What it’s for?
The drill chuck is an important part that is responsible for securely securing the tooling. Its design is arranged to hold the drill tightly without releasing it even with high torque. The chuck can be used to turn a screwdriver or any other fixture.
The keyed element assumes that an additional component is used for replacement. The key is made in a T-shape and sits beside the chuck. When turned, it moves a gear, which causes the collar to rotate around the lock responsible for opening or closing.
Sometimes in the chuck design, the user turns the sleeve at the end of the drill bit to open and close the lock cams. Such a fastener holds the working tool better, it is easy to tighten it by hand, applying less force.
Some chucks have up to six cams in their design, and the more there are, the tighter the drill bit sits in its place. Of these, 4 are necessary to hold a square bit. If the tool is used for household tasks, then the cams are 3, and they are self-centering.
Any lathe for professional use is equipped with a large number of chucks, which can be conditionally divided by the type of clamping to:
According to the established requirements, each part has its own characteristics and performance, which, if necessary, can be refined and modernized. This solution improves the strength of the part and makes the fixation of the drill more secure.
An additional classification of chucks implies a division into:
Each variant is worth a closer look.
The chuck holds the drill bit in place over the designed retaining claws in the upper part of the chuck. Additional security is provided by the spring that holds the jaws in position. This design has resulted in the ability to use the chuck to hold thin drills.
Are characterized by an increased resistance to high loads, so they are responsible for the quick replacement of the cutting mechanism during the processing of the workpiece. With quick-release parts, it is possible to increase the productivity of the drilling and fitting equipment and to speed up the process of forming holes.
The design of the chuck for magnetic machine tools includes a shank of conical type and replaceable sleeve, where the drill bits are installed.
Items used for forming threads in holes. The chuck contains:
Also includes springs as part of the design. The main purpose of the element is to lock taps.
The design includes a shank that clings firmly to the cylindrical part. A sleeve is placed between the two components, where the drill bit for wood or other materials is fixed.
Self-clamping and three-jaw chucks also deserve special attention. The former are robust products with a tapered design:
- a sleeve in which a cone-shaped hole is provided;
- ring of the clamping type, equipped with corrugations;
- Robust chuck body able to withstand heavy loads;
- balls for clamping the element.
The chuck working principle is simple. The product fixes the clamp in the required position during the rotation of the spindle, which is convenient when working with large volumes. To put the equipment into operation, the drill bit is inserted into a sleeve, which is then assembled into the chuck body hole.
The result is a slight lifting of the clamping ring and movement of the balls into the holes provided for them on the outside of the sleeve. As soon as the ring is lowered, the balls lock into the holes, which provides maximum clamping of the fixture.
If it is necessary to replace the drill bit, work can be carried out without interrupting the process. The operator need only lift the ring, push the balls apart and release the sleeve for replacement. Reverse installation is performed by inserting a new bush and putting the mechanism back into operation.
In three-jaw chucks the main elements are mounted inside the chuck at a certain angle to prevent them from self-locking. The principle is simple: when the wrench starts to rotate, the cage and nut change position, thereby allowing the return of the jaws in several directions at once: radial and axial. This frees up space where the shank fits.
The next step is to turn the wrench in the opposite direction when the shank reaches the stop. Then the cams are pressed tightly against the cone. At this point the axial orientation of the tool takes place.
Three-jaw chucks are characterised by simplicity and ease of operation. Such products are actively used both in private workshops and in domestic drilling machines. The only disadvantage of chucks is the rapid wear of the cams, which makes it necessary to constantly renew parts or buy new elements.
Types of Chucks
Chuck is a hardened steel chuck with three identical jaws or paddles. The central sleeve is called a “collet” and is the center of the chuck. Collet chucks are used for fixing drills, taps, cutters. Can be used to clamp metal workpieces in cold condition. Three types of chucks are found in domestic drills, designed to fix the bit:
Quick-clamping. Are one of the popular types of clamping devices. They are divided into a single sleeve and a double sleeve.
