How to add fuel to Bosch fuel injectors

Design of a vehicle power supply system

As they say, the most susceptible to failures of power system and electrical equipment. Since you are faced with KAMAZ HPF failures, let’s choose the most suitable KAMAZ HPF model for your vehicle. For this purpose it is necessary to study KAMAZ fuel injection pump specifications. The first thing to consider is fuel injection valve 33-02, 334, 332-30, 337-80.01 KAMAZ-740 engine

KAMAZ 740 models 33-02, 3310, 334, 332-30, 337-80.01. these are high pressure fuel pumps with V-shaped arrangement of sections and sectional distance equal to 36 mm.

KAMAZ 740 models 33-02, 33-10, 334, 337-80 fuel pumps.01 include all-mode mechanical regulator and a corrector.

KAMAZ 332-30, unlike previous models, has a mechanical dual-mode regulator with correctors (forward and reverse). KAMAZ engines, which are equipped with the following models of fuel injection engines, meet the EURO-0 emission standards. If there are any problems with the engine or the engine runs irregularly this is a sign of failure HPF KAMAZ.

Technical data of KAMAZ 740 HPF

Technical characteristics of HPFD 337-20 engine

how bosch diesel injector works

KAMAZ 740 337-20 THVD is a high pressure fuel pump, which has a V-shaped arrangement of sections with 36 mm between sections.

KAMAZ 337-20 HPF gives fuel injection pressure up to 1200 bar. The 337-20 HPFD includes all-mode mechanical regulator with inverted and direct correction, as well as a supercharger corrector. And these engines are EURO-2 compliant. Production of engines with 337-20 injector started back in September 2002.

Technical characteristics of HPFD 337-20 engine

Model HPF Number of sections Plunger diameter/maximum stroke (mm) Nozzle model Motor model N nom. (л.с.) at n (min.1) Where is the 337-20 THFD used?
337-20 8 11/13 273-21 740.30-260Е2 260/2200 EURO-2 KAMAZ-65115, 65116, 65117, 6540
337-20.03 8 11/13 273-20 740.51-320Е2 320/2200 EURO-2 KAMAZ-6520, 6522
337-20.04 8 11/13 273-20 740.50-360Е2 360/2200 EURO-2 KAMAZ-6360-06, 6460-06, 5360-06, 5460-06

Specifications of HPFD 337-40, 337-70 engine

337-40 KAMAZ 740 HPF is a high-pressure fuel pump, which is equipped with V-shaped sections and has the distance between the sections of 36 mm. THFD 337-40 is equipped with regulator with two modes, as well as direct and reverse. Produced since 1995.

HPF model Number of sections Plunger diameter/maximum stroke (mm) Nozzle model Engine model N nom. (л.с.) at n (min.1) Where to use the 337-40
337-40 8 11/13 273-30 273-31 740.11-240Е1 7405.10 240/2200 240/2200 EURO-1 KAMAZ-55111-02, 65115, 53212-02, 54112-02, 54115, 53215, 53205-02, 53213, 53202, 53229-02, 54105-02, 53228-02, 4326, 4350.
337-40.01 8 11/13 273-31 740.22-240 240/2000 Rule 96 Combine Don-1500
337-40.02 8 11/13 273-31 740.02-180 180/2200 Rule 96 Tractors T-150K, KhTZ-170, IFA
337-70 8 11/13 273-31 740.11-240 240/2200 Buses: NefAZ-5297, PAZ-5272, LiAZ-5256

Technical data of fuel injection pump 337-42 engine

fuel, bosch, injectors

THVD 337-42 is a high pressure fuel pump, equipped with V-sections and has distance between sections of 36 mm. The 337-42 is equipped with a mechanical all-mode regulator as well as a forward and backward adjuster. Produced since 2002.

