Woodcarving tools and their sharpening angles
Threading tools can be distinguished as primary (cutting) and auxiliary ( for drilling and sawing, carpentry, marking). Various electrified household tools and appliances based on an electric motor are also widely used, which the craftsman can make himself.
All tools must be of excellent quality so that you can carve without difficulty.
The cutting tool must be of good steel, light and handy, perfectly sharpened so that the wood cuts like butter, and it must be kept in perfect condition.
Blunt instrument crumbs, crumbs, rather than cuts the wood, and the cuts and the carving itself look rough and sloppy. It spoils the mood and often discourages finish work. It is easy and pleasant to work with a sharp instrument; the pattern is clean, precise, beautiful. On a finished product can always be defined not only skill and handwriting of the master, but also with what and how he performed the work.
Bogorodsky knife, used for sculptural carving, takes its name from Bogorodsky sculptural carving.
Chisel-knife (chamfer angle 20, bevel angle 35 0 ;45 ;60), used for flat-cut, flat-textured, relief, openwork carving.
Cutter knife is used as an auxiliary tool for various types of threads.
Straight chisels (sharpening angle 18-20); used as an auxiliary tool for various types of carving.
Semicircular chisels are the basic tool and are used for all types of wood carving. There are:- Sloping (R˃H), medium (R=H), steep (R˂H).
The huckleberry chisels are chisels with a curved blade that allows you to carve without the handle touching the machined plane. There are flat hacksaw, corner hackaw. hacksaw. half-circle chisel.
Chisels-cerazoids resemble round chisels. Width of their blade. 23 mm. Intended for cutting thin veins, the cross-section of which corresponds to the profile of the tool.
Angle chisels or hedgehogs. (angle between cutting edges 50-70). Are used for making V-groove, are used for contour carving elements.
Pliers. Chisels always have a 15 degree bend. They usually have a handle in the form of a mushroom. Used for cutting out various veins in the production of engravings.
Pincers. Daggers are available in different sizes, but they have only three sharpening forms: sword, leaf and nail. The first two are so called: the pincer-blade and pincer-leaf.
They are used in flat- and volumetric carving for scraping the background in places difficult to access.
Chisel blade. The nail is different from the usual rivets in the form of sharpening. They have the shape of a fingernail. Purpose of spoon knives Stripping in hard-to-reach places and making elements of staple carving.
Spoon blades (spoon knives). The best spoon is a sharpened ring with a bar welded to it. Spoon shapers are needed for removal of large amounts of material from hollows and for internal wall treatment in the dish making industry.
Punches and chasers are steel rods with a pattern on the working ends. They are mostly used for chasing out background in flat-textured and relief carving.
Cutting tools are made of tool steels:
1-Carbon steels (U10; U12; U10A; U12A), when sharpened produce a white beam of sparks with individual stars.
2-Alloyed (XB5; X12; Ch12M), when sharpened produce yellow or orange sparks.
3-High-cutting steels (P18; P9), give off dark red sparks when sharpened.
The purpose of the Klucarz are chisels with a sharp arc-shaped curve, located closer to the end of the blade. They are indispensable mainly in flat-relief carving. here they are used to remove the background and create all kinds of recesses. over, klucars are used for cavity filling in the production of crockery and for scraping various recesses in sculptural carving.
Blade shape Most klucars have a semicircular profile in cross-section. The radius and height of the beaks define the purpose of the tool. Less common are flat and angled cleavers. The width of the cutting edge of standard semicircular kluchers varies from 5 to 50 mm.
Along with the classic designs, there are t.н. stepped clavicles. They have a short blade and stepped neck. They are used for background removal and background scraping in flat-relief carving.
Homemade chamfering tool
The garden beveling tool can be made quickly and easily by yourself. Such a device is designed for chamfering of not wide boards and wooden bars. It can also be used for planing or other types of processing of faceted and round workpieces made of wood. It is in the process of planing that you will need to remove small chamfers from the surface of the ribs. This is required in order to somewhat blunt x. When acting with a planer it becomes not very convenient to hold it, as a 45-degree angle is required.That’s especially true when working with an electric planer.
