Types of harrows
Harrows are divided into the following varieties:
Tooth harrow. the oldest known to man. Represents several rows of tines that run over the soil during tillage, loosening and flattening it. They differ in the number of teeth. for power tillers the widest one is used most often, with teeth arranged in three or four rows and often.
It is most rational to use it with traction-type power tillers, such as Neva or MTZ. These power harrows are capable of developing considerable longitudinal force and have the increased traction needed for work.
A subspecies of the toothed harrow is the spring harrow, which is quite often used when working an agricultural plot with a tractor. When working with a power tiller, springs instead of tines reduce the number and size of tines and are seldom breakable.
Is an active harrow. This tool is better to use with power tillers of cultivator type. with traction type it is necessary to design a PTO. Tillage is performed by cutting through the soil with rotating discs.
Discs can be straight, turned at different angles to the axis of rotation, or have a cup shape. Cup harrows are more difficult to make, but they let you wrap around the seam, so they take over some of the work of ploughing. Such discs are great for sodding or shallow early plowing before the weeds sprout in the early sowing of potatoes or cereals.
You might be interested in a potato harvester for your power tiller with your own hands.
Edges of discs are usually made unevenly shaped so that they can more easily cut through the soil when plowing, experiencing less resistance as they rotate within the layer.
Such harrow reminds in something of a cultivator and a disc harrow. Both the harrow and the cultivator have rotating teeth, which cut into the ground and overturn small parts of it. It differs from the cultivator by a shallow working depth and a large number of working teeth. Unlike the disc harrow, the discs of the rotary harrow are always at right angles to the axis of rotation.
The teeth of the active rotor have a special bend, depending on the radius of the disc itself and the coefficient of traction with the soil of the wheels of the power harrow. the more slip, the stronger should be the bent tooth. As they work, they pierce the soil at right angles, thereby aerating it. When pulling out, this tine slightly undermines the soil, pulling small weeds, which do not have time to put down roots deeply.
The active rotary harrow can also be used after the shoots have emerged without damaging or damaging large plants. Its use saves on mineral and organic fertilizers. due to aeration the substances are actively assimilated from the air. This also promotes the growth of the root system.
There is one more classification, which divides tillage by the method of execution. harrowing may be paddock harrowing, cross-diagonal harrowing or figure harrowing. In the first case, the field is cultivated twice. First the tractor and mounted implement move forwards, then backwards. When loosening diagonally across the rows the tines of the tool move at a 45° angle in relation to the direction of the rows. This method is most often used on private plots.
In the fall, the harrow or rake is used to incorporate organic and mineral fertilizers into the soil, and to level the area after the harvest.
Tooth harrow with their own hands
Tooth homemade harrow for a power tiller differs from the factory one in the quality of the material from which it is made. The factory model is made of structural steel, which can withstand heavy and intensive loads. Consider how to make your own harrow with the same properties.
Tooth harrow for the tiller can be made by yourself by any craftsman. This process is not difficult. The design is simple and there are no complicated joints.
First it is necessary to design a harrow on a single-axle tractor with your own hands with drawings, giving an idea of the dimensions, connection nodes and the general scheme.
The tool is made of steel strip, square tube or angle.
The algorithm of actions for the manufacture of a tooth harrow is as follows:
- Metal strips at an angle of 30° are welded to the pipe from the underside. Edges must protrude evenly on both sides.
- Weld a sleeve in the middle. The harrow is attached to the power harrow via a pin through the bushing. The height of the lift must be adjusted by the tines for the loosening depth.
- On each edge of the steel strip, the tines are bolted or welded together.
- The drawbar is mounted on the hub.
- A screw is fastened to the drawbar to adjust the position of the tines. Front and rear tines must equally sink into the ground.
Specialists recommend making the working elements of the harrow from hardened steel. The tines are made of riffled reinforcing steel with a diameter of 10-14 mm and a length of 10-20 cm. The longer the tines, the thicker they should be. Before attaching them to the frame, they must be sharpened and hardened, or they will bend.
Tooth harrow to the motoblock with their own hands. an excellent helper for small farmers and dacha owners, cultivating their plots.
Type of harrow
with a special tool:
- The socket in the middle is welded to a sleeve;
- mesh made of a frame braided with wire. more useful in leveling soils with heavy soils than in breaking up;
- gardening with mechanisms of retraction from the trunks of trees;
- Circular (the most effective, t.к. the tines, going in a spiral, break up the clods much better and finer);
- zigzag (all frame parts are bent in a zigzag pattern). Also not bad in practice, but often gets stuck);
- conventional (the most trivial variant). ) is functional, but often requires a passageway of several times).
Estimated mass of load per prong (disk, hoe, etc.).) determines whether it is in the light, medium or heavy class.