HPF model Number of sections diameter/max. ram stroke (mm) Nozzle model Motor model N nom. (л.с.) at n (min.1) Where do you use the 337-42 injector?
337-42 8 11/13 273-20 740.13-260 260/2200 EURO-1 KAMAZ-43118, 44108, 65111, 6540
337-42.01 8 11/13 273-20 740.22-240 240/2000 Rule 96 “Don-1500” harvester

KAMAZ HPF is a mechanism intended for supplying fuel liquid to the engine cylindrical mechanisms.

Principle of amplifier operation

Pneumohydro amplifier works in the clutch system so that the mechanism neutralizes the pressure exerted by the driver when he presses the pedal. When the gas pedal is depressed, the fuel moves the pistons mounted on the booster. When depressed, the piston lowers, opening the intake valve. A hole allows air flow that reaches the level of the pneumatic piston, and the pusher withdraws the fork acting on the clutch.

Character of pressing determines the state of the clutch system. If the pedal fails, there is an air cushion in the gas pedal. If the clutch system is not repaired in time, the transmission can be damaged later.

In order to detect problems as quickly as possible, you should diagnose the clutch as often as possible. Timely check of one unit can save “life” of the whole gearshift mechanism.

  • Initially it is necessary to determine to what extent it is necessary to pump the SGU. The main indicator is the absence or presence of air leakage. If it is leaking badly, it means the air brake is not working properly.
  • Check by pressing the pedal with the motor off. If you hear a characteristic whistling sound, it could be a leak. Sometimes it is hard to determine the presence of noises by ear, then you can use a soapy solution. It is applied to the place of the alleged leak, if bubbles appeared, it means that the clutch system was defective.
  • Before you start pumping, fasten the clutch servo system with bolts. Check the reservoir, where the hydraulic fluid is filled, it must be the right amount.
  • Check the clutch travel adjustment springs and replace them if they are worn out.

If the steering system is defective, it needs to be pumped. This service is available in absolutely all Kamaz service centers, however, it is quite possible to do it yourself. Pumping is possible if the hydraulic booster is in working condition.

  • Adjust the free stroke of the pedal. The ideal amplitude should be 1.5 cm. It is checked simply: a ruler is placed under the pedal, the pedal is depressed and you can see how much of the pedal’s “travel” is. Leave the pedal in its highest position, loosen the eccentric pin nut for a free stroke, turn the pin, then the play decreases, fix the play about 0,6-1,5 cm and then tighten the nuts. The pedal itself is set at twenty centimeters, not less than eighteen centimeters. To correct a position of a pedal the adjusting movable stop in the top part of an accelerator pedal will help.
  • Adjust the freedom of movement of the clutch. The pumping process continues with adjustments around the release clutch. It is needed when disengaging the clutch, has a free travel of about 3-4 mm. At this value, the clutch has a stroke of 4-5mm. If the figures have a different value, they need to be adjusted. To do this, the deactivation fork is pushed aside to remove the spring mechanism. The lever stroke can be checked manually. Use the spherical nut that is part of the pneumatic pusher to adjust the shaft. After reaching the required amplitude, the spring is fixed.
  • Adjusting full tappet stroke. The normal value for this system is 2.5cm. A smaller setting will make it more difficult to depress the clutch properly. Initially full stroke problems lead to transmission problems. Check the work of the unit can be checked by pressing the pedal to the stop. If the stop is insufficient, you can check the liquid in the tank or re-adjust the free stroke. The last, third stage of adjustment, ends with pumping.
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After completing all the preparatory steps, you can try to pump the system yourself.

Child illnesses. Bosch fuel injection system for KAMAZ Euro-2

KAMAZ trucks are equipped with modern diesel engines, which use fuel supply systems of domestic and foreign production, including Common Rail equipment from Bosch. Read about the structure and operating principles of the fuel system of Kamaz trucks, as well as its features, operation and maintenance in this article.

A general look at KAMAZ’s Euro 2 and higher fuel system

The fuel system of the diesel power units of the KAMAZ trucks performs several basic functions:

Safe storage of a sufficient supply of fuel; Filtration of fuel from various mechanical impurities, as well as purification from water;

Supply and atomization of fuel in cylinders (combustion chambers) at set points of time.

