Cutting metal with their own hands. Saws – a device than to saw metal

Making roller shears by ourselves from bearings

How to make a roller knife for sheet metal with your own hands. What can be used to make a homemade roller blade?

Cutting metal at home. a rather tedious process. And its quality often leaves much to be desired, forcing to carry out additional processing of the received edges. Correct the situation largely allows the use of special devices, including those made by their own hands. We will talk to you today about one of these devices, namely the roller blade.

And what, in fact, are we talking about??

Only traditional designs of precision cutting machines for sheet metal, coil and long materials are known to be dozens, not counting laser and other similar equipment, which can be used in the automotive industry. from the high-tech age. We will further consider machines with an oscillating work module and a circular rotating cutting tool, the abrasive or saw blade. Such cut-off machines are called pendulum cutters. They are the most versatile of all (t.ч. are suitable for broaching. making a longitudinal cut of limited length) and can be done independently in a barn or garage workshop. When they say “pendulum cut-off machine”, they usually mean a pendulum cut grinder.).

Note: pendulum cut-off machines are suitable for metal, wood, fiberboard, sheet plastic and any other material that can be cut. All modifications are changes of the cutting tool (abrasive or grinding tool) and the saw blade. saw blade).

Motor or angle grinder?

It means drive of the machine. separate or integrated in monoblock with a working (cutting) tool and power transmission to it. A separate motor has the advantage that the oscillating part of the unit. the rocker (pendulum, rocker arm) can be properly balanced, which greatly simplifies the work on the machine and increases its productivity; the latter depends comparatively little on the resistance of the material to cutting. Besides, the whole machine can be made suitable for intensive round-the-clock work, which can be important for those who make profit with the hands growing from the right place and the head working properly. angle grinder (angle grinder), as you know, can work continuously for 20-60 minutes. (depends on the model), and then there is a forced downtime for the tool to cool down. But the angle grinder has many advantages for occasional use:

  • Hardy enough and accurate cut-off machine from the angle grinder can be made without turning parts and with minimal or no welding work, see. then.
  • The basic tool remains suitable for off-machine handheld operation.
  • Power supply. single-phase 220 V from a household socket.
  • No need for starters and protective grounding, t.к. only double-insulated angle grinders are widely available on the market.
  • External characteristics of the collector motor angle grinder softer than squirrel cage induction motor, which saves the power of the motor and electricity consumption. In most cases (except when cutting thick, tough and/or ductile materials) you can consider an 800 W electric angle grinder to be equivalent to an asynchronous motor with 1.2 kW on the shaft (see “Cutting Grinders”). further), and the angle grinder at 1300 watts. a separate motor at 2.2 kW.
  • Angle grinders are lighter, more compact, and more transportable than those with a separate drive.
  • Inexpensive angle grinder is not equipped with speed regulators, but it fits the usual speed regulator for a drill (no more than 20; usually 5. 6). “Frequency controller” for asynchronous motor up to 2.5 kW costs from 50.

In general, if you assemble metal structures on site and have a vehicle, or trade in rolled metal products (or wood longs) with cutting to size from the customer, then you need to make a machine with a separate drive. If you do not need to cut mitre cuts and precisely angled cuts every day, the best is the cutting bed for angle grinder.

About RPM control

Why do you need to regulate disk rpm?? In order not to exceed the maximum linear speed of the edge and/or RPM indicated on it. Otherwise the disk, maybe, will not burst, but its productivity will strongly decrease, wear will increase and cutting quality will worsen. Rated rotational speeds of asynchronous motors 2800-2850 min-1 allow the use of conventional discs with a diameter of up to 350-400 mm and more, which gives a cutting depth of at least 150 mm. The spindle of angle grinder rotates much faster (from 6000 min-1) and it is dangerous to put a usual disk with diameter more than 160 mm on it. The cutting depth comes out to 50-60 mm and a high-speed disk is expensive and rubs off quickly. Installation of speed regulator solves the problem. Performance and cut quality are not affected, t.к. determined by the linear rotation speed of the cutting edge.

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About the name

angle grinder sounds “technical,” but is inherently inaccurate, t.к. The angle grinder is much more of a cutter than a grinder. “Angle drill” is even more unfortunate, t.к. to drill is to drill, to bore, for which the angle grinder is not suitable at all. Angle grinder is the English acronym for “angle grinder. “angle grinder machine“. But the English to grind is much broader in meaning than all types of blasting. E.g., meat grinder is a meat grinder. There is no exact Russian analogue for “to grind”; the meaning is something like “to shred by the scraps by the scraps”. In general, the colloquial “angle grinder” is terminologically incorrect, but short enough, and it’s clear what it is.

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Basic types of metal cutting

Metal cutting is the process of separating the material into parts. Cutting of metal sheets or cutting of section rolled products is performed this way. The impact of cutting tools on the metal to create a workpiece for further processing. Surface configurations are formed according to developed drawings. Metal cutting requires equipment. These can be hand tools, mechanical machines or devices that provide heating of the material.

