How to connect an alternator to a single axle tractor

This Old Tractor: Episode 1 Alternator Hook Up

Installing an alternator on a single axle tractor with your own hands

It can be quite difficult for a novice farmer to choose the right generator for a power tiller. But all is not as difficult as it may seem at first sight. The single most important factor that you need to pay your attention to is the power of the device. Whichever generator for the agricultural machine you choose, its power must necessarily exceed the total power of the loads under which the single axle tractor works. This will allow the device to work properly under the voltage of 220 volts without the risk of surges in the electrical network, and feed all the available on the power tiller.

Often inexperienced owners of power tillers buy and equip their machinery with generators, designed for installation on cars. This is the best option if the farm regularly uses a powerful singleaxle tractor of the heavy class. In other cases it is not reasonable to buy such generators because of their high cost.

How to put a generator on a single axle tractor with your own hands: wiring diagram, installation of headlights for 220 V

Many farmers wonder how to put a generator on a single-axle tractor. A generator is installed to supply power to the cultivator’s headlights and charge the battery device. Installing a generator for a power tiller, you must take into account that the power of the mechanism must be greater than the applied load. This is done to prevent voltage jumps in the generator during equipment operation.

Alternator unit

The design of an automobile alternator includes its own rectifier and control circuit. The generating part of the alternator uses a fixed winding (stator) to produce a three-phase alternating current which is rectified by a series of six large diodes and the direct current charges the battery. Alternating current is induced by the rotating magnetic field of the winding (around the field winding or rotor). Then, the current is fed through brushes and slip rings to the electronic circuit.

Generator unit: 1.Nut. 2.Washer. 3.Pulley. 4.Front cover. 5.Distance ring. 6.Rotor. 7.Stator. 8.Back cover. 9.Cover. 10.Gasket. 11.Safety sleeve. 12.Rectifier unit with capacitor. 13.Brush holder with voltage regulator.

The alternator is located in the front of the car engine and is started by the crankshaft. The wiring diagram and principle of operation of the car alternator is the same for any car. There are, of course, some differences, but they are usually related to the quality of the manufactured goods, power and layout of components in the engine. All modern cars are equipped with alternator sets, which include not only the alternator itself, but also the voltage regulator. The regulator distributes the current in the field winding equally, precisely because of this there is a fluctuation in power of the generator set at the time when the voltage on the power output terminals remains constant.

New cars are most often equipped with an electronic unit on the voltage regulator, so the on-board computer can control the amount of load on the generator set. In turn, on hybrid cars, the alternator performs the work of the starter-generator, a similar scheme is used in other designs of stop-start system.

How an alternator works

VAZ 2110-2115 alternator wiring diagram

The wiring diagram of an alternator includes the following components:

  • Battery.
  • Generator.
  • Fuse box.
  • Ignition key.
  • Dashboard.
  • Rectifier unit and additional diodes.

The principle is simple enough, when you turn on the ignition plus goes through the ignition switch through the fuse box, light bulb, diode bridge, and comes out through a resistor to the minus. When the light on the dashboard lights up, then the plus goes to the generator (to the field winding), then during the start of the engine pulley begins to rotate, also rotates the armature, due to electromagnetic induction the electromotive force is produced and there is an alternating current.

the most dangerous for an alternator is a short circuit of plates of the heat sinks connected to the “mass” and the output “” of the alternator by accidentally caught between them metal objects or conductive bridges, formed by contamination.

Then into the rectifier unit, a diode passes plus into the left shoulder through the sine wave, and minus into the right. Adding diodes to the bulb cuts off the minuses and you get only pluses, then it goes to the dashboard unit, and the diode that stands there it passes only the minus, as a result the bulb goes out and plus then goes through a resistor and goes to the minus.

connect, alternator, single, axle

The principle of operation of a car constant alternator can be explained as follows: A small direct current begins to flow through the field winding, which is regulated by the control unit and maintained by it at just over 14 V. Most alternators in a car are capable of producing at least 45 amps. The alternator runs at 3000 rpm and above. if you look at the fan belt size ratio for pulleys, it would be two or three to one in relation to the engine frequency.

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To avoid this, the plates and other parts of the generator rectifier are partially or completely covered with an insulating layer. In a monolithic construction of the rectifier unit, the heat sinks are united mainly by mounting plates made of insulating material, reinforced by connecting busbars.

Next, let’s consider the connection diagram of a car alternator on the example of the car VAZ-2107.

Possible malfunctions and their elimination

Even if a quality generator is installed in the design of a motor-block, including those made by your own hands, it periodically requires repair. If you find serious faults, it is recommended to contact specialists, but simple breakdowns can be eliminated by yourself. Most often observed:

If the product starts to heat up significantly, most likely the problem is in the capacitor failure, which will need to be replaced with an analogue of higher capacity to restore the serviceability of the device.

