Instruction: how to remove the chuck from an electric screwdriver
Almost every craftsman has at his disposal not only hammers, but also drills for drilling holes in wood, metal and even concrete. To work with this tool, the design provides a special clamping mechanism. This mechanism is also called the actuator or chuck for the drill, which comes in different versions. Drilling tools are equipped with such a device, but if it fails, you will need to dismantle, repair or replace it, which will be discussed in the material.
Choosing a chuck for a drill, the buyer is interested in the question of what diameter drill can be clamped in the jaws of this device. That’s why many people buy chucks in which the shanks of work bits are clamped, for this very parameter (muzzle size). In addition to the maximum diameter of drills, you should also be aware that the devices differ in design and type of seating. To begin with, let’s find out that drill chucks are classified by appearance into two main types:
- Key. this is their folk name, but in science they are called toothed-ring, which is associated with the mechanism of their operation. This is a popular version of clamping mechanisms for drills, distinguished by high indicators of reliability
Toothed-ring chucks from the quick-clamp cartridges are characterized by high reliability. The earliest prototypes were used on handheld drills, which are similar to key and quick-clamp. The principle of operation of the simplest chuck from the old manual drill is as follows:
- To fix the nozzle in the device, it is necessary to hold the handle and unscrew the clamping sleeve or sleeve
- Inserting a nozzle with the tail end of the chuck
- Screw in the clamping sleeve up to the stop by hand and then additionally use a chisel or punch with a hammer to fix the bit more securely
Chisel locking is needed to prevent the bit from falling out during work. These chucks had many disadvantages, and soon there appeared improved models. key chucks. Unlike the first chuck types, the key ones do not need a chisel and hammer to clamp the bit shank, because a special key with teeth replaces them. Also, the clamping sleeve threads quickly became corroded, so it was difficult to unscrew them. Today, the old types of chucks are only found on old manual drills, and are practically never used on electric tools.
This is interesting!Why do outdated chuck models have a lot in common with modern key and quick-clamp devices? They all have the same operating principle, based on the movement of the jaws. These cams are also called jaws or collets, which is where the names collet and cam chucks come from.
Why a bit can get stuck in an electric screwdriver
No matter how expensive or cheap the tool is, jamming of the jaw is not uncommon. There are several cases where this occurs:
- When trying to use the largest drill bit size that is allowed, the jaws of the chuck open to the maximum, after which it is often not possible to compress them in the normal way.
- A jammed drill bit or chisel cannot be retrieved because the jaws cannot be unclamped, in most cases, due to uneven compression.
- Jaw jams can be caused by free play during clamping and unclamping. The culprit is debris, chips and dross that get caught under the shaped parts of the jaws.
Unfortunately, it is not possible to operate an electric screwdriver in these situations, even if it is in good working order. To cope with the problem is possible on their own, in severe cases, it is better to turn to a service center to the professionals.
How to replace a chuck in a drill with their own hands?
To fix the chuck on the drive shaft of the drill is used threaded connection or Morse cone. Visual inspection of the power drill is not always an indication of the fastening method of the drill chuck. The marking on the cartridge can inform you of this: It is stamped on the surface of the cartridge.
Replacing the tapered shape of the part
Morse taper size (according to GOST 9953-82) consists of 9 values: from B7 to B45. The bigger the number after the letter B, the bigger the cone diameter.
The marking on the chuck indicates the type of attachment
Thus, if you find the marking “B” on the surface of the chuck, we can conclude. it is a device with a tapered mounting base. It is easy to remove the chuck with this type of chuck. It is enough to use a punch and a locksmith’s hammer.
Changing the reversing chuck
Two kinds of threads are used to secure the drill chuck to the electric household drill with the thread articulation:
There are two types of threads used on an electric household drill with a thread junction
There are markings on the surface of the chuck body like this 1.5-13 1/2. 20UNF or 1.5-13 M12x1.25.