Gas-oxygen cutting

Cutting methods

There are several ways to separate material. The technology depends on the equipment used in the process. There are the following types of metal cutting:

Manual metal cutting

Manual metal cutting is not highly efficient and is not used on an industrial scale. The following tools are used when cutting by hand:

Waterjet cutting of metal

Waterjet cutting is based on applying a jet of water mixed with abrasive particles to the workpiece. the feed pressure is 5000 atm. One advantage of this type of metal cutting is that it makes it possible to produce a variety of different lines. Alloys of a certain grade with small sheet thicknesses are processed.

Thermal cutting of metal

Cutting metals by hot cutting is based on the absence of contact between the tool and the workpiece. The hot jet melts and separates the material at the desired spot.

Oxygen gas cutting

Gas-oxygen cutting consists of 2 cutting steps:

  • A jet of flame is directed into the cutting point and exits the torch. Acetylene is used as a combustible material.
  • After heating, oxygen is injected, which cuts through the softened metal surface. Oxide is removed in parallel.

During operation, the distance from the lower point of the torch to the surface of the product must remain constant. The quality of the cut depends on it.

Laser cutting torches are used for this process. Process is based on feeding a laser beam into a surface point. Heat energy is focused. Heats the area, melts the material, and then vaporizes it. As the beam moves, it cuts through the surface.

Laser cutting metal

Plasma

Plasma cutting equipment uses a plasma gun. Oxygen escapes at high pressure through a nozzle. It reaches a temperature of up to 20,000°C. degrees. beam width 3 mm. Heats up a section of the surface, partially burns it out, and the melt is blown out.

Mechanical cutting of metal

Mechanical cutting of metal is performed by exposing a special steel with a high degree of hardening. Due to the high hardness of the tool, it cuts the workpiece.

When cutting, these types of equipment are used:

Cutting with a band saw

Band saw is a blade that is fixed in a special equipment. Tool material is the same as for a handheld product. There are teeth on one side. The machine engine rotates the belt pulleys during operation, so that the belt runs in a continuous motion.

During the process, there is little waste because the width of the blade is 1.5 mm. Both sheet metal and circular blanks can be cut.

Impact cutting of metal on a guillotine

Guillotine sheet metal cutting is used for the preparation of sheet steel blanks for stamping operations. The sheet metal to be cut is placed on a horizontal surface, fed in until it reaches the stop and is cut across its full width with the guillotine shears in one stroke.

See also  How to cut sheet metal with a circular saw

The important thing is that the blades do not touch the sheet along its entire length. Upper tool is positioned at an angle. It makes contact with the metal at a single point that moves over the entire length of the cut. The process is similar to conventional scissors.

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Cutting on a disk machine

A disc is used as a working tool. There are teeth on its outer surface. There is a protective hood on the top. An electric motor is used as a drive, which rotates a disc. A high quality cut is achieved.

The same principle is applied to pipe cutters used to cut pipes. In the process of work there is a constant rotation of the workpiece by 360 degrees. It is possible to make cuts at different angles.

Cutting tools

When working at home, it is important to know what metal is cut with. Hand scissors or a hacksaw are used most often. The industry requires machines with a saw or guillotine mounted on them. This is due to the high volume of production and the need to maintain dimensional accuracy.

Cutting metal with scissors

Hand scissors

It is possible to cut material up to 3 mm thick with a hand scissor. They have several types of metal cutters:

  • Straight cutters.
  • For curved.
  • Finger blades. Can be of straight or mirror type. They can be used to cut out complex shapes.
  • With one movable blade and the other fixed, fixed in the workbench.

Saws

Saws are often used for cutting metal. They come in several varieties:

  • Manual. They are inserted into a special C-shaped frame.
  • Disc. An electric motor or hand-held tool is used as a drive.
  • Ribbon. They are only used for industrial purposes.
  • End pieces. Have the ability to make cuts at different angles.
  • Pendular. Distinctive feature is the presence of a carbide tipped tip on the end part.
  • Circular. Their flank is made of abrasive or carbide tips.

Angle grinder

An angle grinder is used as a cutting machine. Its other name is an angle grinder. It has the following advantages:

cutting, metal, their, hands, saws, device

Metal hacksaw

Many craftsmen have a hacksaw for metal. It is universal and the cheapest tool. It should not be used when you need to cut shaped edges, but for making flat plates, a hacksaw will do. The biggest disadvantage of such a tool is the time to perform the work. It needs a lot of it.

If you need to cut a circle in a sheet of metal, it is worth using an electric jigsaw. It works fast enough, so you get a neat hole in a matter of minutes. Among the disadvantages of the equipment. noise and the possibility of a burnt edge in the processing of profiled sheets.

