Connection scheme of a KAMAZ generator
KAMAZ generator connection diagrams differ because of a number of design nuances. Take into account the version of the Euro standard, and then the models. Considering the installation, it is important to remember about the pinout and its features.
KAMAZ generator connection diagram can be made bypassing the switch. In this case, the lamp is used with full incandescence. If we consider the pusher, it is installed near the rod.
Limit resistance is easy to check with a tester. If everything is done correctly, the alternator runs like clockwork. The standard model does not provide a core.
Consideration of the 5320 version
Connection diagram of a KAMAZ-5320 alternator is slightly different from the standard, since the plates are used. They are made of steel and act as insulators. At that the cores may differ in size. Everything depends on the number of plates.
KAMAZ alternator pinout includes the following design elements:
Even the KAMAZ charging scheme provides a reserve of service life. This means that the circuit provides for a battery pack. To service the nodes a cable is used. There are several ways to connect the outdoor lights.
Most often the KAMAZ generator scheme involves the use of an adapter. The interlock must be behind the pusher.
The Bosch KAMAZ alternator pinout involves the following components
If you are interested in how to connect an alternator on a KAMAZ, it is worth moving on to practice. There are different manufacturers, so there are differences in parameters. Common are the cases at 20 V.
Next, let’s directly consider the Bosch KAMAZ alternator and its connection scheme. At a detailed consideration it becomes clear that the output is led to the core. Power from the battery comes through the built-in unit.
The question of how to connect the alternator on a KAMAZ remains relevant. This happens through the regulator. In modern models are used only remote switches. This means that the signal reaches the unit quickly, and the control panel can be placed in a convenient location.
Features of the KAMAZ-55111 model
Connection diagram of KAMAZ 55111 alternator is not principally different from the earlier version. But it is worth considering the following elements:
Connection diagram of the KAMAZ-5511 alternator causes many people to make mistakes, since a voltage alternator is used. It is not connected to the unit in any way, so a voltmeter is not needed when installing.
Experts note the high resistance of the circuit. It has to do with the alternator installation. When connected, a rectifier is engaged and the winding is excited.
Scheme of connection of the alternator on such a truck to some people seems complicated due to the principle of the battery. The units are used in a pair. But the overall voltage does not change from this.
When considering the KAMAZ alternator and wiring diagram, it is worth starting from the regulator. First connect the output to it, and then to the battery.
Experts know that the charging scheme of KAMAZ-4310 often gives faults, and there are reasons for this:
Connection diagram of a KAMAZ alternator with a voltage regulator implies the use of passthrough transistors. The semiconductor element is connected to the circuit behind the rectifier.
Average resistance is up to 20 ohms. This means that the signal travels well. Semiconductor materials can be tested with a tester. According to the scheme, the installation is made with a power source. In terms of parameters the units may differ.
If interested in how to properly connect the alternator on KAMAZ, it is worth taking a closer look at the element. The drive and inverter must initially be de-energized. Installation is done with a simple and isolated gate. The first option is considered more proven.
KAMAZ-6520 alternator wiring diagram includes a reverse conduction unit. Additional elements are also used:
KAMAZ battery charging scheme implies the use of a starter. The channel is set up, after which control measurements can be made. The average voltage is 30 V. Underestimation of the indicator indicates a problem with conductivity.
Diagram of Euro-1
KAMAZ Euro-1 alternator connection diagram is discussed in detail in many instructions, so you can highlight the general provisions.
The elements are connected in series.
Connection features of KAMAZ Euro-2
When considering the connection diagram of the KAMAZ Euro-2 alternator, specialists always have a lot of questions about the pre-start preparation. According to the theory, it is carried out with the help of electro-flare device.
If you’re interested in how to connect a KAMAZ Euro-2 alternator, it is important to look at the general view. In the diagram, you can see that when the voltage is applied, there is instantaneous excitation of the winding. Then it’s up to the collector. If the emitter outputs normal, the VT2 transistor in the circuit successfully performs its function.
Euro 3 version
Technology does not stand still, so an interesting connection diagram of KAMAZ Euro-3 alternator. The pinout includes:
When connecting an alternator, you need to stick out the stud. Particular attention is paid to the contacts. When technicians open the cover, they see one or more retainers.