Thus, the fuel system is one of the main systems of the engine, which in principle makes its operation possible, and ensures the achievement of certain characteristics. crankshaft rpm, power, uniformity of operation and other.

Fuel equipment (or fuel supply system) of KAMAZ Euro-2 and Euro-3 power units consists of components, some of which are installed directly on the engine, and some. on the frame and other parts of the vehicle.

A fuel tank, low pressure fuel lines, pre-filter (it is made together with a hand pump) and fine filter are located on the vehicle.

On the engine itself there is a high pressure fuel pump (HPF), combined with a fuel pump, high pressure lines, nozzles and plugs of electro-flare device (EFP), this system ensures the start of a cold engine at temperatures below freezing.25°C).

over, the fuel system works in close cooperation with components of other systems: all-mode engine speed regulator, air cleaning and feeding system, timing components, lubrication system and others.

Today, two types of fuel equipment are used on KAMAZ vehicles:

System with inline HPF manufactured by Bosch; System with V-shaped HPF manufactured by JSC YaZDA (Yaroslavl Diesel Equipment Plant).

The operating principles of both fuel systems are the same and boil down to the following. Fuel goes through the suction pipe on the bottom of the tank to the preliminary filter and the manual fuelpump under the effect of the reduced pressure, created by the fuelpump. The fuel is then fed to the fine filter and to the fuel injector.

At the outlet of the fuel injection pump the fuel has a high pressure, with which it is pumped through the high pressure lines to the nozzles. Fuel injectors spray fuel in the cylinders just before the pistons pass TDC. A solenoid valve is set at the entrance to fuel injection pump, through which fuel is taken away to operate an electro flare device.

Also from fuel injection pump and nozzles there are return lines, directing excess of fuel to the tank.

HPF is controlled by a mechanical (some Bosch pumps) or electronic (some Bosch and all YZDA pumps) unit. Operation of the fuel injection pump is controlled by the all-mode engine speed regulator, which, in its turn, is controlled by the electronic pedal module. Thus, KAMAZ engineers abandoned the traditional mechanical gas pedal, giving preference to more modern and reliable electronics.

The structure and operation principles of some KAMAZ fuel system components should be noted separately.

Pre-filter combined with a fuel priming pump. Both of these components are integrated into one unit installed at the fuel tank outlet.

The filter consists of a housing in which a replaceable filter element is installed and a manual pump, inlet and outlet ports, and other components are mounted on top. The pre-filter catches particles of mechanical impurities of 30 microns and larger, and cleans fuel of water.

The manual pump is needed to pump fuel after a long stop of the vehicle and to evacuate air after changing a filter element.

The fuel-sump pump. This pump is necessary for pumping fuel through filters and feeding it to HPF. The pump has a traditional piston design, it is made together with the HPF, both pumps have a single drive from the engine crankshaft.

Fine fuel filter. The filter is located between the fuel pump and the fuel injection pump, and it is located at the highest point of the fuel system, which provides the easiest removal of air (for this purpose a special valve is designed, which is also a safety valve). The fuel is cleaned with replaceable filter elements.

Fuel injectors. Designed to atomize fuel in the cylinders, due to which a combustible fuel-air mixture with a certain concentration of fuel and air is formed. Currently KAMAZ engines are equipped with classical injectors (mechanical, needle stroke is produced by fuel pressure) with six spray holes made by YZDA and AZPI (Altai Precision Products Plant). The system includes a total of eight injectors. one for each cylinder.

The frame

The Bosch pump body contains the parts necessary for functioning of the mechanism: pump sections, shaft with cams, pulse control. Material, aluminum alloy, from which the inlet and cutoff channels are cast, as well as the voids for mounting the pump sections, bearing shaft, regulator drive gears, fuel inlet and outlet connections. The flank end contains a regulator plug with a reduced head pump. The plug has a nozzle through which the HPF is lubricated under pressure.