A special device, made by yourselves, has the form of a long angle of a longitudinal nature. The bar itself for machining is put into it, and the rib is on the upper side. It is good to use such a tool and for planing shovels, rakes, forks, and, more precisely, their handles. Working with such a device will be much easier, faster and more comfortable.
Cutter for drywall. purpose, types, review of manufacturers
Drywall is a building material that is very popular. With its help it is possible to perform any work: to level a wall or make an interior partition. Often with the help of gypsum board sheets are formed various arches or structures with increased complexity.
During the construction of such structures is often necessary to minimize the number of joints between GPBs. To avoid careful fitting of each such joint, its priming, reinforcing and puttying, experts are increasingly resorting. to its milling. In this article, the master plumber will tell you about the types of cutters for working with drywall.
Advantages and disadvantages of milling drywall
Plasterboard is the most suitable material for creating an original interior of any room. Plasterboard in its composition does not contain harmful substances and chemicals, so it is absolutely safe for health.
Plasterboard sheets differ in color and size. Its thickness varies: 8, 12,5, 16,5 etc. д., And the color is gray or blue. But there are such types as GKLV (water-resistant gypsum plasterboard), GKLO (material with increased fire resistance), GKLOV (fire-resistant gypsum plasterboard).
It is not difficult to cut it, but it is much more difficult to cut complicated shapes with this material. The use of the classical method will require a very large amount of time, so as a tool to increase the productivity of such work uses cutters for drywall.
Among the undoubted positive characteristics of this method of cutting plasterboard figures can be called the following:
- Time saving. The use of the considered technological process reduces the cost of working time in the construction of boxes and corners. Everything, without exception, is performed considerably quickly. In addition, there is no possibility of spoiling the material if you follow all the tips.
- Reducing the number of exposed ends. This makes the design tidier, and also greatly simplifies the work: there is no need for puttying and sanding. In addition, you do not need to fix everything except the bends. this significantly reduces costs and allows you to save time.
- The possibility of forming systems without erecting the frame. If the box or carbon protrusion will not be a load, then you can not increase the profile of similar components. They themselves have a good hardness and will stand for many years without deformation.
The disadvantages of this method should include the following points:
- Financial costs for the purchase of tools and a set of cutters;
- Significant air pollution from gypsum dust;
- You need to know how to select the right nozzle for the specific case.
But the ease with which milling can be carried out, allows you to completely ignore the disadvantages of this method of working with gypsum board.
Special cutters for working with drywall are used for each specific case. The following types of drywall cutters are most commonly used:
As a rule, any highly professional technician, who often needs to use such nozzles for processing drywall sheets, should have such a set of cutters. At home master for processing gypsum board will be the main V-shaped milling cutter.
Applications of V-shaped cutters
The installation of plasterboard structures, for which a V-cutter is used, can be carried out independently. Capability of this type of mill allows you to produce various products of drywall, the sides of which will be joined at an angle.
The edges of drywall board will fit perfectly to each other, which allows you to avoid additional processing of such places during the repair.
If you want to make a U-shaped box, then by making an indentation in the material with a V-shaped cutter, you can easily create a shape without a frame. Such a design can be made without completely cutting the drywall. It is enough to cut the material in the right place with the cutter, and then bend and glue the cuts to get a shape that will not have joints in the corners.
The nozzle of this shape also allows you to perform various shaped cuts, which are difficult to do with a straight disc cutter. The use of the nozzle allows you to reduce the time of work with the material, this quality is especially evident in the construction of large-scale interior elements from gypsum board sheets.
In order to properly mill sheets of gypsum plasterboard, you need to know how to handle the tool, as well as buy a high-quality milling machine to perform the work.