When installing the alternator, it makes sense to recheck the surface, which may oxidize. If there is no visible carbon deposits on the contacts, but the device does not work, it is worth moving on to the power unit.
The battery is inspected for external damage. When plate damage is observed, the element will have to be completely replaced. Operation in some modes indicates incomplete functioning.
With the tester it is possible to identify common indicators, which indicate the failure of various elements. It could be the core or the rectifier itself. If low resistance is present, the transistor is replaced. For work it will be necessary to loosen the retainer, remove the stud. New elements are selected from the appropriate class.
KAMAZ Euro-4 alternator information
KAMAZ Euro-4 alternator connection diagram is considered in order to have a general idea of how to use the element. There are instructions for mounting and dismounting.
First generation Renault Logan alternator connection diagram
Diagram of connection of an alternator Renault Logan with eight-valve engines k7j (1.4 liters) and k7m (1.5 liters)
Description of the wiring diagram
The generator begins to produce electricity after starting the engine (before starting all consumers are powered from the battery). Voltage is applied from its output “B2” to the mounting block in the engine compartment and then to the ignition switch (the fourth contact. the red wire).
Section of the electrical circuit from the alternator to the ignition switch is protected by a fuse F01 (60A), installed in the installation block in the engine compartment (under the hood). In addition to protecting the electrical circuits of all consumers powered by the lock, it also protects the voltage supply circuit to the outdoor light switch in the left hand stalk switch (lights and low, high beam).
The instrument cluster has a battery discharge warning light, which should go out when the alternator starts generating electricity (immediately after starting).
If the ignition is turned on but the engine is not started and the alternator rotor with the field winding does not rotate, electrical current flows from the plus signaling on the dashboard from the battery to the minus signaling from the field winding to the alternator. The control lamp in the instrument cluster lights up. The field winding is magnetized by this current and this magnetization is enough to excite the alternator at startup.
When the engine is started, the rotor turns and the generator begins to produce electricity. the light bulb is energized on both sides and goes out. Thus, signaling that the alternator is working properly, it gives the charging current and powers the entire on-board network of the vehicle.
Notes and additions
All first-generation Renault Logan car alternators are three-phase alternating current electrical machines, with an integrated rectifier unit (diode bridge) and voltage regulator. There are only six diodes in the diode bridge (three positive and three negative).
Generating set is a three-phase synchronous machine with excitation from an external power source and a rectifier unit. There is an integrated voltage regulator to control the output voltage and keep it within preset limits.
The principle of operation of the generator is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. The rotating magnetic field of the rotor, crossing the stator windings, induces an EMF in them, which is connected to the load via a rectifier unit. The main elements of an alternator are:
- front and rear covers with integrated rectifier;
- Brush holders with integral voltage regulator;
- pulley and fan impeller.
Generator rotor is a shaft made of electrical steel, on which the excitation winding (inductor) is wound. Power is led to it through 2 contact rings installed on the side of the back cover. Twelve beak-shaped magnets are pressed on the shaft. There are ball bearings on both ends of the rotor.
Three phase stator winding with 36 coils. Each phase has 12 windings connected in series, located in the slots of the stator and offset one another by 120 °. Electrical connection between the poles is in a star configuration. Output phase terminals are connected to a rectifier box.
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Rectifier, voltage regulator and brush holders are mounted on the alternator rear cover. Body parts molded of aluminum alloy. In the center of each cover there is a space for the bearing. The fan wheel is mounted on the rear end of the shaft, held in place by a key and secured by a nut. In the same way to mount the two-strand pulley on the armature shaft in the front of the GU. Design of alternators of different models of MAZ cars is the same and they differ only in connection to the mains.
The first thing you should pay attention to is a pulley of an alternator drive. It is permanently subjected to friction by the drive belt. Belt contact surface may become irregularly worn.
Unevenness causes the belt to slip. This can also cause wear and tear on the drive belt. If it is worn unevenly, the pulley should be replaced with a new one.
Cracks appear on the front and rear covers. If so, argon welding should be done. But the main problem with the caps is that the bearing seats are broken.
The outer ring turns in the housing and the bearing starts to break the seat. Seat becomes oval over time. Rotor starts to run out. In this case, the cover must be replaced. If the roughening is small, it can be sealed.