A cap is placed on top of the hollow frame, to which the mechanisms controlling the regulator speed and the fuel partition plates are attached. In the front part of the skeleton there is a nozzle with a valve in the form of a ball. The product maintains the fuel pressure in the range of 0,06 to 0,08 MPa. The bottom of the frame contains a cavity that houses the camshaft.

Why is it necessary to pump the fuel system of a diesel engine and how to do it?

As mentioned above, the fuel in the diesel engine is pumped at high pressure. The HPF (high-pressure fuel pump) generates the indicated pressure. In the case of air inflow, the pressure in the pump does not reach the necessary values for efficient fuel injection into the cylinders of the diesel engine.

Naturally, in such a situation, the diesel engine starts badly, the work in the idle mode and under load may be unstable (diesel trots), revolutions begin to float, the power unit may stall right in motion, etc.д. Note that not only clogging appears in the form of these symptoms, but it may also be one of the reasons.

Next, you need to invite an assistant, who will twist the engine with the starter. The main thing is to determine whether there is fuel coming or not from the pipelines. If there is no flow, there may be air in the system and it needs purging.

  • First of all the fuel filter is pumped first. To do this you need to unscrew the screw on the filter body using a spanner.
  • Then you need to pump fuel with a manual pump. Pumping should be done until fuel begins to flow through the screw hole without air bubbles. Now the screw on the filter housing can be tightened.
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Note that not all diesel engines have a manual pump. Pumping the diesel fuel filter on such engines will be a bit more difficult, since the fuel priming pump also does not work in case the filter is clogged.

To do this, the screw on the filter housing is unscrewed, then the starter motor is turned by an assistant. Note that this procedure may take a long time, and there is a risk of completely discharging the battery. For this reason it is recommended to pump with starter in a garage or use booster (start-charging device) in order to minimize the discharge of battery.

How to pump the HPF

After the fuel filter has been pumped, the next thing to do is to remove the air from the high-pressure fuel pump.

  • First you need to unscrew the central bolt, which is located in the center between the connectors of high pressure lines;
  • Then the ignition is switched on and pumping is performed by the manual booster pump. pumping lasts until there is no fuel coming out of the hole under the previously unscrewed central bolt.
  • Now the bolt can be tightened a little to make it easier to control the presence or absence of air bubbles in the escaping fuel.
  • If during the pumping process the diesel fuel still does not appear in the bolt hole, then you can crank the engine with the starter and continue pumping until the fuel appears clean and without air.
  • After the air bubbles disappear, the bolt should be unscrewed again and start turning the engine from the starter. Pay attention to the way fuel is pushed out of the hole.
  • Normally fuel should come out with a pulsation, dosed. In this case, you can assume that the fuel injection pump is serviceable and that the problems with the engine operation are caused by clogging of the system. The bolt can be tightened.

In a situation where the fuel does not appear in the hole, there is a high probability of failure of the booster pump, which is integrated into the fuel injection pump. Both in the first and the second cases it is necessary to remove fuel injection pump and after that high-pressure pump is diagnosed and repaired at the service.

  • After pumping the fuel pump and screwing the bolt in, it will be necessary to loosen the fittings on the fuel lines and take each of them to the side. Further on the assistant twists the engine with the starter motor until the fuel begins to flow out through the connecting pipe. If the fuel does not flow out, unscrew the nozzle with a ring spanner. Then pumping is repeated.

After checking that fuel flows through the unscrewed nozzle, the nozzle is screwed on and the same actions are performed with other nozzles in turn. We can consider the result to be successful when the diesel fuel flows out of all the connectors at the same time when the starter motor is rotating the crankshaft.

Now it is possible to return the union nuts of fuel lines on connectors of fuel injection pump and then to tighten. The engine has to be cranked further with the starter, in parallel the cap nuts of the fuel lines are put on the nozzles.

Also note that the starter every 15 sec. It is recommended to allow approximately 60-120 seconds for continuous operation. Disregarding this recommendation may cause damage to the starter or significantly reduce its service life.

