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I will talk about universalism in the second part of the article.
About the choice of the first lathe I have already told in a previous article.
Buying a ready-made machine will solve the most urgent problems of sharpening cutting tools, such as drills or chisels.
Although for quality sharpening you will need to make small modifications to the machine. additional equipment. But at the beginning you can do without it.
About the additional accessories I will tell a little later, but now I will continue to talk about homemade sharpener. grinder.
The work of the self-made tool sharpening is not limited to.
When working with wood and metal, you often have to sand and grind the material, and for this you need a slightly different machine.
That’s why I put the concept of “universalism” in the title of the article %)
Versatility is justified in the “balcony workshop” or in the arsenal of a novice craftsman.
Over time, the concept of basic tasks will come and specialized tools will be found for them.
And now for more details: the base of the simplest universal machine may well be the motor from the drive of the old washing machine activator, 180 W, 1420 rpm.
You can still find such motors in markets and on the internet.
This particular motor can drive a universal grinding and sharpening and even (wood lathe) machine.
I have shown more than once the work of such a motor with a homemade grinding plate (faceplate): https://www.YouTube.com/watch?v=LOS6sfW33-g =
= On the channel there is a whole playlist devoted to the topic of the faceplate and disk grinding
But this part of the video uses a high-speed motor (100W, 2700rpm), but it’s not about it, but about the working techniques 🙂
This video shows how to make a wheel and how it works. = You can switch on the video at 4:34 to see the sander in action. =
= I already told you in a previous article: http://alffisher.blogspot.com/2015/08/31.html. How to make a plywood mandrel for mounting the wheel on the motor shaft.
Masters who have skills to work with metal can make an iron mandrel to install an abrasive wheel. Without using a lathe.
The technology is quite simple and involves the successive assembly of the mandrel from plates of thickness 4. 5 mm.
First the first plate is cut out and the holes for the shaft are drilled.
(Ф 14 mm) and under the tightening screws Ф 6. For greater accuracy of the fitting hole, it can first be drilled with a drill F 13 mm, and then drilled out. Ф 14.
Next, the first plate serves as a drill jig for drilling holes in the remaining plates.
After the plates are drilled, they are put on the shaft, tightened with bolts and welded on both sides (in the grooves).
Before welding, you need to spin the tightened block together with the motor shaft to make sure there is no runout (figure of eight), and if necessary. Loosen the bolts and align.
This is how the first part of the mandrel is made. sleeve. Then a disk, F 60 mm, is attached to the sleeve with the help of “electric rivets”. supporting flange.
To the flange is also riveted on the guide bushing, which consists of 2. 3 washers F 32 mm (according to the size of the disk seating)
On the supporting plane of the flange, a ring of Fiberboard or heavy cardboard is glued to the metal adhesive (Fig.3)
If necessary, the ring plane is ground to eliminate runout.
Who does not know. “electric rivet”. that is when a hole is drilled and countersinked in the sleeve, the sleeve is connected and the hole is welded.
You can assemble a mandrel for the lathe even without welding. In this case it is necessary to make 2 additional holes F 5 mm.
After assembling the elements into a single piece and tightening them with bolts, the elements are riveted through these holes with 2 rivets (made from a 5 mm bar F.)
/ Fig. 4 Hub with rivet holes.
Figure 4 shows only the bushing without the flange, but the rivets go through all the parts, linking them into one piece.
The hole in which the mandrel fixing bolt on the motor shaft is inserted is made in the middle between the disks.
If it is not possible to make a hole on a drilling machine, it is possible to make a small cut in two adjacent discs in advance, where the hole will be drilled, for greater accuracy of drilling.
This will not give when drilling. the drill to go sideways.
Abrasive wheel is fixed on the mandrel by the scheme, similar to the wooden mandrel. with a metal disk clamped with 2 bolts.
The metal mandrel shown in Figure 3 is more suitable for permanently attaching the abrasive wheel. under the scheme of “once set and no longer remove” %)
Of course, if necessary, you can remove the wheel together with the mandrel, in which case you do not have to re-level and balance the wheel.
But if you can order a mandrel from a turner, it is better to make it in a different way: in the form of a separate mandrel (shaft) flanges sleeves nut.