The easiest homemade method that can help seal a bearing. This will copper the rim. That is, apply to the outer often of the bearing cage, using a welder. copper dots.
To do this, you need to take a stranded copper wire. Connect it to the holder. Place the bearing on the carrier. In short, sharp strokes. Run the copper wire around the cage. As a result, small molten dots of copper will form on the cage.
They should be spaced evenly over the entire ring.
Another way to apply a layer of metal to the cage. Place the bearing between the two springs. Connect one leaf spring to the minus side of the welder. The other to the plus. Move the springs relative to each other. So that the bearing rolls between them. As a result a rough layer is formed. Which helps to seal the bearing in the seat.
When inspecting the rotor, pay attention to the contact rings. A groove may form on them. The groove can be as deep as this. That the ring is completely obliterated. If there is no deep groove. It is sufficient to clean the surface of the rings with fine emery paper.
It is possible that the winding wire breaks at the connection to the ring. If the connection is faulty, the contact should be soldered.
The integrity of the winding can be checked with a multimeter
or a car light bulb. If they are connected according to the following scheme.
In addition to wire breakage, the insulating layer may be broken. This can cause a short between the winding coils as well as a short between the winding and the rotor housing.
In this case, a simple wiretap may not be enough. Wires are not touching each other with bare spots when not in use.
But it can cause an air breakdown when working in areas where the insulation is broken. That’s what causes the short circuit.
In this case, check the winding for short circuits using the megohmmeter. The megohmmeter generates operating voltages of up to 500 volts. Connect the megohmmeter between the winding and the case. If the insulation is normal. The megohmmeter should not show a resistance of less than 500 kilohms.
Or check for a breakdown of the protective layer between the coils of the winding
Moisture and salts dissolved in it get on the wires. And there is a short circuit either between the coils of wires, or between the place of insulation damage and the case.
The presence of a breakdown of the insulation can also be determined if a high voltage of 220 volts is used. For this purpose the following circuit is connected
In this case, the violation of the insulation layer of the wire will be manifested by the formation of small flashes and smoke in the places where the insulation is broken. But this method is very dangerous. Since we have to work with high voltage. Careless contact with a high voltage wire can cause unconsciousness or death.
I am writing about it to understand how the short circuit and short to ground occurs when the alternator is running. And to see if the alternator is charging the battery. If there are no external signs of a fault. When the alternator is running, it is not producing the voltage it needs. Intergrid and ground faults are the real cause of alternator malfunction.
Check the stator.
The stator coil consists of three windings connected in a similar way
Thanks to this connection, the alternator outputs alternating voltage. And then a diode bridge converts it to single-phase DC.
Similarly as with the rotor it is necessary to test each winding for interruptions.
Check for a short to ground connection. So each winding has to be checked with a multimeter. That there is no short circuit.
In case of a negative result it is necessary to check the windings for insulation breakdown by means of megohmmeter. Each winding individually.
Each winding individually and the possibility of a breakdown of the insulation on the winding.
Types of device
KAMAZ vehicles use for onboard power supply installations that generate current in three phases, generated by directional particle motion of alternating nature, excitation. electromagnetic or self-excitation. The product is driven by the crankshaft, producing a current of 27-30 V. Due to the fact that some of the directional particles are lost when passing the rectifier and regulator, the on-board network receives 24 V. KamAZ generator scheme, design, drive, etc. In modern mechanisms, generating current are different.
Structurally generating devices are divided into: products equipped with a rectifying unit, the regulation is presented as a separate unit; products that have an integrated rectifying unit and voltage regulation. Modern machines are equipped with units, simple generators are used on early modifications of KAMAZ. Sometimes classical devices are installed even on new vehicles, because the products are cheaper and easy to maintain.
According to the drive the generator is divided into: actuating by V-belt, actuating by multiple V-belts. Classic drive is installed on the first vehicles, as well as on machines with a power plant KAMAZ-740. Multiple belt pulleys are used on trucks with a Cummins power plant, as well as on Euro-2 class engines and above.