Faults and repair

Repair of KamAZ HPVD can be done independently if the necessary tools and equipment are available.

Main fuel injection valve malfunctions and their causes:

  • Water in fuel mechanism. This breakdown may indicate malfunction of the fuel filter element, diluted fuel, violation of fuel actuators tightness.
  • Reduced and uneven supply of working fluid. In this case it is recommended to check the plunger for damage, and also to inspect the valves of discharge type, rack clamps. It is necessary to check the capacity of injectors.
  • Leaks of diesel fuel. The cause of this failure may be a leakage of the fuel actuator. Damaged element must be replaced.
  • Drive unit ruptures. Inspect crankshaft and major powertrain components for damage and foreign bodies.
  • Lag of the operating-liquid injection system. Such malfunction may be caused by damage to the tappet adjustment bolt plane, the roller axle, and camshaft speed malfunctions.

How to remove and disassemble

  • Remove the terminal from the battery.
  • Dismantle radiator.
  • Remove the vacuum pump.
  • Remove the oil dipstick guide tube.
  • Remove the filter mechanism of the oil filter.
  • Turn the crankshaft as far as it will go in the direction of rotation.
  • Disconnect fuel actuators.
  • Remove vacuum hose.
  • Secure the crankshaft against turning.
  • Unscrew bolt in the middle of the clutch.
  • Remove the chain tensioner.
  • Pull out the pump by removing the fuel pedal actuator.

Disassembly of KamAZ fuel injection pump is done as follows:

  • Remove the metering valve from the pump housing end. To do this you need to unscrew the screws of the clamping plate, release the valve advance of the injection system.
  • Then the fasteners on the top cover must be removed.
  • Disassemble the control board, thus gaining access to the electronics.
  • Required crankshaft position should be set.
  • Then it is necessary to dismantle the bearing with special equipment.
  • Finally all parts should be washed and polished.

Adjusting the air regulator

The function of the air balancer fuel injection pump KAMAZ 740 is adjusting the fuel. Reducing the airflow pressure reduces the amount of fuel supplied, which prevents the engine from overheating and fuming. Also, the work of such equipment affects the flow of engine oil: if everything is in order, the oil flow is uniform.

Adjusting the pneumatic corrector allows you to change the amount of fuel that reaches the injectors. The whole process is very simple, has no complicated sequence of actions and is easily done with their own hands. The air adjuster is adjustable with two bolts:

The first is responsible for the spring tension and is coaxial with the spool. The corrector is triggered by increased pressure, which means it is necessary to increase the force of the spring tension, twisting the bolt.

The second screw is responsible for the direct fuel supply, unwinding it will increase the amount of fuel.

On the Internet you can find pictures and videos showing step by step how to adjust the corrector. Fuel corrector diagram:

How to add or subtract fuel

Adjustment of Bosch fuel injection pump on KAMAZ gives the opportunity to add fuel, i.e.е. set the necessary value of fuel supply.

Procedure for reducing fuel:

  • Using a wrench 13 to adjust the air flow to the mechanisms of the power unit. This allows the diesel to mix with the air.
  • Make adjustment of the corrector and run the engine for testing.
  • If necessary, you need to further tighten the air flow until there is no more smoke.
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In order to add fuel to KAMAZ HPF (Euro-2 or Euro-3), you need to do the following:

  • Screw in special screws, which are located in the upper and lateral part of the working fluid supply.
  • While unscrewing the bolts, you need to increase the gap for the passage of the combustible mixture. This will help to normalize the performance of the power unit and the lubrication system of the high-pressure fuel pump.
  • Increasing the diameter of the hole, you should start the engine and check the operation of all systems.

How to install it correctly

Installation (mounting) of the fuel pump should be done on special equipment.