In the first version, the tool is fixed manually by turning the adjusting sleeve. Often its surface is made grooved, which prevents it from slipping on the palm. Has a locking mechanism that is triggered by tool changes.
In the second, the lower coupling is held immobile by hand. Screw the upper sleeve clockwise with the other hand.
The disadvantages are that the plastic parts wear out quickly and the drill bit fixation is not strong enough.
If the chuck becomes unusable, the following tool failures can occur:
- Drill bit run-out;
- The drill is jammed;
- Chuck spinning in relation to the tool shaft;
- Mechanical damage;
- The desire to install a better mechanism can also be a reason to replace the chuck.
Cams are usually subject to more wear and tear during use. They cannot be repaired. The basic solution to the problem is to replace the chuck.
In order to replace the chuck on the drill, you need to know the type of connection that is used on the tool: threaded or tapered. Briefly about their features, as well as instructions on how to remove the chuck for each type of fastener.
How to disassemble and lubricate a drill chuck
The usual cam-key chuck on drills and screwdrivers often begins to jam after prolonged use. It becomes more difficult to tighten and release the drill bit, which is caused by the corrosion of the internal clamping mechanism and its subsequent deformation. To save from such or even to return life to the old chuck, you can lubricate it from the inside, how to do this will tell the master plumber.
Design and features of the toothed chuck
Clamping cam chucks, installed on modern drills, allow you to reliably fix the tool, the shank diameter of which is in the range of 1-25 mm. Devices of this type are practically devoid of disadvantages, the most significant of which is their rather high cost.The basic design elements of clamping cam chucks are:
- The body is cylindrical;
- An adjusting ring or sleeve which rotates on the outside of the housing;
- Cam or collet mechanism installed in the interior of the device body.
The collet mechanism, made of hardened steel, consists of three identical jaws which move together simultaneously when the adjustment ring or the sleeve is turned, thus reliably clamping the tool shank. In the early mechanical drill chucks, the collet was brought together by rotating the adjustment wheel; today an adjustment sleeve is used for this purpose.One side of the drill chucks is inserted in the shaft of the used machine, and the other side is used to insert the tool to be used for machining.
Clamping cam chucks are used primarily to hold the following tools in them:
Disassembly and lubrication of the chuck First remove the chuck from the power drill or drill press.
Its jaws are then moved apart and a Phillips screwdriver is inserted between them.
The chuck is held in place by the screw with the left hand thread. To remove it you need to rotate the tool clockwise. Sometimes there are screws with slots for a star, so you need an appropriate screwdriver.
After removing the screw, unscrew the chuck from the shaft of the drill. It is done counterclockwise. If the drill has been in use for a long time, it is not so easy to unscrew by hand. The shaft must be secured. The chuck often has a chamfer for a spanner that makes it easier to remove. If it is not available, it is better to unscrew with a pipe wrench.
Once the chuck is removed you turn it downward with the jaws and hit it in the center of the back with a small hammer. This is done with the weight. By hand, you need to squeeze the outer cage of the chuck and purposefully apply blows with the firing pin. It is not possible to fix it from below as the cage has no projecting face. If the cartridge is rusted and won’t come out, it is worth applying WD-40 penetrating grease first.
As a result, the clamping mechanism consisting of a base, 3 removable cams and a nut cut in half with slits for a special key should come out of the cage.
The two-piece nut is set aside for easy lubrication.
Apply only grease on the splines of the cams.
Then the nut halves are put in place and the mechanism is returned to the cage. To assemble it to the end, you need to hit the cage with a hammer until it sits. This is also best done from the weight.
The lubricated and assembled chuck is screwed clockwise onto the shaft of the drill, and then the fixing screw is screwed.
It can happen that during the disassembly the slits of the screw worn out, then it is better to replace it or cut a new notch on it with a hacksaw for metal.