Short-circuiting due to moisture is a serious problem that will require a thorough defect examination and replacement of the burnt out elements after drying out. Voltage fluctuations and malfunctions most often require the brushes to be changed, after which the generator starts to work properly.

A generator for a power tiller

A powerful singleaxle tractor requires a power generator. The generator for a power tiller is one of the most important elements, it supplies power to the headlights and recharges the battery. The battery is an autonomous power source and is needed primarily to start the single axle tractor without much difficulty thanks to the starter, and to feed the electrical appliances later. The main function of a 220 volt generator is to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Before installing a generator on an agricultural machine, you should study in detail the device of the available element. The generator to the power tiller consists of such parts:

  • housing. in most cases presented in the form of a metal box, equipped with a front and back cover;
  • pulley. this part is designed to transmit mechanical energy from the motor to the alternator shaft through the belt;
  • stator. the role of this part is played by the usual rewinding of steel sheets assembled into one compact package. The stator is shaped like a tube, inside which the alternator power is generated;
  • the rotor. this part has the shape of a steel shaft equipped with two metal bushes. In the section between the bushings is the excitation winding, whose wires are connected to the contact rings;
  • The brush unit is a plastic part that is responsible for the correct operation of the generator;
  • Voltage regulator. this part is responsible for stabilizing the voltage when the load on the alternator changes.

Installing the generator on a single axle tractor with your own hands is time-consuming, but after spending it, you will ensure trouble-free operation of your agricultural machine. To connect the alternator to the machine, you must follow the wiring diagram that lists all the connections required for installation.

The difference between a single-phase and a three-phase connection

All connections, whether single-phase or three-phase, are completely identical, except for the number of power wires. The only important nuance concerns the so-called control phase. if you connect a starter to the network, its main contacts connect and disconnect the power wires from the network, and the power for the electromagnetic coil must also be taken from somewhere.

In single-phase network there is no problem. there is only one phase and there is no such an issue, but in three-phase it is a bit more complicated. there are L1, L2 and L3. Without going into technical details, the answer here is one. any of the phases can be used for control circuits, but only one. Т. е. if KM1 coil is powered from phase L3, then control of other starters, the “Start” and “Stop” buttons must also be “hung” only on it. It is not difficult to do this. just mark what color the wire is on the desired phase, and if the cable has single-colored cores, then glue or draw markers on them.

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Reliable circuits

A modern single axle tractor is a complex machine made up of many important elements. One of them is the generator, whose function is to power the electric battery or lighting devices of the agricultural machine. Let’s consider the peculiarities of selecting a generator for a power tiller, its installation and manufacturing with our own hands. It can be quite difficult for a novice farmer to choose the right generator for a power tiller. However, not everything is as difficult as it may seem at first glance

The single most important factor to pay your attention to is the power of the device. No matter what generator for the agricultural machine you do not choose, its power must necessarily exceed the total power of the loads, under which the single axle tractor works

This will allow the unit to operate properly at voltage Volts without the risk of surges in the electrical network, and to power all the available on the power tiller. Often inexperienced owners of power tillers purchase and equip their machines with alternators, designed for installation on cars.

Assembly and adjustment

The gasoline alternator is assembled on a suitable platform. When assembling the machine it is important to make sure that the pulleys of the alternator and the engine are exactly parallel and in the same plane. Otherwise the belt could come off and wear out. The distance between pulleys should be chosen so that the belt is kept under tension and does not slip during operation.

Important! Do not overtighten. This will cause a reduction in efficiency and wear of the belt and pulleys and, most importantly, the bearings of the engine and alternator shafts

Having one more pulley, even if it is small in diameter, you can make the belt tensioning device with the help of a spring with the necessary force of elasticity.

The gas tank is placed at the highest part of the construction so that the gasoline can flow by gravity into the carburetor

It is important to prevent the tank from being heated by the heat of a running engine. If necessary insulate the tank with asbestos sheets

Important! Asbestos dust is not poisonous, but can have a harmful effect on the lungs, so you must wear a respirator to work with asbestos. Do not forget the fuel filter

connect, alternator, single, axle

Assembled design should allow easy engine starting and access to all components: carburetor, spark plugs, voltage regulator.

connect, alternator, single, axle

Adjustment consists in setting the desired voltage using the standard alternator regulator. Some alternators, for example those from Samara and newer cars, have a built-in regulator that does not allow for adjustment.

If the voltage is below the allowable level, the uninterruptible power supply will not start, giving a signal of severe battery discharge. High value can cause damage of circuit components.

As can be seen, the assembly of a home gasoline generator is an undertaking quite feasible. With their own hands assembled gasoline generator can work no worse than the factory, but you should know that it can be engaged only if you have at least part of the components. Making a power plant from scratch in the complete absence of parts will lead to costs that exceed the purchase of a ready-made structure.

