WHAT TO CUT METAL WITH: THE BASIC WAYS OF CUTTING METAL
Metal cutting is one of the most common methods of metalworking, the purpose of which is to obtain various parts from a sheet or rolled metal. Metal-cutting tools are usually highly specialized devices designed to make thin, precise cuts on metal of a given thickness.
There are no fully universal tools and machines for cutting metal. some work with sheet metal, others with pipes or profiles, providing precise lines and intricate configurations. Others are capable of cutting almost any metal, but with minimal line quality.
The article will talk about tools for cutting metal, their varieties and capabilities. precise characteristics of a particular device or machine can be found in special articles on our website dedicated to metal-cutting equipment.
Method 3 Using a vice and hacksaw for metal
This method is suitable for small amounts of work, with small cross-sectional dimensions of metal pipe, angle, iron strip, screw stud, etc.п.
Theoretically, you can manually saw off and iron pin five to seven centimeters in diameter or fifty-fifty corner with a thickness of half a centimeter. True, it will take more than one hour of time, will require a lot of strength and endurance.
If you do not have a hacksaw for metal, sometimes a simple file will help, but rather not for cutting, and to cut the metal (eg, a thin rod for subsequent bending).
What is the best way to cut the metal with your own hands
Frequent bending and unbending
The method is relevant for work with soft metal blanks (wire, strips, rods) of small thickness. the technique is only suitable for roughing: it does not give a high accuracy, but comes in handy when you have nothing but pliers at hand.
You can also use a hammer and vice: clamp the workpiece in them and beat, bending and unbending the metal.
Metal chopping with a chisel and hammer
The method also applies to roughing. In addition to a chisel and hammer you need a clamp or vice. Make a marking, clamp the workpiece and start cutting.
Photo : metal cutting with a chisel and hammer
Wire cutting pliers might be a good solution. If you can’t cut the material manually, hit the tool with a hammer where the workpiece is clamped.
A handheld metal saw consists of a frame and cutting blade. Algorithm: make a marking, clamp the part with a clamp or vice and start processing.
Picture 0: cutting metal with a hand hacksaw
Theoretically, a metal saw can cut a thick workpiece with a hacksaw, but it requires serious effort and time.
Suitable for rough cutting of thin soft metal.
Picture 1: cutting metal with hand scissors
For thick workpieces there are ways to reinforce the tool.
- Clamp one handle of the scissors in a vice, and place a long piece of pipe over the other. The result is a lever that increases the force several times over.
- You can also use a hammer. Use it to hit the top handle of the tool where the workpiece is clamped.
If you strengthen the hand scissors, you can cut metal with a thickness of 2-3 mm. But the quality of the cut will be impaired.
To work a workpiece with an electric jigsaw you need to insert a special saw into the jigsaw. This tool is perfect for cutting sheet metal as well as angles, pipes, rods, etc.
Photo 2: cutting metal with the jigsaw
You can cut shaped pieces with an electric jigsaw. This achieves high precision. The main disadvantage of the method is not very high speed.
angle grinder has already been mentioned in the article. Due to its versatility, the tool is great for non-professionals.
Accuracy of metal cutting will be high if there are no errors. Scribe and polishing wheels are used for finishing workpieces. Another advantage of bolt cutters is their good productivity (at household level).
The sabre saw
The sabre saw (electric hacksaw) is more expensive and better suited for cutting metal than an electric jigsaw or angle grinder for three reasons:
- increased dimensions of the cutting tool. an electric sabre saw can be equipped with a saw with a length of up to 35 cm;
- increased performance. sabre saws have more powerful electric motors;
- excellent cutting quality. minimum waste.
Photo 3: cutting metal with a sabre saw
As the name suggests, this tool is designed for cutting small and large diameter pipes. Directly in the place of metal processing sharp rollers make contact with the metal.
Photo 4: cutting metal pipes with pipe cutter
Best suited for soft (copper, aluminum) pipes. The main disadvantage of the tool is its narrow purpose.
Electric multitools (Renovators) have metal-cutting attachments in the kit. But they are not designed for cutting thicker workpieces.
Photo 5: cutting metal with a multi-tool
Multi-tools are most often used for cutting protruding nails and bolts. The main advantage of renozzers is the ability to work in hard-to-reach places.
An excellent tool, used by both amateurs and professionals. Budget models are designed for cutting sheets up to 2 mm thick, and expensive analogues are able to cope with more complex work.
Photo 6: Cutting metal with pneumatic scissors
The main advantage of pneumatic shears is a very high quality of metal processing. Cutting with this tool does not impair the protective properties of tiles, shingles, and other materials with special coatings.
If you can use standard hand tools or electric tools to work at home, they are not suitable for industrial production. This is due to the relatively low cutting speed and the inability to cut thick profiles.
If the metal is cut on an industrial scale or the sheet must be corrected in inaccessible places, industrial tools will cope with the task better and faster.
Metal cutting belt machine
Most often in factories and industrial workshops are installed:
The craftsman must decide which method to choose. The choice of fixture depends on the toughness of the material and the desired cutting speed. For example, plasma cutting speeds are several times faster than flame cutting.
Characteristics and features of lead
Dirty silvery or silvery blue metal with a high specific weight of 11.34 g/cm3. Tensile strength not more than 18 MPa. 50 MPa in compression. Due to its high ductility, it lends itself to many types of machining; it is cold-rolled to foil, stamped, cut, tungsten carbide. Lead tears when drawn, and wire is made from it by forcing blanks through die.