If the lubrication of the chuck is carried out from the very beginning after the purchase of the drill, it can be easily dismantled and serves much longer, so it is better not to put this procedure off.VideoIn the story. How to disassemble and lubricate a drill chuck
How to remove and change the chuck on the drill
In electric drills for a reliable fixation of drills a special device called a chuck. Jaw chucks are the most commonly used in domestic drills. With heavy use, they can fail and need to be replaced or repaired. Problems often occur during these operations. In this article, the master plumber will tell you how to remove and change the chuck on the drill.
Chuck serves as a landing place, the holder of the main working element of the drill, electric screwdriver or peorator. It can be not only a drill, but also a concrete drill for tools with an impact function, a special attachment in the form of a cross or flat screwdriver. There are special attachments for the drill, designed for grinding, stripping various surfaces. They are mounted on a rounded or multi-faceted pin, which is also mounted in the chuck.
Drill chucks differ in design and method of installation on the tool and are divided into three types:
Tapered chuckIt was invented as early as 1864 by American engineer Stephen Morse, who also developed and proposed the use of a helical drill bit. The feature of this chuck is that the workpiece is clamped by the mating of two shaft surfaces and a separate part with a seating hole. The surfaces of the shafts and the drill hole have equal taper dimensions, with angles ranging from 1°25’43” to 1°30’26”.The angle is adjusted by turning the base of the mechanism, depending on the thickness of the element to be installed.Toothed-ring design
The more common variety of chucks on hand-held power tools for home use. The principle of this chuck is simple. at the end of the pin that comes out of the drill, there is a thread cut into it, and the chuck can be screwed on like a nut.
The drill bit is held in the chuck by three tapered flutes in the center of the chuck in the collet. When the nut on the collet is turned with a special wrench, the lugs come together and clamp the shank of the drill bit or other workpiece. mixer whisk, screwdriver bit, percussion chisel, tap.Quick-action chuck
Considered to be the most convenient option. This is the latest technological modification of the device. It is used in almost all modern models of well-known drill manufacturers.The working cutting or other element is also secured by special flaps, but a wrench is not required for their fastening. Locking blades are hand-operated by turning an adjusting sleeve that has a knurled pattern for ease of rotation.In order to prevent the twist of the sleeve during the tool’s work, there is an additional locking device at the base of the sleeve.How to remove the chuckSince all kinds of chucks for drills have their own design features, then their disassembly involves performing different actions. You will also need special tools.Disassembly is also possible using improvised or interchangeable tools, but the first time you disassemble it, do not experiment because you could damage the tool.In general, the procedure is not difficult and is quite possible by yourself at home.Tapered chuckThe Morse method of fastening a chuck is one of the most reliable, but it does not require complicated manipulation. Excellent axial loading in conventional drills as well as in machines with an impact function. That’s why it is so widespread in manufacturing plants.The chuck can be disassembled in several ways.It is necessary to hit the cartridge body with a hammer from below. The main thing is that the impact should be directed along the axis in the direction of the fit of the cutting element, the drill.
Disconnect the chuck by flattening the surfaces: insert a chisel for example into the gap between the chuck and the drill body and carefully remove the shaft by hammering. It is very important not to hit one place to avoid tilting the shaft: gradually extending the chuck shaft, the chisel should be inserted in different places.
Use a special puller such as those used to remove bearings.In most tapered hand drills the shaft bearing is built into the body of the tool. But there are also models where it is located on the outside of the chuck. In such a case, it must be removed with extreme care, otherwise the bearing could be damaged. If the shaft is too stuck and can not be removed, do not hit it with a hammer with all your might.