According to the structure of the working body are distinguished:
The frame can be rigidly, articulated, or spring-mounted, and, depending on the type of workpiece, can be either chessboard mounted or parallel to the tine.
to the frame are fixed at an angle (t.н. a “angle of attack”) discs (slightly cambered for better efficiency) with a smooth or notched rim. Angle of repositioning is set depending on the difficulty of the work and the ground conditions. Sometimes the working tool with needles is used. an ideal method of dealing with stubble. Discs of one parallel form a “battery”, but for deeper penetration into the ground use special spring devices or weighting elements.
The most elementary, but, not losing effectiveness with competent use and the right choice of tooth shape. It can be:
The second and fourth type are common in heavy motorized machinery, the round one can be used on medium and light cultivators, and the knife-shaped ones. even in manual harrowing.
Belongs to the class of mounted equipment for power tillers and heavy agricultural machinery. Designed for tillage of virgin land, removal of topsoil with shallow (up to 0,07 m) deepening, stubble processing, surface leveling. It can be active or passive. The second version equips the technique by the trailer type, the first. is attached instead of tiller or directly to the shafts after removing the wheel. Is a radius-shaped working tools, usually star-shaped, with sharpened edges, which are fastened to each other by longitudinal strips of metal always at right angles. The angle of entry into the soil regulates the degree of bend of the tips.
Hooks for Neva power tillers, their types, what they are for
For any attachment to work with the Neva power tiller, it is necessary to connect it to the unit. There is a special device for this. a coupler. It comes in several varieties, let’s look at the features of each.
Coupling for APM adapter (for work with plough and planter)
This hitch is designed to connect various attachments to the adapter. Such as ploughs, spudgers and ridgers. Coupling design allows reliable fixation of the equipment to power tillers Neva with only three bolts.
This type of hitch allows the angle of the attachment to be adjusted using a bolt mechanism. This feature allows the Neva single axle tractor to be tilted and the plow will run perpendicular to the ground.
Since this hitch is mainly designed for the use of plows and ploughs, it is possible to install a double or triple hitch, so that you can connect several work items at once.
Universal H hitch
This is a modification of the universal hitch for the power tiller Neva. Its main difference is that it is possible not only to adjust the height of plunging, but also to change the angle of inclination in all planes. The maximum angle of inclination in the horizontal plane is ± 20° and in the vertical plane ± 27°.
Linkage MK for work with bucket plough ON-2 and plough KROT
This hitch is special in its own right, as it is made exclusively for coupling with their OH-2 and Mole. The factory has thought of a separate type of coupling, which is not included in the set, but is purchased separately.
Read also: Aurora Gardener 750 single axle tractor
Is it possible to make a hitch for the tiller with your own hands??
When making a coupling with your own hands the most correct way is to choose the universal version, because 90% of attachments work with this type of coupling.
The high pressure that is exerted on the coupling device must be taken into consideration. That’s why you should choose only strong materials with coarse sheet metal.
The universal hitch is based on the U-shaped fastener. The square channel is best suited for this. it has to be 40×40 mm.
In this channel, holes are made, which will serve to fix the hitch with a pin. It is therefore necessary to initially produce a pin from high quality steel, and then drill holes in the mount to match the size of the pin.
To further mount the attachment, it is necessary to connect a bracket. Its longest part should be pointing down or up, so that the connected equipment doesn’t have any interference when it’s moving. You should not make it too long to avoid touching the ground.
Here’s what people write on the forums about the hitch for the Neva power tiller:
“Took a long time to decide which hitch to use. After all, they have a similar device. I thought about doing it myself, but I did not bother and bought a universal hitch H. It seemed to me to be the most effective, versatile and compatible with all the equipment I have. Yes, plus the official warranty. I have not had any complaints since”
“I bought a Mole plow for my work. Because it was one of the cheapest options, and I didn’t want to overpay. After all, they are similar and functionally the same. What was my surprise when at home I could not connect it to my hitch. Went to the store the next day to find out what the problem was. To which the salesman told me that he forgot to mention the special hitch of this plow. I had to buy an extra hitch. So you see the proverb: “A thrifty man pays twice for himself”
Штригель борона к мотоблоку. Работает. The harrow harrow to the walk-behind tractor. Works.
The harrow is designed to mix the top layer of soil (for uniform fertilization, moistening or aeration of the soil) and bring it to a homogeneous state (removes crust on the ground, breaks clods, removes weeds). There is one official model of the harrow on the official site of the Neva power harvester manufacturer.
BD 850M harrow (husker)
The harrow breaks large chunks (clumps) of soil into smaller ones, thanks to this the soil additionally absorbs moisture and oxygen. These two factors are essential for growing crops.
BD 850 is a disc harrow, recommended for small to medium size fields. Working width can be adjusted from 70 to 96 cm.