When cooled down to.Lead at 266°C becomes a superconductor despite its low room-temperature electrical conductivity (resistivity 0.22 Ohmm 2 /m). Lead grows dull fast in the air, passivates, and is covered by an oxide film of low chemical activity. The metal itself is also resistant to corrosion damage, so lead and its alloys are used to make acid-resistant vessels and containers. Pb is the last element in the periodic table of Mendeleev with stable isotopes. Metal can trap radioactive radiation.
The cubic, face-centred structural lattice makes the metal ductile, difficult to break, but easy to cut, scratch, and crumple. When heated, the structure becomes fluid, the original viscosity decreases.
Conditions for gas-oxygen cutting
A number of prerequisites must be met for successful application of gas-oxygen metal cutting technology:
- The melting temperature (Tmpl) of the material must be higher than the burning temperature (Tvospl) in oxygen. The difference should be at least 50 °C to avoid melt outflow and unnecessary expansion of the cut zone. Thus, for structural alloys, Tmelt=1540 °C, and Tvospl=1150 °C. The melting temperature decreases with increasing carbon content. This makes it difficult to cut cast iron and high-carbon alloys with a conventional torch.
- The melting point of the material to be cut must be greater than the melting point of the oxide films on its surface. The refractory oxide film will impede oxygen access to the metal surface and the combustion reaction will not be able to start. For example, chromium oxides and structural steel 3 have melting temperatures of 2270 and 1540 °C, respectively. The way out can be the use of flux powder which reacts with the oxide film and converts it to substances with a lower melting point.
- Oxides created in the cutting process must have high fluidity. If the fluidity is low, they tend to stick to the cut line edges and prevent combustion of the base material. Carefully selected flux powders also help overcome this problem by increasing the fluidity of the oxides. But this makes the process more expensive.
- The material to be cut must have low thermal conductivity. Otherwise, the heat will be dissipated from the working area and the ignition temperature of the metal in the place of work will not be reached. The reaction cannot begin, or runs unstable, increasing gas consumption, reducing accuracy and quality of the cutting surface.
Possible ways of rail cutting
Despite the seeming complexity of the operation, it is easy to cut the iron element into small sections. To do this you can use one of the following tools:
Each method is complicated in its own way, but the expected result (cut into pieces of rail) will be received. Now for a thorough overview of each technique.
Using a chisel
Here, too, the iron workpiece is divided not by cutting, but by punching.
- install the rail, as in pt above;
- make notches of small depth (1-2 mm) all over the perimeter with a chisel and a hammer (mallet);
- A sledgehammer is struck at the notches, the rail splits.
Pluses and disadvantages of the methodology of repeating the above, but it takes a little more time.
Husqvarna K 1260 rail cutter (Partner K-1250 Rail)
- power of almost 6 kW (higher than the PM5GM);
- Working body. a cutting disc with a cross section of 350 or 400 mm (the mechanism of work. as in the angle grinder);
- weight without additional equipment. 20 kg.
The device is 5 times faster to cut the same P65 than the machine, discussed earlier. Compactness, relative lightness, efficiency make it possible to use it for cutting products at home. The only disadvantage of the equipment is high.).
Using a chisel
Here, too, the metal workpiece is divided not by cutting, but by punching.
- install the rail as in the paragraph above;
- all around the perimeter with a chisel and a hammer (mallet) to make small cuts (1-2 mm);
- a blow is made with a sledgehammer on the place of the notches, the rail is splintered.
The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are the same as above, only it takes a little more time.
Using of rail cutters
Another method of quickly dividing the rails into fractions, which is not quite suitable for home conditions, but deserves consideration. Rail cutter. it is professional equipment used for various types of products. Usually used on railway tracks to quickly repair the subgrade to avoid delays. Two devices are considered below for the example.
Using rail cutters
Another method of quickly dividing rails into fractions, which is not quite suitable for home conditions, but worthy of consideration. Rail cutter is professional equipment used for various types of workpieces. It is generally applied on railroads in order to quickly restore the roadbed to avoid train delays. Consider two devices for the following example.
How to cut metal in the field
Railroad maintenance involves cutting out worn rail sections with special equipment. In this material we will talk about how to saw the rail at home (or garage) conditions, what tools are more effective, how to act in each case, and what the advantages of this or that method are.
The multifunction power tool
The Renovator is now supplied by many leading manufacturers as the optimal tool for home use. With it, you can do all the chores around the house with one piece of equipment. It’s a handy, lightweight, hand-operated machine with access to power. There are battery-powered models, but they break down faster.
The essence of the device is a large number of attachments, one of which is designed for sawing metal parts. It can really help you cut through wire or thin sheet metal, but you should not expect high quality from a household appliance. Usually the golden rule applies here. better quality than quantity of features.
They are used everywhere for cutting wire or bars with small cross-sections. But there is also an analogue for more durable non-cylindrical products. bolt cutter. It is designed to break fittings and bolts and is equipped with double springs, so the lever doubles the force exerted.
Hand scissors for cutting metal
Great for use at home, and often used in small-scale production and by hand when you need to make a single operation, for example, in the car repair shop.
Particular use. they can only be used for sheet metal work not exceeding three millimeters in thickness. They have their own varieties:
- for straight cuts. the most classic ones, they have slightly rounded blades to increase the force applied to one point, they look like a standard stationery tool;
- For curvilinear. they are much more convenient to make artistic cuts, as well as to make holes;
- Finger scissors. have rounded edges;
- have only one movable part, with the other half fixed on the table.
Also, all products are differentiated into right-handed and left-handed by sharpening. The convenience of turning during the process depends on it.
Their design feature is that the handles are longer than the cutting part, it helps to increase the pressure force. Also important is the material from which they are made. the hardness of steel should be no lower than 52-60 HRC. Blades should not adjoin closely, but with a gap, if it is not there, they will quickly fail, and if it is too large, the sheet will crumple.