In these cases it is recommended to try to treat the surface with anti-corrosive agents. kerosene, aerosol preparation WD-40.Toothed-ring chuck
The toothed chuck is screwed onto the pin built into the drill. Accordingly, to dismantle the device, you just need to unscrew it in the opposite direction, but you should take into account some nuances. The peculiarity of the chuck’s threaded fastening is that the thread on the pin coming out of the drill is right-handed, and on the chuck itself. left-handed. Thus, when the tool is running, the chuck turns clockwise and automatically screws itself on and tightens on the shaft.Such a feature ensures its reliable fixation on the drill, eliminates backlash and spontaneous resetting of the element from vibration. This special chuck arrangement has to be taken into account when removing the chuck and twisting it against the shaft during the drill, so that it is blocked as much as possible while the drill is running and the thread is clamped at the maximum force.Therefore, you will need tools like these to unscrew it back:
Let’s look at the order of operations.Using a special wrench to clamp the cutting element (drill bit) turn the collet counterclockwise up to the stop and thus lower the locking blades.
If you now look in the chuck you will see a screw head for a Phillips- or star-shaped screwdriver in the middle of the chuck base. This screw has a left hand thread to prevent it from coming loose. So it should be unscrewed by turning the screwdriver to the right side, preliminarily clamping the assembly in a locksmith’s vice.
It is possible that the screw splines over the years of operation are clogged and in order to seize them with a bit of screwdriver, turning it at the same time it should be easily tapped with a pair of pliers or a hammer until you feel the hook.
After removing the screw with the left-hand thread, insert the hexagon wrench into the chuck and tighten it.
Clamp the free side of the hexagon in the jaws of the vice and use a suitable socket wrench to unscrew the nut on the drill with which the chuck is attached to the spindle of the tool.
After that you can release the L-shaped hexagon from the vice and by turning it to the left, unscrew the clamping unit completely from the spindle shaft.Quick-clamp chuckDepending on the manufacturer and model of the tool, quick-clamp chucks are attached to the drill in two ways. screwed on a pin with a thread or fixed on special slots.In the first case, its removal is carried out in the same way as the toothed-ring device:
- Lower the clamping blades;
- Unscrew the locking screw;
- Clamp an Allen key or a spanner in the chuck;
- Having secured the base of the shaft, unscrew it by lightly striking the hexagon with a hammer.
The second option with slots is used in modern devices and does not provide for the removal of any tools. Everything is done by hand in automatic mode easily and effortlessly. Simply clamp the upper ring of the chuck by hand and turn the lower ring counterclockwise until it clicks into place.
Orientation can also be guided by special marks on the body of the chuck. They indicate to which position you must turn the lower ring to remove the device.Chuck Replacement
In the question of how to replace a worn chuck on a drill, there is nothing complicated. To do this, it is enough to buy the appropriate clamping device, remove the old one from the drill and install the new one on it. In this case, it should be borne in mind that both on a conventional and mini-drills can be installed chucks of two types:
Chucks, for the installation on the drill, which uses a thread, are removed according to the above scheme. When replacing such a device, it is not enough to know that it is a threaded device, it is also important to take into account the markings that are necessarily applied to it.
Such chucks can be marked in the following way:
The 1.5-13 interval in the designation data indicates the minimum and maximum diameters of the cutting tool to be installed. The rules for replacing a chuck in a drill presuppose that the new chuck must be marked with the same marking as the old one.
Screw the new chuck by hand, turning it to the right, onto the threads of the drill stem until it reaches the jam nut.Fix a hexagon in it and clamp its free end in a vice. Then use the open-jaw wrench to tighten the jam nut to the right as far as it will go and remove the hex wrench from the chuck.
Now it remains in the hole in the center of the bottom to screw in a screw with a left-hand thread, using a screwdriver with an appropriate bit. The chuck must be first clamped in a vice and the cams retracted inside as far as possible.
