scissors on metal). You get perfectly sealed lining of white plastic, which may coincide in color with the balcony door. This option is practically not used for entrance doors.
Fixing the laminate flooring
Door jambs can be finished with laminate. The material is fastened with the help of a molding, into the grooves of which the slats are entered. Overlays have a high wear resistance, the service life is up to 20 years.
- It is necessary to cut the laminate into strips, insert the elements into the grooves of the corners and starting levels. Choose the color of the laminate panels to match the color of the door and the floor.
- Glue the finished plates usually on liquid nails or other adhesive mixture. Preliminary surface will need to be plastered, primed for good adhesion. Laminate is cut to size, the panels are attached, starting from the bottom.
- Mating edge will need to be cut with a jigsaw.
This video shows how to attach laminate to doorway soffits:
For finishing, you can also use:
Wooden panels are fastened as the previous. For a better fixation, you can fill the gaps with assembly foam.
Sequence of Operations:
- Treat the door opening with putty.
- Align and add insulating material, if necessary.
- Strengthen the wooden panels, seal the seams with sealant.
Wood panels must be cut in advance. If their surface is untreated, it will be necessary to do it, cover the slopes with varnish or paint. Technology cladding is simple, but the price of natural wood panels can be high.
The photo shows the finishing with wooden panels:
This video shows how to trim a door slope with wood paneling:
- The most popular type of finish. sheets Fiberboard (medium-density fiberboard). This is due to the low price of the material and its proximity in color to the door. To finish, you need to score the edges of the openings with wood guide strips, and then attach fiberboard platbands to the outside of the jamb.
- You can also make guides from ordinary assembly foam. Cut out panels of fiberboard or take already ready-made variants for entrance doors of standard size, chained them to the foam or other adhesive composition.
To cut a door or window opening, the following rules and procedures must be observed.
- First of all, careful measurements of the future construction are necessary. When marking the wall you should add 2-3 cm because the box or the window base will be blown out with the installation foam.
- Marking is made on both sides of the wall: the cut is made on the outer and inner side.
- The bricks should not be exposed to any impact loads. It is best to use a diamond cutter, an angle grinder with a crown mill or an angle grinder with a suitable disc. They are necessary for drilling holes on the perimeter.
- The bricks are knocked out with a sledgehammer or chisel and hammer in a downward direction. First you punch the space for the lintel.
- Next, a reinforcing lintel is installed. To do this, holes are drilled in the end sections of the walls for the future reinforcing beam: the optimal size of 50 mm. The beam is made of wood or reinforced concrete and either concreted into the opening or attached by means of metal corners. Some craftsmen use channels for this purpose, but their use may be unreliable.
- Only after strengthening can work on knocking out a brick continue.
The opening must be T-shaped, the reinforcing beam is an integral part of the entire structure.