Subtleties of work with the electric jigsaw:

  • it is necessary to use saws with fine teeth;
  • You need to choose a reciprocating mode;
  • It is necessary to control the inclination of the cutting part;
  • rapid failure of consumables.

Features of a homemade cutter

Laser beam parameters, the performance and accuracy of the operator directing a CO2 laser with his hands or CNC systems directly affect the efficiency and quality of laser cutting. Basic technologies have to be mastered and solved for parts with high cutting accuracy or higher thicknesses.

Focus control technology

When cutting, the energy density of the beams is high, typically 10 W/cm2. Since the energy density is directly proportional to the radius of the emitted spot, the spot diameter should be as small as possible to obtain a narrow beam. The diameter of the focal spot is also directly proportional to the focal depth of the lens. The smaller the focal depth, the smaller the focal spot diameter.

When cutting, molten material is spattered and the lens is easily damaged beyond repair. That is why the high-powered laser cutting is made at a focal distance of 127 ~ 190 mm. Actual focal spot diameter on a fiber laser is between 0.1 and 0.4 mm. For high quality cutting, the effective focal depth is also related to the diameter of the lens and the material being cut. For example, when cutting carbon steel with a 12cm lens, the focal depth is within the 2% focal length, which is about 5mm.

Considering cutting quality, cutting speed, and other factors, generally for metal material 6 mm Focus is on the surface; for carbon steel 6 mm Focus is above the surface; for stainless steel 6 mm Focus is below the surface, and the specific size must be determined experimentally.

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Determining the focus

There are three simple methods for determining the location of the focus in production:

  • Print Method. Make the cutting head move from top to bottom, use the laser beam on one plastic plate, comparing with the minimum diameter of the melted material.
  • Inclined plate method. Placing the plastic plate at a certain tilt to the vertical axis that makes it horizontal, with the smallest laser beam being where the Focus is.
  • Blue Spark Method (fiber lasers only). Remove the nozzle, blow out the air, put a stainless steel plate, move the cutting head from top to bottom until the blue spark reaches its limit. The larger the diameter of the incident beam, the smaller the diameter of the focal spot.

Controls the air flow

When the laser cuts through the steel, oxygen and a focused laser beam are directed through the nozzle towards the material to be machined to create a flow. The basic requirement for the airflow is that the airflow at the cutting point must be dense and the speed must be high so that sufficient oxidation will ensure sufficient exothermicity of the material at the machining point. At the same time, sufficient momentum is needed to blow the molten material. Therefore, in addition to laser beam power and control accuracy, nozzle design and airflow control are also decisive factors for a quality cut.

The nozzles used in laser cutting are a regular cone with a small hole at the top, which means that they can be made by yourself with an anvil and sheet steel, if necessary.

What materials and devices will be needed to make a laser for metal cutting?

It is possible to make the metal laser cutter yourself with the following tools and materials:

  • laser pointer;
  • the simplest flashlight with rechargeable batteries;
  • An old writing computer disk drive (CD/DVD-ROM) equipped with a laser matrix (can be out of working condition);
  • soldering iron;
  • screwdriver set.

It is worth preparing in advance a place for the creation of the device. The working area should be free of foreign objects, ensure a comfortable location and good lighting.

Once everything you need is prepared, you can proceed directly to the assembly of the metal laser cutter.

How to increase laser power to cut metal

To make a more powerful laser for metal cutting with your own hands, you can equip it with a driver assembled from several parts. The board provides the torch with the power it needs.

You will need the following parts and appliances:

  • a CD/DVD-RW burner (an old or defective one will do), with a writing speed greater than 16x;
  • 3.6 volt batteries. 3 pcs.;
  • 100 pF and 100 mF capacitors;
  • 2-5 ohm resistance;
  • A collimator (instead of a laser pointer);
  • a steel LED flashlight;
  • soldering iron and wire.

Do not connect a current source directly to the diode, or it will burn out. The diode draws its power from the current, not the voltage.

Laser collimator

Focusing the beams into a thin beam is done with a collimator. It is used instead of a laser pointer.

Sold at an electrical supply store. This piece has a socket where the laser diode is mounted.

To sum it up

It is not disputed that an angle grinder is very handy for cutting metal. However, you must know how to work with it and strictly follow all safety precautions and regulations. It should be understood that they were created precisely to save the life and health of the master working with such a dangerous tool as an angle grinder.

We hope that everything we’ve told today will be useful for those who have no experience with angle grinder. If anything remains unclear, it is worth to expound on it in the Комментарии и мнения владельцев below the article. HouseChief editors will be happy to answer any questions as quickly and completely as possible. Do you have experience with this kind of work or do you know of other ways to cut? Then please write about it in the discussions. Such information will be very useful for many people. And finally, according to a good tradition, we suggest you to watch a short, but quite fascinating video on today’s topic.

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