To make sure the chuck is correctly replaced, check that it is firmly seated in the tool and that the drill is simply and firmly clamped. The test drillings show that the tool works as good as new. So it is completely cleaned up and can work for its intended purpose.VideoBscene. How to remove and change a chuck on a drill
With the question of how to replace the taper chuck on the drill, everything is somewhat easier. There may also be various markings on this type of device, namely:
To replace a chuck of this type on the drill, you simply need to pick up a clamping device with the appropriate marking and insert its seating part in the cone hole of the drilling equipment. It is easy enough to orientate in this marking: the letter “B” means that it is a cartridge of the cone type, and the number indicates the diameter of the lower part of the landing hole.VideoSite. How to remove the taper chuck from a power drill and drill press
In the story. How to remove a chuck from an electric screwdriver and drill
Possible problems with the chuck when the drill worksTo avoid problems with the drill, you need to know how to work properly on it. The drill is a universal tool, it can be used to drill wood and metal, plastic and tile, stone and glass, concrete and brick.The drill cannot be used for milling work. The drill chuck is not designed for side loading and will fail quickly. It makes a big difference:
It is necessary to know how to choose the correct speed, feed rate, mode of operation depending on the workpiece material. All of these factors have a direct influence on the safe functioning of the drill chuck.Possible problems with the chuck:
- Chuck can fly off. This problem is quite common, even on newer drills, when the cam chuck is tapered when a deep hole is drilled. You have to lift the drill bit to free it from the chips, at which point the chuck flies off the taper. The situation can be corrected by increasing the tightness of the tapered bore. To do this, the chuck is heated in oil or oven to a temperature of 110 degrees and placed on the cold mandrel of the drill;
- The drill always runs in dirty conditions. This is dust, dirt, shavings, sawdust and other small debris. If it gets inside the chuck, this debris can cause the threads to jam, particularly at the cams. There is only one solution. Requires the chuck to be disassembled, cleaned and flushed out of the moving parts. Before assembly, all moving parts are lubricated with lithol. Particularly a lot of waste is poured into the chuck when drilling on ceiling surfaces. Here it is possible to consider protecting the chuck with half a small rubber ball;
- Chuck run-out can have various causes. For example, the Morse seating cone is worn. You can check it with paint. Apply an even coat of cone and fit the chuck. Then remove and examine the mark it left on the cone. Another reason could be irregular wear on the jaws. In this case, they must be replaced. But more often a broken chuck is replaced with a new chuck.
In capable hands a domestic drill can work wonders. It is used to drill holes in hard and soft materials. The chuck is an important unit of the drilling machine. It is he who ensures the reliability of the attachment of the drill bit and the accuracy of drilling. Therefore, it is very important for the home handyman to be able to provide minor repairs and replacement of this part of the device himself.On a continuation of the topic, see also our review How to disassemble and lubricate the drill chuck
Disassembling the chuck
Depending on the way the chuck mechanism is fixed, the methods of disassembly will differ.
To disassemble such a construction, proceed as follows.
- Carefully unscrew the locking screw.
- Unscrew the chuck counterclockwise, if the threads are tightened well, clamp the tool shaft in a vice. Use a torque wrench for this. Then remove the device and examine it for integrity and correct functioning.
- If the drill is jammed in the jaws, then apply not strong, but precise blows with a hammer on the cams from above.
Reverse the procedure for installation. When screwing in the new locking device the shaft must be secured against turning with the free hand. Lastly screw in the locking device. A little help for the do-it-yourselfer
Removing the chuck from the tapered part of the shaft is quite easy. The drill set must have a special device for this purpose, but many experienced craftsmen use the following method: turn the tool upside down, fix it and knock out the device from the shaft by uniform blows with a hammer on the back side.
After dismantling, it is necessary to grind the tapered surfaces with an emery cloth, if there are surface scuffs, remove them with a file. The new sleeve is positioned even more easily by hammering it onto the joint with a mallet.
Users need to remember that the removal of a drill bit or other attachment when they are jammed in the chuck requires certain skills and ability to handle locksmith tools, but in any case it is necessary to dismantle the device. If the chuck on the drill is out of order, it must be replaced.
Basic types of drill chucks
By design, drill chucks are divided into two main types:
- Tooth-jaw chuck, in which the tool shank is clamped by means of a special wrench;
- The rapid-clamping chuck for a drill (HCL), in which the clamping sleeve is actuated by its manual rotation.