The harrow is equipped with 8 discs of stainless steel. They are replaceable and can be easily replaced with new ones, if desired. The discs are sharpened in the factory according to a special process so they do not wear out over a long period of use.
The discs are mounted on the axle. These axles are mounted on heavy-duty Teflon bearings.
The furrow angle can be adjusted to suit the conditions:
- Inclination of 10° is used for aggressive furrowing;
- 15° inclination in standard furrow preparation;
- A tilt of 20° is used for soft ploughing.
In hard soil conditions and if the discs overshoot, a weight can be used to lower the discs into the ground. For this there is a cleverly designed platform on top.
In order to achieve the best possible ploughing results two axles connected in series can be used. The first unit pushes the soil in and the second unit pushes it out.
It is also recommended to replace the regular wheels with grousers.
Is it possible to make a harrow with your own hands?
If you want, you may also assemble the harrow yourself, there is nothing complicated in this construction.
The easiest way to make a toothed harrow. It is slightly less efficient than the disc, but in the device is much easier.
All you need for this is a square tube, teeth and bolts.
You need to cut the pipes and connect them to each other at an angle of about 30 °. And at the joint insert the tines and fasten them with bolts.
To connect it to the power harrow, you can use an ordinary chain or make a device for coupling with an ordinary metal pipe.
But only this construction will often jump out of the ground, it should be additionally weighted with something. The ideal solution would be cinder blocks or any heavy metal structures. But you should not overdo it, because the connecting elements must be able to support the weight of the entire structure.
What the owners say
And here are some opinions of people who have already worked with the harrows on power tillers Neva.
“I decided to make the harrow myself, because its design was very intuitive. So a little brainstorming and augmenting the information on the forums, was able to make without problems. All that was needed were pins and pipes to attach them. Simplicity is the key to success)”
Classical harrow, or as it is also called, horse harrow, is used to create an even and loose surface. This type of mounted equipment also allows to properly hide moisture in the soil and thus prevents it from drying out. The harrow crushes large clods of soil to the desired fraction, destroys weeds and removes residual vegetation from the soil. The equipment is quite light and therefore it is used for shallow tillage, crumbling lumps of soil and shallow loosening before sowing.
Factory-made tooth harrow for power tillers is made of special construction steel, which can withstand considerable loads. Also this equipment is good at leveling the soil after milling.
This type of harrowing equipment is a straight or zigzag frame, which can be made with your own hands from a steel strip, square tube or angle, a rack for coupling to the tiller and tines. You can fix the tines on the frame by welding, or you can thread them and fix with nuts. Working elements on the frame are placed at a regular distance from each other, and their length can be 25-45 mm. Regarding the width of the equipment, for example, 500-600 mm is quite enough for the “Neva” power tiller. The video shows the tooth harrow at work.
You can also make your own hands toothed toothed harrow according to the drawing below. It will take half a day to make such attachments, but it will be worth it.
In order to make such equipment for a power tiller we need the following:
- to the metal tube with a square cross-section to weld iron strips, on which, in fact, by means of nuts will be attached to the teeth with a thread cut on one side;
- The drawbar of our attachment ends with a welded sleeve, through which, with a metal pin will be connected to the used tiller;
- a stand with a adjusting screw for adjusting the lifting height of the harrow to ensure the uniform penetration of tools in the soil.
Either purchased factory equipment, or homemade harrow for a power tiller “Neva”, there is a feature of accumulation of wet soil with residues of vegetation on the working bodies, as a result of which land treatment can become ineffective. In order to easily and smoothly clean the tines with a scraper or any metal object, let’s use the lifting lever of the machine.
The video shows the simplest toothed harrow for a power tiller with the dimensions.
How to make a harrow for a power tiller with your own hands. drawings and dimensions
Harrows for agricultural work are divided into types:
Tooth harrow is a simple mechanism, which is a frame made of metal with teeth of the required length attached to it. The power of the power tiller affects the number of them and the size of the frame. The tines are arranged in a zigzag or rectangular shape and attached to the frame either rigidly, articulated or on a spring leg.
Depending on how the tines are set, the depth of harrowing depends on. When they are installed with the sharp edge forward along the course of movement, the depth of loosening increases, when installed to the back. it decreases.
A disc harrow is different from a toothed harrow in its cutting tool. Instead of teeth, spherical-shaped discs with a smooth or notched cutting edge are attached to the frame and placed at an inclination called the angle of attack. It varies and amounts to 10-25°. In the course of cultivation each disc cuts surface layer of soil, intensively breaks roots of weeds, mixes them with soil and compacts the soil. Agronomists recommend the use of a needle harrow for harrowing. Needles dig into the ground and loosen it.
Disc units are attached to a power tiller with front or rear suspension.