Today the market is saturated with generator models, which are structurally different. However, the basic products for installation on the KAMAZ are considered: G-288, G-273-A, G-288E, G-273-V1. The first two models are installed on trucks since the date of manufacture (1970). G-288E has been used since 1985, in 1990s and 2000s KAMAZ truck uses G-273-V1. Often there are imported products, such as Bosch.
The design of an automobile alternator implies its own rectifier and control circuit. The generating part of the alternator uses a stationary winding (stator) to produce a three-phase alternating current which is rectified by a series of six large diodes, and a direct current which charges the battery. Alternating current is induced by the rotating magnetic field of the winding (around the field winding or rotor). The current is then fed through the brushes and slip rings to the electronic circuit.
Alternator device: 1.Nut. 2.Washer. 3.Pulley. 4.Front cover. 5.Spacer ring. 6.Rotor. 7.Stator. 8.Back cover. 9.Cover. 10.Gasket. 11.Protective sleeve. 12.Rectifier unit with capacitor. 13.Brush holder with voltage regulator.
The generator is located in the front of the car engine and is started with the crankshaft. The wiring diagram and principle of operation of the vehicle’s alternator is the same for all cars. There are, of course, some differences, but they are usually associated with the quality of manufactured goods, power and layout of nodes in the engine. All modern cars are equipped with alternator sets, which include not only the alternator itself, but also the voltage regulator. The regulator distributes the current in the field winding equally, due to this there is a fluctuation in power of the genset at the time when the voltage on the power output terminals is constant.
New cars are most often equipped with an electronic unit on the voltage regulator, so the on-board computer can control the amount of load on the generator set. In turn, on hybrid cars, the alternator performs the work of a starter-generator, a similar scheme is used in other stop-start system designs.
Principle of operation of an alternator
Alternator connection diagram of VAZ 2110-2115
The wiring diagram of an alternator includes such components:
- Fuse block.
- Ignition key.
- Rectifier box and diodes.
The principle of operation is quite simple, when the ignition is turned on, plus through the ignition switch goes through the fuse box, light bulb, diode bridge and out through a resistor to the minus. When the light on the dashboard lit up, then the plus goes to the alternator (the field winding), then during the engine start pulley begins to rotate, also rotates the armature, due to electromagnetic induction is produced electromotive force and there is an alternating current.
The most dangerous thing for an alternator is a short circuit between the plates of the heat sink, connected to the “ground” and the alternator “terminal” by accidentally caught between them metal objects or conductive bridges, formed by contamination.
Then a diode passes plus to the left shoulder and minus to the right shoulder through a sine wave into the rectifier unit. Adding diodes to the bulb cuts off the minuses and you get only pluses, then it goes to the dashboard unit, and the diode that stands there it passes only the minus, as a result the bulb goes out and plus then goes through a resistor and goes to the minus.
The principle of operation of the car constant alternator, can be explained as follows: a small constant current begins to flow through the field winding, which is regulated by the control unit and is maintained by it at a level just over 14 V. Most alternators in a car are capable of producing at least 45 amps. The alternator runs at 3,000 rpm and above. if you look at the ratio of fan belts to pulleys, it is two or three to one in relation to engine frequency.
To prevent this, the plates and other parts of the alternator rectifier are partially or completely covered with an insulating layer. In a monolithic construction of a rectifier unit, the heat sinks are combined mainly by mounting plates made of insulating material, reinforced by connecting busbars.
Next, let’s consider a wiring diagram of a car alternator on the example of the car VAZ-2107.
Why a voltage regulator is needed
The situation: when the engine is running the battery charge decreases sharply, or overcharge occurs. First it is necessary to check the battery, and if it is good, then the problem is in the voltage regulator. The regulator can be remote or integrated into the brush unit.
At high engine speeds the voltage from the alternator may increase up to 16 volts, which is detrimental to the battery cell. Regulator “removes” excessive current by getting it from the battery, and also regulates the voltage in the rotor.
Simple ways and schemes of car alternator connection
The main source of electric power in any vehicle is an alternator. Thanks to this node all electrical equipment of the car is powered, so it must always be operational. What is the connection diagram of the generator, what is its structure and principle of operation, and how to make a diagnosis of the unit? We will tell you about this below.