The reverse threaded chuck has a left-hand threaded screw for locking. This is something you need to be aware of when removing a broken chuck. In order to get to the head of the screw, it is necessary to press the jaws in the collet to the limit. As soon as the head of the screw is visible, you must use a hardened Phillips screwdriver to unscrew it clockwise to the right. Then clamp the hex key into the cams and strike it sharply in a counterclockwise direction. Once the chuck is pulled out of place, it can easily be unscrewed.
Sometimes it is not easy to do. In all cases the following tools, the necessary skill and patience are needed to remove the chuck.
What it is?
This part is a cylinder made of metal, attached to the shaft of the tool in question. Its main task is to fix the bits of fasteners. Note that such a part is attached to the screwdriver by means of the internal thread located on the chuck, or by means of a special cone required for fixation on the shaft.
The quick-clamp is the most common type. The shank is clamped by turning a tool sleeve. We are talking about shanks with a diameter of 0.8 to 25 millimeters. The only serious disadvantage of this product is the higher price than that of key sleeves. Couple of seconds are enough to secure the element in the chucking zone. No auxiliary mechanisms are required. In the case of the quick-clamping solutions, the adjustment blade of the sleeve is grooved, which facilitates the rotation of the cylinder. The pressure on the workpiece’s shank is adjusted with a special locking element.
It is true that after a while, parts of the clamping mechanism become unusable. This causes the clamping time to become progressively slacker, so the sleeve can no longer be used to clamp large-sized round shanks.
Signs of chuck failure
Deviations in the normal operation of the power tool head are not difficult to notice:
- The cylinder is not securely attached to the shaft.
- The drill bit had begun to play a serious amount of backlash.
- Cams jam or do not come out completely.
- Cartridge is spinning.
- The drill cannot be clamped or pulled out.
As soon as such signs appear, it becomes difficult and dangerous to work with an electric screwdriver.
How to remove?
Now let’s talk about how to remove the part in question. This may be necessary for routine cleaning and lubrication, which will increase the life of the tool. First let’s break down the case of disconnecting the chuck with the locking bolt. It will be necessary to have a hexagon of suitable size:
- First unscrew the screw clockwise if the part is left-hand threaded;
- before it is necessary to unclench the cams as much as possible in order to see it;
- Insert the wrench into the cams and quickly twist it counterclockwise;
- unscrew the cartridge.
If we are talking about dismantling the chuck with Morse taper, it is necessary to have a hammer at hand. Use it to pry the shank out of its seat. First disassemble the electric screwdriver, then pull out the shaft with the chuck and gearbox located on it. Using a pipe wrench, unscrew the clamping cylinder.
Now let’s move on to dismantling the cartridge with the threaded joint. The procedure will be as follows:
- We carry out the unscrewing of the screw-type fastener with the L-shaped hexagon;
- Insert the 10 mm wrench into the cylinder with the short side, and then lock it firmly with the cams;
- Start the electric screwdriver at low speed and switch it off immediately so that the free part of the hexagon hits the support.
As a result of all the performed actions fixation of the thread should loosen, after which the clamping cylinder can be removed from the spindle without much difficulty.
Sometimes the removal is not possible using any of the above methods. Then the device should be disassembled, and depending on the manufacturer and model perform certain actions. Let’s show the disassembly process using a Makita electric screwdriver as an example.
Owners of such models have the need to unscrew the chuck, where the threaded fixation with screw-type attachment, which performs an auxiliary function.
Then it is necessary to unscrew the screw and then press the shaft locking button. After that we wrap the body of the electric screwdriver in a cloth and fix it in a vise. We press the hex key in the cams and hit it with a hammer so that it is possible to remove the cylinder.
Order of removal
There are two kinds of chucks. quick-action and cam-action. The first thing you must prepare for the removal of the tools (screwdrivers, hexahedrons of appropriate size, any heavy object of a small size, a puncher). It is imperative to observe safety precautions. wear goggles to protect your eyes from small elements that can fly off during the process. Then begins the process of dismantling.
It is necessary to find out what type of chuck is used in each particular tool (with Morse taper, threaded or threaded with an additional fixing screw). This can be identified by the inscription. For example, “1. 6 V10” refers to the Morse taper, in Russian production “1.0. 10” and for foreign brands “2. 13″ mm ½. 20 UNF”, here the dimensions are written in inches.