Using the adapter mandrel I mentioned in last week’s article
will allow the motor to be fitted with an emery wheel, cutting wheel, and sanding drum with sandpaper: https://www.YouTube.com/watch?v=j10ETXEwH88
I made minor changes to the drawing of the mandrel and added drawings of the flange, sleeves and clamping nut.
Threaded hole M10, (or M8 as in the last drawing) expands the capabilities of the arbor and is used for installation of accessories: grinding (petal wheels with a hole F10 mm), grinding plates of small diameter, various grinding devices, etc.п.
Through-hole F 6. allows the use of an additional M5 tie screw, screwed into the face of the motor shaft.
These modifications improve the functionality of the mandrel, but you can do without it.
From all of the above (and shown in the video) we can put together a picture of the “universal machine tool”. to suit my needs, which would be a good help for a beginner (or not only beginner) craftsman 🙂
A small (not quite lyrical) digression:
Recently, one of my viewers made a remark to me. as if the drawing is not quite correct, the brand of steel specified by me (St3), not suitable for the manufacture of mandrels, etc.п. 🙂
Sure, I could make a drawing in Autocad or Compass, indicate the class of surface finish, tolerances, “correct” steel grade and heat treatment requirements,
but it is unlikely that someone will normalize and grind the “product”, as well as look for 30KhGSA, St45 or 40Kh, and the part will most likely be made of “pioneer armored train” steel 🙂 and the surface will be “from under the cutter. It’s not an airplane to be built 🙂
A good turner can make a decent product by my primitive sketches 🙂
The motor from the washing machine is good at a certain stage, but someone has a more powerful (Z-phase) motor in the garage, but there is no industrial network of 380 V.
You can also build a machine on the basis of a three-phase motor connected through capacitors, but you should consider that when you connect a three-phase motor in a single-phase network. some power is lost.
Therefore, to use motors with less than 400 W. Not rational, as a result of the connection to 220 V. will remain 200. 250 W.
Optimal in this case would be a motor, power 600. 750 W, 2850 rpm.
This motor will efficiently use an abrasive sharpening stone F 200 mm and a metal cutting disc F 230. 250 mm.
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18 Комментарии и мнения владельцев:
How to make a workbench on the balcony? Better folding, there is not much space spsb,
Article 5 I will take note of it, but zpochatku zrobolyu wood))). Thank you.
All articles are very interesting and informative. Thank you!
And washers f32, 40 and 60 in Fig. 2 to do on a lathe?
You can (if you have one). But it is easier to cut with a crown on a drill or angle grinder (beforehand) and by drilling out the. place it on the motor shaft and grind with an angle grinder. I kind of explained it in detail in the article 🙂
Hello) put the question: why is the bushing for the stone is made so that the stone itself is installed at some distance from the engine (you have it 25mm) is not easier for a machine that will not change the nozzle (stones) to make a hole for a locking bolt in the place where you installed the stone. for example. the length of this seat is 15mm (for 16mm stone) and it has a hole for a bolt M6.
There may be many options, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Bolt placed outside the size of the mounting base will allow you to remove the mandrel with the wheel.In addition, this mandrel is made long, to be able to install the wheel at a greater distance from the motor (for the convenience of working with different types of circles. For example, a shoe circle requires a distance to the motor equal to 2/3 of the sole width
100 mm) Therefore the fixing point is moved beyond the dimensions of the fit.For a small mandrel it is possible to make the screw also “in the size” of the fit.When positioning the clamping screw, there are several things to consider: 1-the screw must be approximately in the middle of the motor shaft fit. Figuratively speaking with a planting length of 34 mm, the screw is at a distance of 17 mm from the edge of the mandrel.
2-thickness of the “body” of the wall of the mandrel in which the set screw is screwed should be 1.5 or more of the thread diameter of the set screw, without taking into account the size of the head. Suppose the screw is in the size of a wheel with a fit of F 32 mm, and the shaft has a diameter of 14 mm.32. 14 / 2 = 9 mm, which is only 1.5 x the thread diameter for an M6 thread.
Places for hexagonal bolt. practically no.Consequently, in order to secure the mandrel, it will be necessary to use a hexagon socket or star screw (“toxx”), which is much more difficult to find than a conventional hexagon socket bolt.
I proceeded from these considerations, when I designed the mandrel.