Clamping cam chucks, installed on modern drills, allow to fix reliably the tool, which shank diameter is in the interval of 1-25 mm. Devices of this type are practically devoid of disadvantages, the most significant of which is their rather high cost.
The most popular type of clamping device installed on modern models of drills, is a quick-clamping chuck (QCL). It only takes a few seconds to clamp a tool in a chuck of the BZP category, and no special wrench is needed. Tool shank clamping is achieved by manually rotating an adjusting sleeve, the outside surface of which is corrugated for easier handling. To regulate the mechanical action created in the tool shank, this type of chuck is equipped with a special locking device.
To fix the drill bit, hold the lower sleeve with one hand and tighten the upper sleeve clockwise with the other hand
The most significant disadvantage of the drill collar is that it is not sufficiently reliable in holding the shank of large-diameter drill bits if the elements of its mechanism are subject to wear. This causes the tool to rotate during use.
Compared to the clamping devices of the block and gear category, the gear-type chucks ensure a secure hold on the tool in every situation. Users who have to work frequently with electric drills prefer this type of chuck. The only big disadvantage of these devices is that it is quite easy to lose the wrench that powers them. However, this problem can easily be avoided if you immediately after purchasing the drill, fix the key on the wire of the device with insulating tape or a normal rope.
The diameter of the bit shank to be inserted in the mini drill chuck depends on the caliber of the collet
Chuck for mini-drills, installed on compact drilling devices, is also very popular. The latter are actively used by masters of jewelry. The mini chucks are categorized as quick-action chucks for electric screwdrivers and light drills. Such a small chuck, made mainly of brass, is used to fix tools, the shank diameter of which is in the range of 0.1-4.5 mm.
Classification of drill chucks
There are the following types:
- Safety drill. for thread cutting in through holes and blind holes. It consists of driven coupling halves, coupling cams, adjusting nut, spring and main cam clutch. It is used as a holder for taps.
- Quick-change drill chuck. used with a tapered shank with a replaceable sleeve for drill bits.
- Double-jaw drill bit. clamps the drill bit using internal catches on top of the chuck that are secured by a spring. That is the reason for its peculiarity of use for thin drills and application at the time of small loads on the drill bit.
- Collet drill. consists of a shank that is connected to a cylindrical part. There is a split sleeve between the shank and the clamp inside the chuck.
Only drill chucks with wrench have the necessary requirements in accordance with GOST 8522-79. Quick-clamp is made without a taper, but unlike its counterpart with a key, has an internal thread, its range is necessarily indicated in the marking.
It can be threaded or tapered. Most modern models use a threaded connection. However, it can sometimes be tapered, mostly on drills with a maximum shank of 16 mm.
How To Replace / Fix Drill Press Chuck
Threads can be metric, but most modern drills have inch threads. Manufacturers always write right on the chuck what the thread is, as long as it’s a threaded chuck, of course.
Inch threads come in the following sizes:
Threaded chuck marked 1.5. 13 mm. 1/2
The most common are 3/8 and 1/2. These two fits can be used on chucks with a maximum clamped shank of 10 and 13 mm. The 1/2 fit is rare, but still found on chucks with a clamp of up to 16 mm. 1/4 is for chucks up to 6.5 mm, and 5/8 is again up to 16.
Metric threads are only M12. Applicable for chucks with clamping up to 10, 13 and 16 mm.
The tapered seat can be designated B12, B16 and B18. The numbers indicate the diameter in millimeters. They are used on chucks with clamping up to 10, 13 and 16 mm. And with the latter diameter most often.
Tapered fit Cone chuck marked 3-13mm B16
That’s all I wanted to say about dimensions of drill chucks. I hope I helped you to understand all this. That’s the end of the article. see you later!
Hello all! I think every man, and probably some women too, has clamped a drill bit into a drill chuck. And this is what they are, maybe not everyone knows.