The cone-shaped chuck can be removed without much effort. You must hit it lightly with a hammer and be extremely careful when doing so.
An electric screwdriver and its design features
Begin the repair of an electric screwdriver with your own hands should be acquainted with its design. The main element of an electric screwdriver is the electric motor. Screwdrivers come in both corded and cordless types. To the use of an electric mains screwdriver is resorted to less often, because of such a disadvantage as the need to connect the tool to 220V. Cordless type tools are more popular, as they allow you to carry out not only repair work at home, but also outside.
The main components of a cordless electric screwdriver are:
- Housing. Generally all screwdrivers are made of durable plastic.
- Start button. It is designed so that the amount of rotation of the chuck depends on the power to push it.
- The electric motor. Single-phase collector-type motors and DC motors are used in cordless tools. The motor is a rotor, stator in the form of magnets, as well as a brush unit.
- Force regulator.
- Reversing switch.
- Battery. As a rule, it is removable and often comes with the product in duplicate.
- Chuck. As a rule, quick-action chucks are used.
Some models are additionally equipped with LED backlight and battery charging indicator. Returning to the problems with the electric screwdriver, it should be noted that any of the above elements can cause the failure of the tool. What is needed for repair? The first thing to do is to find the cause of the failure, and then make the appropriate decision to fix it. The tool can be divided into two parts: electrical and mechanical. Initially it is necessary to find out what the problem is with the electric screwdriver: mechanical or electrical. It is not very difficult to do this, so let’s consider the breakdowns in more detail.
Malfunctions of the mechanical part
You can identify the mechanical faults of screwdrivers by such a sign as the audibility of the operation of the electric motor. When you press the start button, you hear signs of the electric motor functioning, but the tool chuck does not rotate or you hear a characteristic malfunctioning sound when it rotates.
The design of an electric screwdriver is simple enough, but a significant disadvantage is that all elements are almost 2-3 times smaller than on an electric drill. The mechanical possible breakdowns of an electric screwdriver include the following malfunctions:
- Chuck breakage. Although quick-action chucks are more versatile and easier to use, a significant disadvantage is their low service life. It is impossible to repair a chuck, so if the tool refuses to hold a drill bit or bit, the chuck must be removed and replaced with a new one. This is one of the most common failures of the tool, but it is not necessary to disassemble the electric screwdriver.
It should be noted that the small size of the mechanical part of the tool somewhat complicate the process of repairing the tool, so be sure to be careful when carrying out repairs.
Unlike a drill, screwdrivers are primarily battery-powered. This means that these tools use different electric motors. It is not difficult to detect a fault in the electric part of the electric screwdriver. If the battery is charged, but when you press the “Start” button no sound is heard from the electric motor, then the cause is an electrical malfunction. Let’s look at the main types of screwdriver electrical faults.
- Battery malfunction. The first thing to look at is the battery. As a rule, screwdrivers use low quality nickel-cadmium batteries. They have a significant disadvantage, which is the need to charge it only when it is completely “saturated. Such batteries must not be recharged, as this reduces their lifetime. If one day the electric screwdriver refuses to function, then do not rush to disassemble it, make sure that the battery is functional and gives a charge. Check by connecting a second battery. The battery charge can also be checked with a tester, which should show the appropriate value of voltage.
- Charger malfunction. A special battery charger is available for recharging the battery. If the battery is discharged even after you have charged it, you should check the integrity of the charger. There are usually light indicators on the battery chargers for this. If they are not, then you need to use a multimeter.
- Power button malfunction. The starter button has to be checked, because often the reason for its malfunctioning is oxidation of the contacts or dust. The tool must be disassembled and the contacts cleaned. Buttons on electric screwdrivers usually have a chuck speed control function, for which a transistor is installed. If the tool works, but the speed control function is missing, the transistor needs to be replaced.
Now you know the basic signs and types of failure of an electric screwdriver. To repair it, you do not need to be an expert, and enough to have the tools and free time.