Electric generators for the house with their own hands: ways of implementation

A little bit of theory. The basis for the emergence of electric current in the conductor is the electromotive force. Its appearance occurs as a result of the impact on the conductor, changing the magnetic field.

The value of the electromotive force depends on the rate of change of magnetic wave flux. This effect is the basis for the creation of synchronous and asynchronous electric machines.

Therefore, it is not difficult to turn a current generator into an electric motor and vice versa.

For a country house or a country site the generator of direct current is seldom used. It can be in a special version used for a welding machine. Basically, the scope of its application extends to industry.

Generator is intended to produce electricity in large quantities, so in the country cottage or country house it will be a great alternative to the central power supply. So to create an alternator at home with our own hands let’s take the conversion of an asynchronous electric motor.

The principle of operation of the alternator is to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. An example of an elementary electric generator can be seen in the video.

Such a unique way to generate light is very interesting. With a little improvement, we get the opportunity to provide ourselves with lighting in a hike or in nature. The only condition is that you have to ride a bicycle with a small, but necessary device.

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In this case, to get the rotating electromagnetic field of the conductor, start the motor. Often the internal combustion motor is used.

the fuel burns in the combustion chamber and imparts a reciprocating motion to the piston which turns the crankshaft through a connecting rod.

This in turn transmits the rotary motion to the rotor of the alternator, which moves in the magnetic field of the stator and generates an electric current at the output.

The alternator consists of the following parts:

  • housing part made of steel or cast iron, which serves as a frame for fixing the stator and the rotor bearing units, a casing to protect all the internal stuffing from mechanical damage;
  • ferromagnetic stator with magnetic flux excitation winding;
  • The moving part (rotor) with the self-excitation winding, the shaft of which is set in motion by an external force;
  • switching unit, serving to remove electricity from the moving rotor by means of graphite current-carrying contacts.

The rotor and stator are the fundamental components of an alternator, regardless of fuel consumption and engine power. The first creates the magnetic field and the second generates it.

In contrast to synchronous generators, which have a complex design and are less productive, the asynchronous alternator has a whole list of significant advantages:

  • Improved efficiency, losses are half those of synchronous alternators.
  • The simplicity of the enclosure does not compromise the functionality. It reliably protects the stator and rotor from moisture and waste oil, thus increasing the period between repairs.
  • Resistant to voltage fluctuations, except that the installed rectifier prevents the breakage of electrical appliances.
  • It is possible to supply power to high-sensitivity instruments with ohmic load.
  • Durable. Service life is counted in dozens of years.

The main components of an electric generator are a system of coils and a system of electromagnets (or other magnetic system).

The principle of an electrical generator is to convert rotational mechanical energy into electrical energy.

A system of magnets creates a magnetic field, and a system of coils rotates in it, turning it into an electric field.

In addition the generator system includes a voltage takeoff system which connects the generator itself to the current consuming devices.

One of the easiest ways is to use an asynchronous generator.

To create an electric generator, we need two basic elements: an asynchronous generator and a 2-cylinder engine running on gasoline.

The gasoline engine must be air-cooled, 8 horsepower and speed of 3000 rpm.

The asynchronous generator will act as an ordinary electric motor with a capacity of up to 15 kW and speed of 750 to 1500 revolutions per minute.

Frequency of rotation of asynchronous gear for normal operation should be higher than the synchronous number of revolutions of used electric motor by 10 percent.

Therefore, the induction motor must be spun up to 5-10 percent higher than the nominal speed. How can this be done??

Let’s proceed as follows: plug in the electric motor, and then measure the no-load speed with a tachometer.

The belt drive from the engine to the generator must be calculated. This needs to be done in such a way that a certain increase in generator speed is ensured.

What is meant by? Let’s take the example of an engine with nominal speed of 900 rpm.

Such a motor will produce 1230 rpm when running in idle mode.

Thus, in the case of the given data, the belt drive should be designed for providing the generator rotation speed, and it should be equal to 1353 revolutions per minute.

The windings of our induction motor are connected in a star connection. They produce three-phase voltage, 380 V.

Interesting! Anchors intercircuit, here!

To keep the induction motor at nominal voltage, you need the correct capacitance between the phases.

The capacities, of which there are three, are identical.

During operation it is recommended to check generator heating by touch to avoid overheating.

If you can feel the heat, it means that the capacitance connected is too high.

To select the necessary capacitance for each phase, you can use the following data, based on the generator power:

Converting from an Externally Regulated Alternator to an Internally Regulated One-Wire Alternator

  • 2 kW. Capacitance of 60 uF
  • 3.5 kW. capacity 100 uF
  • 5 kW. 138 uF
  • 7 kW. 182 μF
  • 10 kW. 245 uF
  • 15 kW. 342 uF

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