In order to properly place and install a high-pressure fuel pump on the KAMAZ, do the following:

  • Install the vehicle on a special platform.
  • Assemble the slave coupling to the lead coupling and fasten everything with bolts.
  • Turn the coupling so that the bosses of the slave coupling half put in a horizontal position, and the mark on the end part was in the zone of the indicator.
  • Assemble the flange with drive coupling and plate packings. Flange must be on the left side of the body.
  • Mount the fuel pump on the engine with the coupling and secure everything with mounting bolts.
  • Adjust the flatness of the plate packs by moving the flange over the drive shaft before tightening the bolts.
  • Install pump vertically on cylinder block and make sure it is not canted.
  • Connect HPVD sections with nozzles.
  • Adjust the advance angle of the injection system.
  • Check to see if there is oil leakage in the HPF housing.
  • Connect oil inlet and outlet pipes.

Repair of KAMAZ HPF and diagnostics

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Basic rules for the installation of injection

There are a few rules for setting the injection torque that should be followed.

fuel, bosch, injectors
  • It is preferable to start manipulation at engine working temperature. However, if the symptoms are obvious, you can also start working on a cold.
  • Install the drive so that the mark was on top, then two screws lowered to 17 degrees.
  • If the injection is early, then move the pump drive clockwise or clockwise.
  • If the injection is late, vice versa.
  • You need to move the drive a little bit, and constantly tighten the bolts.

After all manipulations start the KAMAZ engine, such as art.337 1111005 20. It is important that a ringing sound is heard when it is activated during a sharp gasp. In this case, move the actuator back a little. The ringing will disappear and the torque will be set.

Setting the injection torque

To perform the procedure you need to prepare a metal rod with a diameter of 10 mm, a length of 30-40 cm and a 17 mm wrench.

Reference! Components of the diesel engine fuel equipment are highly accurate devices, and the installation of fuel injection valve V-type on the engine requires flawless determination of the angle of injection of diesel fuel injector into the working cylinder at the compression stroke. An error of one degree can provoke the failure of the power unit and entail its overhaul.

The procedure for installing KamAZ 5320 HPF with simultaneous setting of the injection torque angle is based on the following

  • Raise and fix the cab;
  • On the left side of the engine, at the top, in the rear, on the housing of the flywheel housing is a mechanical device, the rod of which is required to lift and turn 90 degrees, then lower into the slot on the housing;
  • from the bottom of the KamAZ with a 17 mm wrench to remove 2 bolts and remove the mudguard;
  • insert a metal rod through the cowl slot into the flywheel hole and rotate the engine crankshaft from left to right until the locking rod from above blocks further movement;
  • check the position of the fuel pump drive shaft located in the camber of the engine block (from above);
  • In the case where the drive clutch KAMAZ 55111 HPF turned installation scale up, then align the zero mark of the drive with the groove on the fuel pump flange and tighten the two mounting bolts;
  • Otherwise, the stopper is lifted and the engine crankshaft is turned one turn, and then the above steps are performed again.

After the drive coupling bolts on the HPF flange are tightened, the flywheel stopper is lifted, rotated 90 degrees, and lowered into the slot. A dirt shield is installed on the flywheel casing from below. After that the truck cab is lowered and clamps are lifted to the upper position.

At this stage all manipulations in order to put the HPF ends.


The Bosch pump housing contains the parts necessary for the operation of the mechanism: the pump departments, the shaft with cams, the pulse control. material, an aluminium alloy, from which the inlet and outlet channels are cast, as well as the voids for mounting the pump sections, the bearing shaft, the regulator drive gears, the fuel inlet and outlet nozzles. On the flange, the end face contains a plug of the regulator with a reduced head pump. The plug has a nozzle, through which the HPF is lubricated under pressure.

A cover is put on top of the hollow frame, on which the mechanisms controlling the regulator revolutions and the fuel partition plates are attached. In the front part of the frame there is a branch pipe with a valve in the shape of a ball. The product maintains the pressure of diesel fuel in the range of 0.06 to 0.08 MPa. The bottom of the frame contains a cavity, in which a shaft with cams is installed.

KAMAZ high pressure fuel pump:

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