Rotary harrow is better suited than other mechanisms for initial tillage. Depth of penetration is 7 cm, but this factor does not prevent its use for loosening of virgin soil. It is similar in appearance to the cultivator and disc unit.
The rotary tool for power tillers consists of 6 edges, a disc and a hub. Its working elements are sharpened plates arranged at different angles.
The active rotary harrow is mounted on shafts instead of wheels or a tiller, which greatly increases its performance, especially on virgin and heavy soils. For high-quality work, it is better to attach it to high-powered power tillers with gearboxes.
Homemade power harrow for tillers
It is the easiest to make with your own hands. It will be enough to have materials, an angle grinder and a welding inverter. Allows topsoil loosening and the incorporation of small seed. It is not an active harrow and is suitable for working with a tractor-type power tiller.
The harrow is built up of a mesh screen with rigidly welded or bolted tines. In the front part has a hitch. usually a hitch with holes, which is inserted into the towbar pipe of the motoblock and then fixed with a pin. A chain must be welded between it and the hitch. without this the work would be very difficult for the ploughman.
The harrow tines must be strong enough. It can be made of square or water pipes and angles. The thickness of the metal should not be less than 3-4 mm, otherwise the tines, welded to a thin-walled tube, will be torn out during work together with the metal of the tube.
The grille design may be in the form of a cage consisting of longitudinal and transverse elements. But a grille with “bars” welded at a 45-degree angle to the direction of your power tiller is a better choice. such a grille will be less exposed to bending loads.
The mesh size should be selected according to the teeth location. It is best to think beforehand about your tine arrangement and sketch it on the drawing, and then over it draw the trellis on which they are mounted. The size of the frame itself should be such that it does not interfere with steering the power tiller and walking behind it.
The frame of the harrow should not go beyond the handles of the power harvester.
In this case it is necessary to take into account the dimensions of the coupling. You do not need to make too wide a grid. a single-axle tractor simply can’t pull more than 1 meter.
The teeth are best made of corrugated reinforcing steel of 10 to 18 mm in diameter. Each tooth length. 10 to 20 cm. The coupling height of the power harrow has no effect on the tine height. the harrow is attached by the chain. The longer the tine, the thicker it needs to be. It is advisable to sharpen the teeth before installation and be sure to harden them, because.к. Unhardened tines will bend during operation. On light soils you can use a harrow with unsharpened tines.
Frequency of spacing should be no less than every 10 cm. if you do it less often, harrowing will be ineffective. It is allowed to place the tines with a slight offset across the row so that they can be conveniently welded together and provide the required degree of working intensity. But make sure that their resistance is directed symmetrically to the traction axis, otherwise the single-axle tractor will “wobble” and will not harrow.
Assembly is performed after preliminary drawing and preparing of all details. Grid is assembled and welded on first. The tines are then welded to it. It is important to do this at a right angle. As a rule, hardened tines are not annealed and their strength does not change.
After that, they roughly determine where the center of force application will be and weld the chain to this spot. Take the first chain link and overlap it on the bar. The second end of the chain is then welded or bolted to the hitch. After attaching, check the function of the harrow and, if necessary, re-weld to the left or right if the harrow is pulling to one side or the other, and then weld definitively.
Check out other things you can make for your power harrow.
Agricultural harrows are divided into types:
A tooth harrow is a simple mechanism that consists of a metal frame with teeth of the required length attached to it. The power of a power tiller affects the number and size of its frame. The tines are placed in a zigzag or rectangular shape and connected to the frame rigidly, articulated or on a spring stand.
Depending on the depth of harrowing, depends on how the tines are set. When mounted with the sharp edge pointing forward the penetration depth increases, when mounted backward the penetration depth decreases.
The disc harrow is different from the tooth harrow by the cultivation tool. Instead of tines, spherical-shaped discs with a smooth or notched cutting edge are attached to the frame and placed at an angle called the angle of attack. It varies from 10° to 25°. During cultivation each disc cuts surface layer of soil, breaks roots of weeds intensively, mixes them with soil and compacts the soil. Agronomists recommend the use of a needle harrow for harrowing. Needles are plunged into the ground and loosen it.
Disc harrows are attached to a power harrow by front or rear suspension.
Rotary harrow is best suited for initial cultivation. Plunge depth is 7 cm, but this factor does not prevent its use for loosening of virgin land. It resembles in appearance a cultivator and a disc device.
Rotary tool for power tiller consists of 6 edges, disc and sleeve. Its working elements are sharpened plates, which are arranged at different angles.
The active rotary harrow is mounted on shafts instead of wheels or a soil tiller, which greatly increases its performance, especially on virgin and heavy soils. For quality work it is better to aggregate to high-powered power tillers with gearboxes.