So, let’s start with the easy one for inexperienced users. Screwdrivers have a thing called a torque control. It looks like a scale around the front of an electric screwdriver that’s right behind the chuck. It has numbers from 1 to 10, 15, 20 or even more. different models have different numbers. and the last position is marked as a drill. If you rotate this regulator and set it against a special mark so that near it there is one of the numbers, then when you reach a certain torque, the chuck will not rotate further, and will start to flick. If you put on the “drill”, then the electric screwdriver will try to twist as much as the power of the engine allows it.
True, it is worth noting that two-speed screwdrivers have a safety system at the second speed, even in the “drill” position, if the torque reaches a certain value, it simply turns off the current supply. At first speed, the electric screwdriver will also try to spin “to the last one”.
And a beginner can start drilling or screwing self-tapping screws, for example, when the torque control is on one of the digits, or the electric screwdriver is on the second speed (and it is actually recommended to drill on it).
The drill bit can get jammed quite tightly and as a result, when you start releasing the drill bit or bit in the standard way (by reversing, holding the chuck and pressing the start button), either the torque limiter or the safety system can just go off.
Therefore, in such a situation you just have to put the electric screwdriver on the first speed and set the torque control to the “drill” position. On single-speed models, just set the torque control to the “drill” position. And then, again, unscrewing in the standard way.
Types of screwdriver chucks
There are several varieties of chucks for screwdrivers. Below you can read more about each of them.
Key gear chuck
To fix the drill bit in the gear chuck, the craftsman needs to use a special wrench. As a rule, fastening is performed by 3 “cams”, which are arranged symmetrically around the longitudinal axis of the spindle. The only disadvantage of such a chuck is considered a high risk of losing the key, without which it will be difficult to replace the drill bits.
The drill bit can be fastened in the quick-action chuck by hand. Screwdrivers are available with a single- and double-thread chuck. The former are easy to use, and the latter are equipped by the manufacturer with a pair of rotating rings (clamping and loosening). The main advantage of quick-change chucks is that drill bits can be changed quickly. The quality of clamping is similar to the key type, however, experts recommend that when working with hard material at high load to give preference to a toothed chuck.
How to Remove and Change the Chuck
If you are faced with replacing a chuck, you should first look at how it is clamped. To carry out the procedure with a minimum of effort, experts do not recommend overloading an electric grinder in everyday use. If you run the tool for fifteen minutes without stopping, the rotating parts can overheat and become hard packed into the socket. Then it will be more difficult to carry out the replacement. Experts recommend the proven ways to remove the chuck described below:
- Unscrew the threaded fastener by means of an L-shaped hexagon, which is sure to be found in every owner. Next, you must insert the hexagon (size. 10 mm), put the short edge into the chuck and press it tightly into the cams. Then start and momentarily turn off the device at low speed so that the free edge hits the table slightly, thus the thread will loosen and the chuck can be unscrewed.
- If the chuck is held in place by the retaining screw, then:
- Unscrew the left-hand threaded screw in a clockwise direction.
- Then place the hexagon in the cams and with a quick movement of the hand or hammer turn the free edge counter-clockwise. The chuck can now be unscrewed.
- If both methods do not work:
- Remove the shaft on which the gearbox and the chuck are located from the open housing. Use a pipe wrench to remove the chuck.
- To remove and change the chuck with Morse taper you need to have the hammer with which the shank will be released from the housing seat.
How to change/insert/remove the bit, drill bit
Once the right bit has been selected, given the size of the screw head and the configuration of the cavities (straight or cross), it must be inserted centrally between the opened cams and secured in the chuck by a clockwise rotation of the sleeve. If a key-type chuck is selected, the key is inserted into the recess in the chuck and then turned clockwise until the bit is fastened. The end of the bit is inserted in the slot in the screw. Before you start the device, check the accuracy of the rotation direction setting, the direction should coincide with the twist of the screw.
Increase pressure on the start button to set the optimum rotation speed. When the screw is fully inserted, the force limit mechanism is activated and then the drill stops.
Let’s see what’s inside Cordless Screwdriver
How to correctly change the drill bit or bit on an electric screwdriver
Chuck. an electric screwdriver assembly, in which an interchangeable attachment is installed: a bit, drill bit or other. Installation is done manually, automatically (without accessories) or with an accessory in the form of a wrench. There are several kinds of chucks.
How to change the drill bit or bit on an electric screwdriver
The procedure for installing a replacement attachment comes down to the following:
Jaws are unclenched by turning the front coupling counterclockwise. bit is inserted, the socket is screwed back on.
The nozzle is inserted or pulled out with little force. Attachment is made by means of a magnetic hold-down effect.
Most often used in pneumatic screwdrivers. The head is swung out in the opposite direction to the working direction. After inserting the bit, the head is released and the bit is thus secured. In order to get it out, you need to release by pushing and holding the head.
If a wrench is used for installation, the process is as follows:
- the spindle or motor is interlocked or the head and nozzle are simply held in place by hand;
- The wrench installed in the keyway is used to turn the chuck until the collets open or the bit is released;
- the cartridge is closed by turning the key in the opposite direction.
Regardless of the type of chuck you should pay attention to the position of the nozzle after installation. You need to power up and start turning the chuck. If the nozzle is not installed correctly, there will be a run-out. the phenomenon of moving the end of the nozzle sideways as you rotate it. In this mode, the work will not be effective.