As you know, the main purpose of the generator unit is to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Thanks to this, the unit restores the capacity of the battery, and also allows you to power all the electrical equipment in the car. The generator unit is located in the front of the power unit and is driven by the crankshaft.
Read more about the main elements and the principle of operation:
- Rotor mechanism. This element is a shaft with an installed field winding. Both halves of this winding are in opposite pole halves of the unit. The rotary mechanism is driven by belt drive.
- The slip-ring contacts are used to power the winding.
- The stator mechanism. consists of a winding and a core. This element is designed to generate alternating current. The current generated by the mechanism is passed on through the rings to the rest of the electrical circuit.
- Brushes are used to ensure that the generated excitation current successfully reaches the rings. These elements, as practice shows, often fail due to wear and tear.
- Rectifier unit. This component is designed to convert the alternating voltage. Structurally, this device consists of plates with attached diode elements. Depending on the pinout of the unit, the wiring diagram of the car alternator may include a separate pair of winding diodes. In this case, the voltage cannot pass through the battery when the motor is stopped.
- Regulator relay. This element is designed to maintain a certain level of voltage in the onboard network within normalized limits. Regulator relay directly affects the frequency, as well as the duration of current signals. The regulator itself structurally includes controllers, as well as actuating components. Their function is to determine the length of time that the winding must be connected to the mains. If the regulator relay for some reason fails, there is no stabilization of the incoming voltage to the battery.
- The body of the device, which houses the main parts and components of the unit. The housing itself is usually made of aluminum, so its weight is relatively light. The plant enclosure allows heat to be dissipated quickly, so that the temperature does not reach a critical level. Also the body is non-magnetic (the author of a video about the principle of the device. Mikhail Nesterov).
Checking the faulty generator
Consider the main malfunctions that are typical for alternator sets of cars:
- Breakage in the electrical circuit, short circuits and other damages. To diagnose such a malfunction it is necessary to check the number of amperes, as well as the voltage level at the output of the device. According to the data obtained, the solution to this problem is selected.
- Often our compatriots are faced with such a problem as wear of the graphite brushes, voltage regulator, as well as the diode bridge. All worn and failed elements are repairable, but they are usually replaced. Separately we should say about the regulator. as mentioned above, it provides an optimal charge of the battery in accordance with the temperature in the engine compartment. Thus, the device automatically detects the number of volts for the battery under the current conditions. Depending on the model of the generating set, you can use the regulator with manual switching according to the season, in this case the minus temperatures will not be terrible to the device. Relay failure can be reported by unstable voltage in the system. for example, a dim headlight, which becomes brighter when you press the gas pedal.
- Bearing failure. A defect in these elements can be indicated by an excessive noise level, but also by inadequate lubrication.
- Howling and howling. If these symptoms are present, check the cage elements, raceways, contact rings for rotation. Also this symptom can report a possible inter-turn short circuit of the stator winding or the traction relay. As a matter of principle, if there is an extraneous sound, the contacts should also be diagnosed.
- The temperature of a functional generating set can be up to 90 degrees, but if there is evident overheating, the diode bridge should be diagnosed. You also need to make sure that not many additional devices and appliances are connected to the onboard network of the car. If the temperature rises critically, first of all the stator mechanism winding insulation will darken, moreover it can melt.
- Wear of an alternator unit belt. If the alternator belt is worn and torn, it will lead to incorrect operation of the unit as a whole, that is, all power consumers in the car will be powered from the battery. When the belt breaks, the alternator stops functioning, so the driver only has time to get to the nearest service station or garage to fix the problem. The wear can be evidenced by voltage spikes in the car’s onboard network. It is necessary to check the integrity of the strap, pay attention to its condition. cracks and other damages on the belt are not allowed. If they are present, you should understand that in a short time the belt should be replaced.
The photo gallery “The main failure of the generator”
About the failure of the unit can also report too little battery charge or lack of voltage at its terminals. Also a sign of malfunction of the device is incorrect functioning of the display and equipment.
Possible ways to connect the node
How to install and how to connect the unit? In general, the connection scheme of the unit is similar for all passenger vehicles. Slight differences are related to the quality of manufacture of the unit, its power, as well as the location of components in the engine compartment. All vehicles are equipped with alternators, equipped with a voltage regulator.