The best result gives the V-shaped cutter on a special machine, which is not always advisable to buy for small volumes. Often rental services are provided by construction trade centers and services, but in home conditions it is quite possible to do without hand tools.
The advantage of a handheld device is mobility, which allows you to perform all the cutting directly on the spot. Visual inspection and adjustment of the slope is carried out with your own hands.
To mill drywall and create profile parts out of it on a scale of a repair crew or yourself will need:
- Gypsum board (it is better if it is water-resistant).
- Cutting table.
- Milling machine.
- Industrial vacuum cleaner with cyclone filter.
- Protective equipment (gloves, respirator).
- Painting tape.
- Primer and brush for it.
- Adhesive: foam; PVA; Uniflot; hot melt, etc. д.
EZ Edge Corner Plane for Crisp, Clean Radiuses and Chamfers
Work on milling and shaping parts can be divided into preparatory and main.
- For the convenience of further marking, cut from plywood a measure of width equal to the distance from the center of the router to the stop edge of the router.
- On the mounting table, use clamps to secure a rule or level to use as a stop when milling.
- Adjust the router so that the cutter makes a cut to the full thickness of the sheet of drywall, but does not touch the bottom layer of cardboard. A quarter of a millimeter of plaster residue may be left over.
- If you need to make a large number of similar parts, it also makes sense to saw out of plywood measures for each of the joints.
- Calculate how many seams you need, how far apart they are and where they are on the sheet.
- Saw off a piece of gypsum board of the desired size.
- Use the edge router to chamfer the edges of the plane joints in advance.
- Mark the routing lines.
- Mark the edge stop lines of the router.
- Place the sheet of drywall against the ruler.
- Apply the measure for the cut to the rule.
- Press the edge of the router against the measure with the left side. In free movement the cutter moves to the left, so the stop should be exactly on this side.
- Make the first cut across the entire height.
- Make a second cut into the same groove in the opposite direction, for a cleaner cut.
- Cut all grooves on the side of the sheet.
- If the geometry of the manufactured part requires milling drywall on both sides, then carefully turn the sheet and repeat the work.
- Dusting with a semi-dry brush.
- Apply adhesive to the joints of one side.
- Place the piece so that the joints are vertical.
- Apply adhesive to the joints of the second side.
- Give the part the desired shape, check the geometry of the corners.
- Fix in position with masking tape until it is completely dry.
Milling drywall is a very convenient and profitable solution when creating constructions from drywall. This technology, although it requires more expensive equipment, but allows you to perform the work more accurately and faster than the usual methods of working with gypsum plasterboard.
If you make milling without using a vacuum cleaner, it can lead to complete contamination of the room. It is better not to perform processing in wood, because this material is denser than plasterboard, and therefore the edge will be ugly and rough. For quality work it is worth using high quality cutters, so take care of it well in advance.
If there is a financial opportunity, it is better to buy a complete set of cutters for the work. It makes it possible to make a specific cut and cut out shapes with different shapes. The availability of a variety of nozzles also makes it possible to process materials at any degree of inclination. But novice masters are recommended to buy cheaper cutters, because it is worth learning to work with the cutter first. Later it is possible to buy new and more expensive kits.
If you decide to buy drywall cutters, it is worth doing it in special construction markets. There you can find all kinds of varieties and all price categories.
Among the popular manufacturers of power tools for machining drywall, the following brands of cutters are used:
- Bosch. this type of product is in great demand, because it has great technical abilities;
- “Enkor”. the equipment of this brand is made of sturdy high-quality material, contains hard alloy tips, is distinguished by its durability and long service life;
- “Globus”. the brand is known for producing a sturdy instrument designed to handle hard or soft wood.
- Sekira. this brand uses hard alloys and high-speed steel for its production, which makes it strong, comfortable to work with.
Brand choice depends on drywall surface, machine size or cost. In addition, it must fit the technical process.