I’ve made myself sotryachok / sharpener from the motor from a washing machine (120W/1350rpm) put the stone 175/16/32. The linear velocity turns out to be about 12 m/s. seemed a bit small for sharpening, but so far make do with what is there. A kind of universal (in fact, the only one so far). The mandrel is universal for different nozzles (stones with different ins.I plan to make myself a drill sharpener. Have a motor AV-052-2MUZ (/ 220/380 90W 2800r/min) Two 9mm shafts, the length of the seat L = 20mm. I do not plan to remove the wheel from the mandrel (only to change the wheel). I want to install two stones of different grits. I am interested in compactness. That’s why I asked the question about the fixing bolt. I understand that the reach of the shaft is not enough (20mm only). Т.е. if to make a supporting flange in a hub (thickness about 5mm), then the output will be only 15mm. 1 question: based on my desire to be compact, it is necessary to do on the hub hole for the bolt fixing the M6 at a distance of 3-5mm from the supporting flange: 5mm supporting flange 15mm bushing itself further transition to the bolt M14 (the length of the transition is about 20-25mm). so that it would be possible to install stones 16/20mm thick)? Question 2: According to your calculations, the thickness of the “body” is more than 1.5 in diameter, t.е. you can think about groove for the head of the fixing bolt or just make a bolt without a head but with a slot for a “minus” screwdriver?Question 3: What is the stone size and thickness? I was planning a 125 lap because of compactness, but linear velocity is 18 m/s. Isn’t it too small??if I install a 150 lap seems to be better 22 m/s.And what is the optimal thickness of the wheel: 16 or 20?SZY. I understand. I must say “will the engine be able to handle these rocks” whether it will have enough power? When connected to 220 more power is lost. (at the flea market “knowledgeable” assert that the Chinese in fact not much more powerful “there is a real watt 50. and there are two 150/16 stones.
Types of tools, mandrels for milling machines
In this case the mandrels are used, which are a kind of “adapters” for fixing the cutting nozzle. Obviously, the design of this element depends on the type of equipment, as well as the type of tool. Let’s consider in more detail, what are the mandrels.
How to bore and grind cams of a lathe chuck
Turning chuck jaws, made of alloyed high-strength steels, are an integral part of the clamping device of any machine tool or machining center.
Designed to center and fix the workpiece in the work area. Their working surfaces are subjected to heat treatment and grinding. Hence their high production cost.
Top tips and recommendations
Any experienced turner has a few secrets for the optimal process of turning cams. The following recommendations work most often:
- When the turner makes a turning out on the jaws he has to spread them out to 2/3 of their maximum outreach;
- the clamping washer must be set as close as possible to the ends of the cams;
- When boring the cams, the ring that is clamped in the notch should be as rigid as possible.
To grind effectively and achieve the desired result, it is essential to know these subtleties.
If the cams of lathes are not bored, it will lead to chuck runout and then to the breakdown of the main units. It is important to observe all the steps of this operation and remember that the chuck will have to be dismantled in any case.
How to make an emery sharpener for knives and drills from a hard drive
For those who do needlework and repair, for sharpening small knives, drills, flat screwdriver blades, awls, needles and processing the surfaces of small parts is essential to have at hand a small-sized disk sander. On sale there are expensive professional high power, but the table miniature have not met.
So made a homemade plate grinder and sharpening machine from an old HDD computer hard drive, which is shown in the photo. The result exceeded all expectations. Now you can quickly refill blunt tools without leaving your desk.
- Bar 50×70 mm, 50×50 mm;
- M10 bolts with wing nuts and washers. 2 pcs.;
- M6 bolts with wing nuts and washers. 4 pcs.;
- 20 mm plywood;
- steel angle of 25×25 mm;
- self-tapping screws;
- disk with Velcro under the sandpaper.
Start assembling by making a drill fixture in the form of a wooden clamp. You will need 2 bars 50×70 mm and 50×50 mm in length of 180 mm. They must be put together through a thin spacer with a thickness of 5-8 mm of plywood or fiberboard.
The bars are clamped together with a clamp, and then drilled in the center with a drill bit. The diameter of the rod must match the cross-section of the drill body behind the chuck, where the removable handle is installed.
The clamp halves are drilled across for M10 bolts.
Then we need to saw the sole of the machine from plywood.
It is drilled so that a clamp can be screwed onto it with long bolts. The heads of the latter will need to be pressed flush.