Design and principle of operation of an electric screwdriver
Screwdrivers are divided into two varieties according to the way they are powered:
Recently, tools with a combined power supply method have also appeared. They combine all the advantages of both varieties.
The external and internal construction of cordless and cordless models is basically the same. In general, a power tool consists of the following structural elements:
- power button;
- The switch of direction of rotation of the electric motor (reverse);
- speed regulator (number of revolutions)
- Button for locking the switch;
- Tightening torque regulator (torque switch).
The photo below shows the design of a cordless type electric screwdriver.
A number of models are additionally equipped with illumination, which is structurally realized in different ways. Not every product has a speed regulator and a trigger lock button. The mains-powered electric screwdrivers have a power cord, and the cordless ones have a charge accumulator instead.
The body of the power tool is most often made of plastic, much more rarely. of various metal alloys. For convenience, it usually consists of 2 halves. Inside the housing are the main parts:
The wiring diagram depends on the model.
The electric screwdriver can be equipped with different types of chucks. The most common is the three-jaw quick-action version of this component. The chuck also consists of individual parts, as shown in the photo below.
It should be borne in mind that if the purpose of an electric screwdriver is highly specialized, it may introduce some design changes.
The principle of operation is the same in both cordless and cordless screwdrivers. It consists in the fact that the electric energy drives an electric motor. Force and speed are transmitted from the motor to the screwdriver in the chuck via a gearbox and a shaft. It already drills a hole or screws in or out a fastener. The peculiarity of the process is that the electric motor of cordless models operates at an AC voltage of 220 V, and cordless. at a constant voltage, whose value can range from 3.5 V to 36 V.
Magnetizing and hardening attachments
A large number of nozzles are made in China from soft material. That’s why they quickly lose their shape. New bit only lasts a short time. To prolong the life of the nozzle, you need to harden it. You will need: machine oil, gas torch or gas stove, a small oil container from any tin can, a piece of steel wire.
A hardened bit will last longer than a normal one.
To make it easier to work, especially in hard-to-reach places, the nozzles are magnetized. There are several ways to do this.
You will need to purchase a special device for magnetizing and demagnetizing screwdrivers. Insert the bit. A square window magnetizes, but a stepped window does the opposite.
Magnetizing and demagnetizing device
Magnetizing and demagnetizing device
- Buy neodymium magnets at a radio store.
- Divide them into two parts and put them in one row so that the resulting groups repel each other. Put a plastic pen cap between them. Secure the repelling magnets with plasticine to hold them in place.
Magnetizing process of the bit with neodymium magnets
As a result, the nozzle will magnetize fasteners better than new.
The design and function of an electric screwdriver
an electric screwdriver is a type of drill. It differs from a regular drill tool in that it has a slower chuck rotation speed. That’s why it’s usually used for working with various fasteners. It helps to unscrew it quickly, as well as tighten it well in the right place. There is also the option of adjusting the tightening torque.
But this is not the end of the electric screwdriver’s usefulness. The tool is capable of threading and drilling holes in a variety of dense materials. Will easily do it in plastic and wood. to work with stone and practically any non-ferrous metal. Able to defeat even steel. Not just any.
Every handyman’s workshop can do without it. It is also indispensable for furniture assembly. But it is just as popular in construction and repair work. It has found a use in the home, too. The electric screwdriver has made many small jobs easier for do-it-yourselfers.
And the convenience of its use is due to the autonomy. Most of the proposed models are battery-powered. But there are also variants that are only connected to the mains. Let’s understand how an electric screwdriver works, studying its design.
The tool consists of the main elements:
- Electric motor;
- speed switch;
- Torque control clutch;
- Reversing switch;
- battery and power cord.
The principle of operation of an electric screwdriver is simple. The screwdriver is pre-fixed in the chuck. An electric motor is responsible for its rotation, triggering the movement of the shaft. And the latter starts its stroke through the gearbox, which can regulate the number of revolutions per minute. And for this purpose, there is a special switch on the body of the tool.
Let’s consider how to properly use an electric screwdriver. After all, many users often leave out the special clutch, which is capable of limiting the force. Its presence is determined by a rotating ring with numbers in the chuck area. To set the desired setting, the socket is moved to the desired location by clicks.
The highest speed is used to work with large bolts and large self-tapping screws. Also for drilling holes, if such a function is provided by the manufacturer. Small fasteners can easily be damaged if too much torque is used. Therefore, the competent use of a ratchet is justified in order not to cut off the slits in self-drilling screws, as well as to reduce the wear of the bits.
And the sleeve is also capable of controlling the depth of the screwdriver. If you use too high a speed when working with soft material, you could sink the flat of the fastener too deeply. Or even go all the way through with a self-tapping screw. Therefore, it is necessary to make several test runs, selecting a suitable parameter on the rotating ring. Only then proceed to screw in the fasteners en masse.
How to Repair Electric Screwdriver
Tips for working with the drill. with an electric screwdriver
Make sure that all parts of the tool are in good condition before you start your work;
The battery is still discharged after long periods of non-use, in which case you should recharge it;
It is necessary to make sure that in the places of drilling there is no electric cable and no water and gas pipes are laid;
Avoid frequent braking of the electric motor when working with the tool as this can damage the battery;
Carefully check the polarity when connecting to the charger;