The drill can now be mounted on the machine.
Next, you need to clamp the disk with Velcro under the sandpaper in its chuck.
Guided by its location, prepare 2 pieces of angle. They are drilled one shelf at a time to screw them to the sole. The second shelf has a slot in them.
Obtained from the corners of the skid are screwed to the sole.
Then a table is made of plywood. It should be slightly narrower than the distance between the vertical flanges of the corners.
Then, through these holes, it must be bolted to the sled.
This will allow its position to be adjusted. After that, if desired, a plastic or rubber pad is glued to it.
The machine can now be used as intended. By sliding the table, you can change the tooling. This can be a disk with a Velcro disk under the sandpaper or a flap wheel. The latter is clamped to the adapter with a nut from an angle grinder.
Lathes are used for machining cylindrical parts. They include many varieties that differ in size and the presence of additional features. Industrial models such as the lathe 16K20 is very common and widely used in modern industry. For the device to function properly, you need to know all the features of its parts.
The bed of the lathe serves to fix almost all the mechanisms and units that are used on this equipment. It is often cast from cast iron, in order to obtain a solid and strong structure that could last a long time. This is due to the fact that it will be subjected to a lot of stress. Stability should also be remembered, because the massive large models use enormous energy during operation and the base must resist the loads well.
Bed and guides of the machine tool are fastened with bolts to the pedestals or pair of legs. If the device is short, then two stands are used. The longer it is, the more supports may be required. Most bollards have doors so they can be used as drawers. The rails should be treated very carefully and be protected from damage. It is not advisable to leave tools, workpieces and other items on them. If you still have to place metal objects on them, you should put a wooden pad before. For better care, the base needs to be wiped down and lubricated before each use. When work is complete, remove chips, dirt, and other debris.
Design features of the bed of metal-cutting machines may vary depending on the specific model, as they are designed for convenient and safe placement of all units of equipment. But the basics in many cases remain the same, so that by the example of popular models you can consider the basics.
The design of the cast iron bed
- Longitudinal rib;
- Longitudinal rib;
- A transverse rib serving to connect the longitudinal ribs;
- Prismatic guides of longitudinal ribs;
- Flat rails, which serve to position the tailstock and frontstock and to move the slide along them;
It is worth noting that the bed guides can have a variety of cross-sectional shapes. A mandatory rule is to keep the arrangement parallel, so that everything must be equidistant from the axis of the centers. This requires precision milling or planing. Grinding and scraping operations are then performed. All of this ensures precise machining of the workpieces, as well as the elimination of problems with slide movement and the occurrence of jolts.
Grinding head for lathes. Model VGR-150
Turning bodies on lathes have been developed over the last few decades. As a rule, grinding was carried out on other equipment. This point determined the following technological process:
- Performing rough turning to remove a large layer of metal;
- performing finishing turning to prepare the part for the finishing stage of the technological process;
- Finishing on a cylindrical grinding machine.
Such a technological process determines the increase in costs due to the installation of a special machine to perform the finishing. When creating a large batch of products, the purchase of a grinding machine pays off, but in small-scale production, its purchase will lead to an increase in the cost of one product. The way out is the use of special grinding heads, which can also be used to obtain a surface with a high roughness class.
Grinding heads are a special design, which is used to significantly expand the capabilities of the lathe group. This mechanism is notionally a piece of equipment. The design features include:
- Availability of own electric motor, the power of which can be from 1 kW and more. This point determines that the head can become a tooling for different models of lathes. As a rule, the lathe equipment has a closed speed box and does not have a separate drive to connect the equipment in question;
- Installed electric motor is connected to the lathe chain, which determines the universality of the entire construction. there is also a three-phase plug to be plugged into a separate power circuit;
- the head has its own base, which can be rigidly mounted instead of the standard toolholder in case of modernization. this point determines that the equipment allows to obtain high quality surfaces with high mechanization of the process. Steel is used in the construction of the bed to prevent vibration during operation by increasing the rigidity of the structure;
- The transfer of rotation is by means of belt drive for speed reduction.
When looking at it, you should pay attention to the type of bed. This is because only a certain type of bed can fit instead of a toolholder for a certain model of lathe
Grinding head for grinding the inner diameter of the workpiece
Grinding head for grinding the outside diameter of a workpiece